Leda (mythology)

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Leda and the Swan, 16th-century copy after the lost painting by Michelangelo

In Greek mythology, Leda (/ˈldə, ˈl-/; Greek: Λήδα [lɛ͜ɛ́da͜a]) was an Aetolian princess who became a Spartan queen. Her myth gave rise to the popular motif in Renaissance and later art of Leda and the Swan.

Family[edit]

Leda was the daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius hence she was also called Thestias[1]. Her mother was either Leucippe[2] or Deidameia, daughter of Perieres,[3] or else Eurythemis, daughter of Cleoboea[4], or Laophonte, daughter of Pleuron[5]. According to Alcman, Leda's parents were Glaucus and Laophonte[5] while Eumelus attested that they are Sisyphus and Panteiduia or Paneidyia[6]

She married king Tyndareus (Τυνδάρεως) of Sparta and by him, mother of Helen (Ἑλένη) of Troy, Clytemnestra (Κλυταιμνήστρα), and Castor and Pollux (Κάστωρ καὶ Πολυδεύκης, also spelled "Kastor and Polydeuces"). Leda also had other daughters by Tyndareus: Timandra (Τιμάνδρα), Phoebe (Φοίβη), and Philonoe (Φιλονόη).

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF LEDA'S FAMILY
Relation Name Sources
Hom. Hom. Hymns Eum. Alc. Pher. Aes. Eur. Sch. on Apollon. Dio. Str. Dic. Apollod. Hyg. Luc. Clement Fulgentius
Parentage Thestius and Laophonte
Thestius and Deidameia
Thestius and Eurythemis
Thestius and Leucippe [7]
Glaucus and Laophonte
Sisyphus and Panteiduia
Thestius
Siblings Iphiclus
Althaea
Plexippus
Eurypylus
Evippus
Hypermnestra
Consort Zeus
Tyndareus
Children Castor [8]
Polydeuces [8]
Helen [9]
Clytemnestra
Timandra
Phoebe
Philonoe

Mythology[edit]

Leda with the Swan, a restored Roman copy, perhaps after an original by Timotheus (Museo del Prado)

Leda was admired by Zeus, who seduced her in the guise of a swan. As a swan, Zeus fell into her arms for protection from a pursuing eagle. Their consummation, on the same night as Leda lay with her husband Tyndareus, resulted in two eggs from which hatched Helen (later known as the beautiful "Helen of Troy"), Clytemnestra, and Castor and Pollux (also known as the Dioscuri). Which children are the progeny of Tyndareus the mortal king, and which are of Zeus and thus half-immortal, is not consistent among accounts, nor is which child hatched from which egg. The split is almost always half mortal, half divine, although the pairings do not always reflect the children's heritage pairings. Castor and Pollux are sometimes both mortal, sometimes both divine. One consistent point is that if only one of them is immortal, it is Pollux. It is also always stated that Helen is the daughter of Zeus.

In Homer's Iliad, Helen looks down from the walls of Troy and wonders why she does not see her brothers among the Achaeans. The narrator remarks that they are both already dead and buried back in their homeland of Lacedaemon, thus suggesting that at least in the Homeric tradition, both were mortal.

Another account of the myth states that Nemesis (Νέμεσις) was the mother of Helen, and was also impregnated by Zeus in the guise of a swan. A shepherd found the egg and gave it to Leda, who carefully kept it in a chest until the egg hatched. When the egg hatched, Leda adopted Helen as her daughter. Zeus also commemorated the birth of Helen by creating the constellation Cygnus (Κύκνος), the Swan, in the sky.

Genealogy[edit]

Name Relation Name Relation
Epicaste Great-Grandmother (Demonice's Mother) Iphiclus Brother
Agenor Great-Grandfather (Demonice's Father) Helen of Troy Daughter/Grand-Aunt (Ares's Sister)
Zeus Lover/Great-Grandfather (Ares's Father) Clytemnestra Daughter
Hera Great-Grandmother (Ares's Mother) Pollux Son/Grand-Uncle (Ares's Brother)
Ares Grandfather (Thestius's Father) Timandra Daughter
Demonice Grandmother (Thestius's Mother) Philonoe Daughter
Cleoboea Grandmother (Eurythemis's Mother) Castor Son
Thestius Father Phoebe Daughter
Eurythemis Mother Ladocus Grandson (Timandra's Son)
Evenus Uncle Iphigenia Granddaughter (Clytemnestra's Daughter)
Molus Uncle Aletes Grandson (Clytemnestra's Son)
Pylus Uncle Orestes Grandson (Clytemnestra's Son)
Marpessa Cousin (Evenus's Daughter) Erigone Granddaughter (Clytemnestra's Daughter)
Tyndareus Husband/Second-Cousin (Zeus's Great-Grandson) Hermione Granddaughter/1st Cousin-Once-Removed (Helen's Daughter)
Althaea Sister Nicostratus Grandson/1st Cousin-Once-Removed (Helen's Son)
Eurypylus Brother Electra Granddaughter (Clytemnestra's Daughter)
Hypermnestra Sister Anaxias Grandson (Castor's Son)
Plexippus Brother Mnasinus Grandson/1st Cousin-Once-Removed (Pollux's Son)
Toxeus Brother

In art[edit]

Leda and the swan and Leda and the egg were popular subjects in ancient art. In the post-classical arts, it became a potent source of inspiration. It is the subject of William Butler Yeats' poem Leda and the Swan. She is also the main subject in Honoré Desmond Sharrer's "Leda & the Folks", a large painting focusing as well on the parents of entertainer Elvis Presley and currently located at the Smith College Museum of Art.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Apollod. 3.10.5; Paus. 3.13.8; Eur. IA 49
  2. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 14
  3. ^ Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 201
  4. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 1. 7. 10
  5. ^ a b Alcman. Fragment 15 as cited in Scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes. Argonautica, 1.146
  6. ^ Scholiast on Apollonius of Rhodes. Argonautica, 1.146 as cited in Lyric Poets. Eumelus, Life
  7. ^ Leda's and Hypermnestra's mother might be Leucippe as well because there was no other woman mentioned as the wife of Thestius other than Leucippe in this text.
  8. ^ a b Though unnamed but certainly pertained to him
  9. ^ Though unnamed but certainly pertained to her

Sources[edit]

  • March, J. (1999). Cassell's Dictionary Of Classical Mythology. London. ISBN 0-304-35161-X.
  • Peck, H. (1898). Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities.

External links[edit]