Ledipasvir

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Ledipasvir
Ledipasvir.svg
Clinical data
Trade names Harvoni (combination with sofosbuvir)
Routes of
administration
by mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 76%
Protein binding >99%
Metabolism No cytochrome metabolism
Biological half-life 47 hrs
Identifiers
Synonyms GS-5885
CAS Number
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
Chemical and physical data
Formula C49H54F2N8O6
Molar mass 889.00 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)

Ledipasvir is a drug for the treatment of hepatitis C that was developed by Gilead Sciences.[1] After completing Phase III clinical trials, on February 10, 2014 Gilead filed for U.S. approval of a ledipasvir/sofosbuvir fixed-dose combination tablet for genotype 1 hepatitis C.[2][3] The ledipasvir/sofosbuvir combination is a direct-acting antiviral agent that interferes with HCV replication and can be used to treat patients with genotypes 1a or 1b without PEG-interferon or ribavirin.

Ledipasvir is an inhibitor of NS5A, a hepatitis C virus protein.

Data presented at the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in March 2013 showed that a triple regimen of the nucleotide analog inhibitor sofosbuvir, ledipasvir, and ribavirin produced a 12-week post-treatment sustained virological response (SVR12) rate of 100% for both treatment-naive patients and prior non-responders with HCV genotype 1.[4][5] The sofosbuvir/ledipasvir coformulation is being tested with and without ribavirin. In February 2014 Gilead filed for United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir oral treatment, without interferon and ribavirin.[6]

On 10 October 2014 the FDA approved the combination product ledipasvir/sofosbuvir called Harvoni.[7]

Medical uses[edit]

Ledipasvir is most commonly used in combination with sofosbuvir for treatment in chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 patients. This drug has been tested and shown efficacy in treatment-naive and treatment experienced patients. [8]

Adverse effects[edit]

According to clinical trials, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir has been very well tolerated with the most common side effects being fatigue and headache.[9]

Interactions[edit]

Most drug-drug interactions with Harvoni involve Pgp-inducers such as St. John’s wort or rifampicin. Concomitant use will decrease the blood concentration of Harvoni and thus, have reduced therapeutic effects. [9]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Ledipasvir inhibits an important viral phosphoprotein, NS5A, which is involved in viral replication, assembly, and secretion.[10]

Sofosbuvir, on the other hand, is metabolized to a uridine triphosphate mimic, which acts as a RNA chain terminator when incorporated into RNA by NS5B polymerase.[10]

Cost[edit]

Similar to sofosbuvir, the cost of Harvoni has been a controversial topic. It costs $1,125 per pill in the US, translating to $63,000 for an 8-week treatment course, $94,500 for a 12-week treatment course, or $189,000 for a 24-week treatment course. Gilead justifies the cost by outweighing the benefit of curing hepatitis C over the cost of spending double on liver transplants or temporarily treating liver diseases. Gilead has provided a ledipasvir/sofosbuvir assistance program for eligible underserved or underinsured hepatitis C patients who cannot afford the costs of treatment. [10]

In July 2015 Gilead modified the eligibility criteria to receive Support Path benefits for HCV patients in the United States.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ledipasvir" (PDF). United States Adopted Name. 
  2. ^ "Ledipasvir-submitted-to-FDA". 
  3. ^ "GS-5885". Gilead Sciences. 
  4. ^ ELECTRON: 100% Suppression of Viral Load through 4 Weeks’ Post-treatment for Sofosbuvir + Ledipasvir (GS-5885) + Ribavirin for 12 Weeks in Treatment-naïve and -experienced Hepatitis C Virus GT 1 Patients. Gane, Edward et al. 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. March 3–6, 2013. Abstract 41LB.
  5. ^ CROI 2013: Sofosbuvir + Ledipasvir + Ribavirin Combo for HCV Produces 100% Sustained Response. Highleyman, Liz. HIVandHepatitis.com. 4 March 2013.
  6. ^ "Gilead Files for U.S. Approval of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir Fixed-Dose Combination Tablet for Genotype 1 Hepatitis C". Gilead Sciences. 10 February 2014. 
  7. ^ "U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Gilead’s Harvoni (Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir), the First Once-Daily Single Tablet Regimen for the Treatment of Genotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C". 10 October 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  8. ^ Afdhal, N; Zeuzem, S; Kwo, P; Chojkier, M; Gitlin, N; Puoti, M; Romero-Gomez, M; Zarski, J. P.; Agarwal, K; Buggisch, P; Foster, G. R.; Bräu, N; Buti, M; Jacobson, I. M.; Subramanian, G. M.; Ding, X; Mo, H; Yang, J. C.; Pang, P. S.; Symonds, W. T.; McHutchison, J. G.; Muir, A. J.; Mangia, A; Marcellin, P; Ion-1, Investigators (2014). "Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for untreated HCV genotype 1 infection". New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (20): 1889–98. PMID 24725239. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1402454. 
  9. ^ a b http://www.gilead.com/~/media/Files/pdfs/medicines/liver-disease/harvoni/harvoni_pi.pdf
  10. ^ a b c http://www.hepatitisc.uw.edu/page/treatment/drugs/ledipasvir-sofosbuvir