Lee County, Florida

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Lee County, Florida
Base Operations at Page Field.jpg
Base Operations at Page Field.
Seal of Lee County, Florida
Seal
Map of Florida highlighting Lee County
Location in the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location in the U.S.
Founded May 13, 1887
Named for Robert E. Lee
Seat Fort Myers
Largest city Cape Coral
Area
 • Total 1,212 sq mi (3,139 km2)
 • Land 785 sq mi (2,033 km2)
 • Water 428 sq mi (1,109 km2), 35.3%
Population (est.)
 • (2017) 739,224[1]
 • Density 943/sq mi (364/km2)
Congressional districts 17th, 19th
Time zone Eastern: UTC−5/−4
Website www.lee-county.com

Lee County is located in southwest Florida on the Gulf Coast. As of the 2010 census, the population was 618,754.[2] The county seat is Fort Myers (with a 2016 estimated population of 77,146),[3] and the largest city is Cape Coral with an estimated 2016 population of 179,804. Lee County comprises the Cape Coral–Fort Myers, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Lee County was created in 1887 from Monroe County.[4] Today, Fort Myers is the center of a popular tourist area in Southwest Florida and the seat of Lee County. It is about 120 miles (190 km) south of Tampa at the meeting point of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caloosahatchee River.[5] Currently, Lee County is the spring home of the Boston Red Sox and Minnesota Twins MLB teams for spring training.

History[edit]

Fort established (1850s–1860s)[edit]

After Florida became a U.S. territory in 1821, a number of settlers moved into Florida, causing conflict with the local Seminole Indians. Fort Myers was built in 1850 as a military fort to fend off Seminole Indians during the Seminole Wars. The fort was named after Col. Abraham C. Myers, who was stationed in Florida for seven years and was the son-in-law of the fort's establisher and commander. In 1858, after years of elusive battle, Chief Billy Bowlegs and his warriors were persuaded to surrender and move west,[6] and the fort was abandoned. Billy's Creek, which flows into the Caloosahatchee River, was named after a temporary camp where Billy Bowlegs and his men awaited ships to take them west.

In 1863, the fort was reoccupied by federal troops during the Civil War. In 1865, in the Battle of Fort Myers, the fort was attacked by a small group of Confederates. The Union's garrison, led by Captain James Doyle, successfully held the fort and the Confederate forces retreated. After the war, the fort was again deserted.[7] The fort was later disassembled and some of its wood was contributed towards the building of parts of downtown Fort Myers.

Settlement and early growth (1860s–1920s)[edit]

The first settlers in Fort Myers arrived in 1866. In the 1870s, Tervio Padilla, a wealthy merchant from the Canary Islands, came by way of Key West to Cayo Costa and established trade with natives and "ranchos" that extended northward to Charlotte Harbor. His ships often made port at Cayo Costa at the entrance to the harbor. Enchanted by the tropical island, he eventually decided to settle there. Padilla prospered until the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, when his fleet was burned and scuttled. He then turned to another means of livelihood – fishing. When the government claimed his land, he was disinclined to set up another ranch, so moved with his wife further down the island and as before, simply homesteaded . The Padilla family is one of the first pioneer families of Lee County and many still reside within the county mainly around the Pine Island area.

In 1882, the city experienced a significant influx of settlers. By 1885, when Fort Myers was incorporated,[verification needed] its population of 349 residents made it the second-largest city only to Tampa on Florida's west coast south of Cedar Key, even larger than Clearwater and Sarasota, also growing cities at the time.[8]

The city of Fort Myers was incorporated in 1886.[verification needed] Lee County was created in 1887 from Monroe County.[4] It was named for Robert E. Lee, Confederate general in the American Civil War.[9]

Fort Myers first became a nationally known winter resort with the opening of the Royal Palm Hotel in 1898, built by New York City department store magnate Hugh O'Neill.[10] Fort Myers was the frequent winter home of Thomas Edison, as well as Henry Ford.[5]

Construction of the Tamiami Trail Bridge, built across the Caloosahatchee River in 1924, sparked the city's growth. After the bridge's construction, the city experienced its first real estate boom and many subdivisions sprouted around the city.[10] In 1923, Collier and Hendry Counties were created by splitting these areas from Lee County.

Modern growth (1940s–present)[edit]

Following the end of World War II, the Royal Palm Hotel was closed permanently, and in 1947, the hotel on the corner of First and Fowler was torn down.[10]

Lee County has been the host to several Major League Baseball teams for spring training over the past several decades. The county received a boost in 1983 when Southwest Florida Regional Airport (now known as Southwest Florida International Airport) opened.[11]

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,212 square miles (3,140 km2), of which 785 square miles (2,030 km2) is land and 428 square miles (1,110 km2) (35.3%) is water.[12] Rivers and streams include the Caloosahatchee River, the Imperial River, the Estero River, Hendry Creek, and Orange River.

Lee County is on the southwest coast of Florida. It is about 125 miles (201 km) south of Tampa and 115 miles (185 km) west of Fort Lauderdale via Interstate 75; and roughly 125 miles (201 km) west-northwest of Miami via U.S. Highway 41.

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected areas[edit]

Islands[edit]

Climate[edit]

Lee County has a year-round warm, monsoon-influenced climate that is close to the boundary between tropical and subtropical climates (18 °C (64 °F) in the coldest month), thus is either classified as a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), which is the classification used by NOAA,[13][14] or a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw).[15] Lee County has short, warm winters, and long, hot, humid summers, with most of the year's rainfall occurring from June to September. The temperature rarely rises to 100 °F (38 °C) or lowers to the freezing mark.[16] At 89, Lee County leads the nation in the number of days annually in which a thunderstorm is close enough for thunder to be heard.[17] The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 64.2 °F (17.9 °C) in January to 83.4 °F (28.6 °C) in August, with the annual mean being 75.1 °F (23.9 °C). Records range from 24 °F (−4 °C) on December 29, 1894 up to 103 °F (39 °C) on June 16–17, 1981.[16]

On August 13, 2004, the county was struck by Hurricane Charley, a category 4 storm, particularly on the northwestern islands of Captiva, Gasparilla, and North Captiva. On September 10, 2017, Lee County was struck by Hurricane Irma as a Category 2 storm.

Climate data for Fort Myers, Florida (Page Field), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 90
(32)
92
(33)
93
(34)
96
(36)
99
(37)
103
(39)
101
(38)
100
(38)
98
(37)
95
(35)
95
(35)
90
(32)
103
(39)
Average high °F (°C) 74.7
(23.7)
77.2
(25.1)
80.4
(26.9)
84.6
(29.2)
89.4
(31.9)
91.5
(33.1)
91.9
(33.3)
91.8
(33.2)
90.5
(32.5)
86.7
(30.4)
81.3
(27.4)
76.6
(24.8)
84.7
(29.3)
Average low °F (°C) 53.7
(12.1)
55.9
(13.3)
59.4
(15.2)
63.1
(17.3)
68.7
(20.4)
73.5
(23.1)
74.5
(23.6)
74.9
(23.8)
74.3
(23.5)
69.1
(20.6)
62.0
(16.7)
56.4
(13.6)
65.5
(18.6)
Record low °F (°C) 27
(−3)
27
(−3)
33
(1)
39
(4)
50
(10)
58
(14)
66
(19)
65
(18)
63
(17)
45
(7)
34
(1)
24
(−4)
24
(−4)
Average rainfall inches (mm) 1.89
(48)
2.13
(54.1)
2.84
(72.1)
2.02
(51.3)
2.72
(69.1)
10.28
(261.1)
9.14
(232.2)
10.21
(259.3)
8.55
(217.2)
2.67
(67.8)
1.92
(48.8)
1.69
(42.9)
56.06
(1,423.9)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in) 5.5 5.2 6.2 4.2 6.8 16.0 17.6 17.9 15.4 6.8 4.4 4.5 110.5
Source: NOAA (extremes 1892–present)[16]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18901,414
19003,071117.2%
19106,294104.9%
19209,54051.6%
193014,99057.1%
194017,48816.7%
195023,40433.8%
196054,539133.0%
1970105,21692.9%
1980205,26695.1%
1990335,11363.3%
2000440,88831.6%
2010618,75440.3%
Est. 2017739,224[18]19.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[19]
1790–1960[20] 1900–1990[21]
1990–2000[22] 2010–2015[2]

2010 Census[edit]

U.S. Census Bureau 2010 Ethnic/Race Demographics:[23][24]

In 2010, 11.1% of the population considered themselves to be of only "American" ancestry (regardless of race or ethnicity).[23]

Of the 259,818 households, 22.35% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.97% were married couples living together, 10.26% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.17% were not families. About 26.69% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.70% (4.15% male and 8.55% female) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.81.[24][27]

In the county, the population was distributed as 19.5% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, and 23.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.4 males.[27]

The median income for a household in the county was $50,014, and for a family was $58,950. Males had a median income of $41,619 versus $33,054 for females. The per capita income for the county was $29,445. About 7.8% of families and 12.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.7% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those aged 65 or over.[28]

In 2010, 15.3% of the county's population was foreign born, with 36.9% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 70.6% were born in Latin America, 14.9% were born in Europe, 8.3% were born in Asia, 5.4% were born in North America, 0.7% were born in Africa, and 0.2% were born in Oceania.[23]

Languages[edit]

As of 2010, 78.99% of all residents spoke English as their first language, while 15.19% spoke Spanish, 1.28% French Creole (mostly Haitian Creole,) 0.88% German, 0.59% Portuguese, and 0.55% of the population spoke French as their mother language.[29] In total, 21.01% of the population spoke languages other than English as their primary language.[29]

Economy[edit]

Lee County's stronger economic sectors include construction, retail, leisure, and hospitality.[30] Hertz moved its headquarters from New Jersey to Estero in 2016, the first major corporation to relocate to Lee County.[31] The largest employers in Lee County are:[32]

Rank Employer Employees
1 Lee Memorial Health System 10,900
2 Lee County School District 10,600
3 Publix Supermarkets 5,007
4 Lee County government 2,584
5 Walmart 2,507
6 Home Depot 1,783
7 City of Cape Coral 1,654
8 Chico's FAS 1,642
9 Lee County Sheriff's Office 1,585
10 U.S. Postal Service 1,477

Law enforcement and crime[edit]

Education[edit]

FGCU's Academic Core

The several colleges in Lee County include: Florida Gulf Coast University (FGCU), Barry University, Nova Southeastern University, Florida SouthWestern State College, Cape Coral Technical College, Fort Myers Technical College,[33] Hodges University, Keiser University, Southern Technical College, and Rasmussen College.

FGCU is a public university located just south of the Southwest Florida International Airport in South Fort Myers. The university belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida. FGCU competes in the Atlantic Sun Conference in NCAA Division I sports. The school is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award associate's, 51 different types of bachelor's, 29 different master's, and six types of doctoral degrees.[34]

Libraries[edit]

The Lee County Library System has 13 branches.[35] The towns of Fort Myers Beach and Sanibel Island, though located in Lee County, maintain their own independent public library entities.[36]

The Lee County Library System currently provides more than 294,000 Lee County residents with over 1.5 million items and materials available for use or patron circulation, as well as an online library materials catalog, free wi-fi, public computer access, scan and print capabilities, and many more patron amenities.[37]

Politics[edit]

The area is represented in the United States House of Representatives by Francis Rooney, 19th district, and by Tom Rooney, 17th district.

Presidential elections results
Lee County vote[38]
by party in presidential elections
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 58.12% 191,551 37.90% 124,908 3.97% 13,095
2012 57.83% 154,163 41.32% 110,157 0.85% 2,278
2008 54.67% 147,608 44.34% 119,701 0.99% 2,668
2004 59.91% 144,176 39.00% 93,860 1.09% 2,631
2000 57.57% 106,151 39.90% 73,571 2.54% 4,678
1996 48.75% 80,898 39.59% 65,699 11.66% 19,354
1992 44.24% 73,436 32.32% 53,660 23.43% 38,906
1988 67.71% 87,303 31.59% 40,725 0.70% 908
1984 73.89% 85,024 26.09% 30,022 0.03% 30
1980 64.51% 61,033 29.73% 28,125 5.77% 5,455
1976 54.50% 38,038 43.80% 30,567 1.70% 1,184
1972 79.46% 36,738 20.34% 9,404 0.20% 93
1968 46.23% 14,376 25.66% 7,978 28.11% 8,741
1964 55.81% 12,886 44.19% 10,204
1960 65.34% 10,357 34.66% 5,494
1956 62.60% 7,565 37.40% 4,520
1952 59.09% 5,528 40.91% 3,828
1948 39.26% 2,276 32.48% 1,883 28.26% 1,638
1944 35.74% 1,865 64.26% 3,353
1940 31.48% 1,622 68.52% 3,531
1936 30.85% 1,137 69.15% 2,549
1932 27.56% 973 72.44% 2,557
1928 63.17% 2,058 35.42% 1,154 1.41% 46
1924 34.03% 552 52.10% 845 13.87% 225
1920 36.95% 626 55.37% 938 7.67% 130
1916 14.75% 167 66.34% 751 18.90% 214
1912 5.32% 38 60.50% 432 34.18% 244
1908 13.51% 72 49.91% 266 36.59% 195
1904 17.04% 84 53.96% 266 29.01% 143

Voter registration[edit]

As of July 31, 2017.[39]

Voter registration and party membership
Party Number of voters Percentage
Republican 188,287 43.4%
Democratic 118,130 27.2%
Other 126,981 29.3%
Total N/A 100%

Transportation[edit]

Airports[edit]

  • Southwest Florida International Airport (IATA airport code - RSW), in South Fort Myers, serves over 8.37 million passengers annually.[40] Currently, the airport offers international non-stop flights to Cancun, Mexico; Düsseldorf, Germany; Nassau, Bahamas; and Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto in Canada. In addition, nine airlines operate flights to 29 domestic nonstop destinations. On September 9, 2005, the airport opened a new terminal.
  • Page Field (IATA airport code - FMY), also in South Fort Myers, just south of the incorporated limits of the City of Fort Myers, is the county's general aviation airport. Prior to the opening of Southwest Florida Regional Airport in 1983 (now Southwest Florida International Airport), Page Field was the county's commercial airport.

Seaports and marine transport[edit]

A small port operation continues in Boca Grande, being used as a way-point for oil distribution. However, Port Boca Grande has been in decline for many years as the shipping industry has moved north, especially to the Port of Tampa.

In addition, a private enterprise operates a high-speed, passenger-only ferry service between Fort Myers Beach from San Carlos Island and Key West. Another ferry service is offered from Fort Myers to Key West

Major highways[edit]

I-75.svg Interstate 75 The county's only fully controlled-access freeway, and has 10 interchanges within Lee County, linking the area to Naples, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami to the south and east; and Sarasota and Tampa to the north. The freeway is at least six lanes throughout Lee County and is up to eight lanes in some areas.
US 41.svg U.S. Route 41
Tamiami Trail
Cleveland Avenue
US 41 runs the length of Lee County, and is the county's main north-south arterial highway. It is a major commercial corridor, running as an elevated highway through the center of downtown Fort Myers, continuing south as a multilane, divided-surface highway through the communities of South Fort Myers, San Carlos Park, Estero, and Bonita Springs. From north-to-south, the highway's name starts as "North Tamiami Trail", changes to "Cleveland Avenue" from the Caloosahatchee River to State Road 884 (Colonial Boulevard) in the City of Fort Myers; then it is called "South Cleveland Avenue" from Colonial Boulevard to County Road 876 (Daniels Parkway), and then changes to South Tamiami Trail until the border with Collier County.
Florida 80.svg State Road 80
Palm Beach Boulevard
SR 80's western terminus is in downtown Fort Myers. The multilane highway runs east-northeast along the southern banks of the Caloosahatchee River as "Palm Beach Boulevard" within the county, traversing the state of Florida to connect the area with LaBelle, Clewiston, and West Palm Beach.
Florida 82.svg State Road 82
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard
Immokalee Road
SR 82's western terminus is in downtown Fort Myers. The highway is called "Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard" within the incorporated limits of the City of Fort Myers, becoming "Immokalee Road" as it passes through Lehigh Acres and connects the area to Immokalee.
Florida 884.svg State Road 884
Veterans Memorial Parkway
Colonial Boulevard
Lee Boulevard
SR 884 is Lee County's main east-west arterial highway. Its western terminus is in the incorporated limits of the City of Cape Coral and the eastern terminus is in Lehigh Acres. Within Cape Coral, the highway is named "Veterans' Memorial Parkway", and is a multilane, controlled-access highway. Within Fort Myers, it is named "Colonial Boulevard". The road crosses the Caloosahatchee River as an elevated highway across a toll bridge, interchanging with U.S. Highway 41 and Interstate 75, then becomes a multilane, divided-surface highway through Lehigh Acres. After it intersects with State Road 82, it is called "Lee Boulevard".

Major road bridges[edit]

  • Caloosahatchee Bridge (U.S. Highway 41): 4-travel-lane single-span bridge connects North Fort Myers with Fort Myers, over the Caloosahatchee River.
  • Cape Coral Bridge (College Parkway/Cape Coral Parkway): 4-travel-lane single-span bridge (two eastbound, two westbound) connect Cape Coral with Cypress Lake, over the Caloosahatchee River.
  • Edison Bridge (State Road 739): Two 3-travel-lane spans (one northbound, one southbound) connect North Fort Myers with Fort Myers, over the Caloosahatchee River.
  • Interstate 75: Two 4-travel-lane spans (one northbound, one southbound) between the State Road 78 ("Bayshore Road") and State Road 80 ("Palm Beach Boulevard") interchanges, over the Caloosahatchee River.
  • Matanzas Pass Bridge (State Road 865): 3-travel-lane single-span bridge crosses Hurricane Bay and Matanzas Pass within the incorporated limits of the Town of Fort Myers Beach, connecting the mainland to the barrier islands.
  • Midpoint Memorial Bridge (State Road 884): 4-lane single-span bridge that connects Cape Coral with Fort Myers, over the Caloosahatchee River.

Mass transportation[edit]

Fixed-route bus service is provided by the Lee County Transit Department, operated as "LeeTran". Several routes extend outward from the Downtown Intermodal Transfer Center; in addition, suburb-to-suburb routes are operated, as well as park-and-ride service to and from both Fort Myers Beach and Southwest Florida International Airport.

The Downtown Intermodal Transfer Center in Fort Myers also serves as an intermediate stop on Greyhound Lines bus service.

Media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

Newspapers include The News-Press, Florida Weekly, and Naples Daily News.

Radio[edit]

Arbitron standard radio market: Ft Myers-Naples-Marco Island[41] With an Arbitron-assigned 783,100 listening area population, the metropolitan area ranks 62/299 for the fall of 2006. The metropolitan area is home to 32 radio stations.

Television[edit]

Nielsen Media Research designated market area: Ft. Myers-Naples[42]

Number of TV homes: 479,130

2006–2007 U.S. rank: 64/210

Sports[edit]

Club Sport League Tier Venue (capacity)
Florida Everblades Ice hockey ECHL Mid-level Hertz Arena, Estero (7,186)
Fort Myers Miracle Baseball Florida State League Class A Hammond Stadium, S. Fort Myers (7,500)
Boston Red Sox Baseball Major League Baseball Spring training JetBlue Park, Fort Myers (11,000)
Minnesota Twins Baseball Major League Baseball Spring training Hammond Stadium, S. Fort Myers (7,500)
Florida Gulf Coast Eagles Basketball Atlantic Sun Conference Division I (NCAA) Alico Arena, Fort Myers (4,500)

Fort Myers is home to Florida Gulf Coast University. Its teams, the Florida Gulf Coast Eagles, play in NCAA Division I in the Atlantic Sun Conference. The Eagles' men's basketball team had an average attendance of 2,291 in 2013.[43]

MLB spring training[edit]

Red Sox logo on the fence outside the City of Palms Park

The Boston Red Sox hold their annual spring training at JetBlue Park in the Fort Myers area. A cross-town rivalry has developed with the Minnesota Twins, which conduct their spring training at Hammond Stadium in south Lee County, which has a capacity of 7,500 and opened in 1991.

The Red Sox' lease with Fort Myers runs through 2019, but the Red Sox were considering exercising the early out in their contract that would have allowed them to leave following the 2009 spring season. On October 28, 2008, the Lee County commission voted 3–1 to approve an agreement with the Boston Red Sox to build a new spring-training facility for the team in south Lee County. The new stadium, named JetBlue Park at Fenway South, is located off Daniels Parkway near Southwest Florida International Airport. The stadium opened in time for the 2012 season.

City of Palms Park had been built in 1992 for the Red Sox' spring training. Former Red Sox left fielder Mike Greenwell is from Fort Myers, and was instrumental in bringing his team to the city for spring training.[citation needed] The deal for JetBlue Park left City of Palms Park without a tenant. County officials have discussed the possibility of securing another team for City of Palms. Terry Park Ballfield (also known as the Park T. Pigott Memorial Stadium) in East Fort Myers is also not currently in use by a Major League Baseball team, though it is the former home of the Philadelphia Athletics, Cleveland Indians, Pittsburgh Pirates, and Kansas City Royals.

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Town[edit]

Village[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Other unincorporated communities[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/leecountyflorida/PST045217
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 14, 2014.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ a b Publications of the Florida Historical Society. Florida Historical Society. 1908. p. 32.
  5. ^ a b Jane Colihan Archived June 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. "Spring Break," American Heritage, February/March 2006.
  6. ^ Covington, James W. 1993. The Seminoles of Florida. Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1196-5.
  7. ^ "02, February in Florida History". Florida Historical Society. Archived from the original on October 14, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  8. ^ The History of Fort Myers, www.fortmyers.org.
  9. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 184.
  10. ^ a b c "Remembering the first tourist attraction in Fort Myers", News-Press, February 13, 2016.
  11. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20160615095500/http://flylcpa.com/uploads/pagesfiles/2001.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  13. ^ http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/documentlibrary/ewdcd/ewdstations-wmo.pdf
  14. ^ It should be noted the NOAA document used classifies locations as warm as Newport News, Virginia as "continental", but areas with drastically more extreme climates, such as Wichita, Kansas as "subtropical".
  15. ^ "Köppen Climate Classification Map:". Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska, Department of Climate Science. Archived from the original on March 25, 2009. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
  16. ^ a b c "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
  17. ^ "Weather Variety – Annual Days With Thunderstorms". Weatherpages.com. Archived from the original on February 20, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  18. ^ "American FactFinder". Retrieved March 24, 2018.
  19. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  20. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  21. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  22. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g "Lee County: SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
  24. ^ a b c "Lee County Demographic Characteristics". ocala.com. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  25. ^ "Lee County, Florida FIRST ANCESTRY REPORTED Universe: Total population - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  26. ^ "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 -- 2010 Census Summary File 1". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  27. ^ a b "Lee County: Age Groups and Sex: 2010 - 2010 Census Summary File 1". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  28. ^ "Lee County, Florida: SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS - 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  29. ^ a b "Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Lee County, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  30. ^ "Employers hire as Lee County booms", News Press, Casey Logan, December 22, 2016.
  31. ^ "SW Florida's economic future involves strong growth, some friction", News Press, May 9, 2015.
  32. ^ "Top 10 employers in Lee County mostly government", News Press, Wendy Fullerton Powell, August 30, 2016.
  33. ^ Logan, Casey (June 8, 2015). "Fort Myers, Cape Coral technical institutes now colleges". News-Press. Retrieved June 9, 2015.
  34. ^ "Commission on Colleges". Sacscoc.org. Archived from the original on April 24, 2014. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
  35. ^ "Lee County Library System (Florida)". www.leegov.com. Retrieved March 19, 2016.
  36. ^ http://www.fmb.lib.fl.us/ http://sanlib.org/
  37. ^ Lee County Library System. About the Library. Web. Retrieved from: https://www.leegov.com/library/about
  38. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2017.
  40. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20160615095500/http://flylcpa.com/uploads/pagesfiles/2001.pdf. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 15, 2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  41. ^ "Market Ranks". Arbitron.com. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  42. ^ Retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20090523080340/http://www.nielsenmedia.com/nc/portal/site/Public/menuitem.3437240b94cacebc3a81e810d8a062a0/?vgnextoid=130547f8b5264010VgnVCM100000880a260aRCRD. Archived from the original on May 23, 2009. Retrieved December 12, 2015. Missing or empty |title= (help).
  43. ^ 2013 NCAA MEN’S BASKETBALL ATTENDANCE. Retrieved March 29, 2014.

Coordinates: 26°35′N 81°55′W / 26.58°N 81.92°W / 26.58; -81.92