Mead performing at Andrew Lloyd Webber's Birthday in the Park, September 2008
|Born||Lee Stephen Mead
14 July 1981
Southend-on-Sea, Essex, England, UK
Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat (2007-09)
Legally Blonde: The Musical (2011)
Jack and the Beanstalk (2012)
Robin Hood (2013)
Chitty Chitty Bang Bang (2015-16)
Any Dream Will Do (2007)
Holby City (2017–)
|Spouse(s)||Denise van Outen (m. 2009–2013)|
|Genres||Musical theatre, Pop|
|Labels||Lee Mead Productions Ltd|
Lee Stephen Mead (born 14 July 1981) is an English musical theatre and television actor, best known for winning the title role in the 2007 West End revival of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat through the BBC TV casting show Any Dream Will Do. As well as subsequent West End roles in Wicked, Legally Blonde: The Musical and The West End Men, Mead has pursued a music career, releasing three solo albums and undertaking concert tours in the UK and Japan.
In 2014, he joined the cast of the BBC One drama Casualty, playing the role of Ben 'Lofty' Chiltern, while continuing to tour the UK with his band between filming commitments. He returned to the stage in May 2016 as Caractacus Potts in the UK Tour of Chitty Chitty Bang Bang. In 2017, he returns to the role of Lofty, but in Casualty's sister series, the BBC One drama Holby City.
After studying at performing arts college, Mead gained his first professional stage experience in cabaret as a cruise ship singer on the Portsmouth to Bilbao ferry and then in a summer season at Bridlington Spa Theatre. He moved into musical theatre in 2004, playing both Levi and the Pharaoh in the UK touring production of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat. Following Joseph, Mead performed in the UK tours of Tommy (ensemble and first cover Tommy) and Miss Saigon (ensemble and first cover Chris) before joining the West End production of Phantom of the Opera as an ensemble player and understudy for the role of Raoul.
Any Dream Will Do/Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat
While performing in The Phantom of the Opera, Mead auditioned for the BBC series Any Dream Will Do, hoping to win a six-month contract playing Joseph in the 2007 West End revival of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat. From 10,000 initial auditionees, Mead was selected as one of the final 12 potential 'Josephs' who performed live on TV every Saturday night to win the public's vote.
Immediately after he won the final, a single featuring Mead, with fellow Any Dream Will Do finalists Lewis Bradley and Keith Jack, was released in aid of the BBC's annual Children In Need charity appeal. The single, featuring Any Dream Will Do (performed by Mead) and Close Every Door (performed by all three finalists) reached number 2 in the official UK singles chart.
Joseph and the Amazing Technicolour Dreamcoat opened in the West End on 17 July 2007 to generally good reviews: "Lee Mead… turns out to be both talented and enthusiastic… what distinguishes him is an attractive singing voice and, coming from beneath hair that owes more to Uncle Esau than father Jacob, lots of affable charisma… last night’s audience seemed enchanted" wrote Benedict Nightingale in The Times.
After 600 performances in the role, Mead played Joseph for the last time on 10 January 2009.
Post Joseph career
Following his successful run as Joseph in the West End, Mead took a short course at the famous Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute in New York City before taking on his first major play in a UK tour of Lord Arthur Savile's Crime. The play, which was adapted by Trevor Baxter in the style of a tongue-in-cheek Victorian melodrama from a short story by Oscar Wilde, opened at the Theatre Royal Windsor on 12 January 2010 and finished at the Theatre Royal Bath on 24 April 2010. Mead led the cast playing the title role alongside established performers including Gary Wilmot, Kate O'Mara, David Ross and Derren Nesbitt.
Mead went on to appear in the role of Fiyero in the London production of Wicked, from 10 May 2010 to 5 February 2011 opposite Rachel Tucker as Elphaba, the Wicked Witch Of the West and Louise Dearman as Galinda, the Good Witch. Mead was nominated for the Whatsonstage.com Theatregoers' Choice Award for Best Takeover in a Role for this role.
Mead then took over the role of Emmett in Legally Blonde in the West End from 20 June to 8 October 2011. He made his television acting debut in August 2011, guest starring in an episode of Casualty on BBC One as newly employed teaching assistant Harry Timms He also appeared in the second series of the science fiction drama, Bedlam, in the episode entitled "Jude" playing Scott, the brother of the title character, on Sky Living in June 2012. In December 2012, he starred in his first pantomime as the title character "Jack" in Jack and the Beanstalk at the Mayflower Theatre, Southampton alongside Julian Clary and Nigel Havers.
Mead returned to the West End in May 2013, starring in The West End Men in concert at the Vaudeville Theatre alongside Matt Willis, Glenn Carter, Stephen Rahman-Hughes and David Thaxton. In December 2013, he starred in his second pantomime as "Robin" in Robin Hood at the Theatre Royal, Plymouth.
On 1 March 2014, he made his first appearance as Ben "Lofty" Chiltern in the BBC drama series Casualty. Mead was nominated as Favourite Newcomer in the 2014 TV Times Awards and shortlisted as Newcomer in the 2015 National Television Awards for this role. Alongside Casualty, Mead is continuing to tour the UK with his band, starred in his third pantomime as "Prince Charming" in Cinderella at the New Theatre, Cardiff in December 2014 and stars in his fourth as "Aladdin" in Aladdin at the Hippodrome, Birmingham in December 2015.
In 2016 Mead took a break from Casualty to join the Chitty Chitty Bang Bang UK Tour as "Caractacus Potts" and ended the year playing "Prince Charming" in Cinderella at the London Palladium in a production that saw the return of pantomime to the West End after a break of nearly 3 decades.
Mead has appeared as a guest artist at a range of concerts and events.
|1 July 2007||Concert for Diana||Performed at a concert in Wembley Stadium, London in honour of the late Diana, Princess of Wales, singing Any Dream Will Do with other former Josephs Donny Osmond and Jason Donovan.|
|19 August 2007||Andrew Lloyd Webber Gala||Performed Close Every Door and Any Dream Will Do in a gala concert recorded at the Mermaid Theatre in London for BBC Radio 2.|
|16 November 2007||Children in Need 2007||Opened the Children in Need 2007 charity event by singing Any Dream Will Do|
|25 November 2007||Trillogy at the Movies||Performed at charity concert in Southend in aid of Children In Need.|
|18 March 2008||The Prince's Trust Celebrating Success Awards||Performed Any Dream Will Do and new single You and Me at an awards ceremony held in the Odeon Leicester Square.|
|21 June 2008||West End Live, London||Performed Close Every Door and Any Dream Will Do at West End Live, a free event held each year in Leicester Square, London to give the public a taster of a range of West End shows.|
|17 August 2008||Lyrics by Don Black||Performed Some Of Us Belong To The Stars from the musical Billy (based on the novel Billy Liar), and Love Changes Everything from Aspects of Love in a concert at the London Palladium to celebrate the work of lyricist, Don Black.|
|14 September 2008||Andrew Lloyd Webber 60th Birthday concert.||Performed four songs at Birthday In The Park in Hyde Park, London: Love Changes Everything and All I Ask of You; a duet from The Phantom of the Opera with Hayley Westenra; Close Every Door and Any Dream Will Do.|
|5 October 2008||Tribute to Ian Fleming||Performed From Russia with Love at a concert in the London Palladium in honour of the creator of James Bond.|
|29 March 2009||Australia Flood and Fire Benefit||Performed Nothing Else Matters from his second album at the Palace Theatre, London|
|10 May 2009||Rhydian Roberts Concert||Appeared as a guest star at Rhydian Roberts' concert in the Bristol Hippodrome, singing You Raise Me Up with Rhydian.|
|17 September 2009||TOG Chorus||Performed a duet of 'We All Stand Together' with Hayley Westenra and two solo numbers at an event organised by Terry Wogan fans in aid of Children In Need at Longleat.|
|25 October 2009||Helping the Heart of Music||Performed at Royal Albert Hall concert in aid of the PRS for Music Members Benevolent Fund, singing two Marc Bolan songs.|
|24 November 2008||An Audience with Tim Rice.||Performed six songs at this event in Monaco, including four solos: Any Dream Will Do"; Anthem from the musical Chess; A Winter's Tale;and Heaven on Their Minds from Jesus Christ Superstar as well as two duets, Can You Feel The Love Tonight and A Whole New World with Emma Munro-Wilson.|
|10 December 2009||Spirit of Christmas||Headlined concert at Lincoln Cathedral in aid of the Muscular Dystrophy campaign.|
|21 December 2009||Christmas with Hayley Westenra||Performed two solo numbers and two duets with Hayley Westenra, including their first live performance of 'When the Stars Go Blue' from Mead's second album, at the Barbican Centre.|
|3 October 2010||A Handful Of Songs: A Tribute to Lionel Bart||Performed at a BBC Radio 2 'Friday Night Is Music Night' concert at the Hackney Empire, singing two songs, 'From Russia With Love' and 'Do You Mind' by Lionel Bart. Broadcast 24 December 2010.|
|10 October 2010||Apollo Victoria's 80th Birthday Concert||Performed at concert celebrating the Apollo Victoria's 80-year history, singing 'Paint It Black' by The Rolling Stones, who performed there in 1961.|
|4 March 2011||Daniel Boys cabaret||Joined Boys to sing duet version of 'More Than Words' from Mead's second album.|
|18 June 2011||West End Live, London||Made his debut as Emmett from Legally Blonde: The Musical at West End Live 2011, a free annual event showcasing the best of London theatre, performing 'Chip On My Shoulder' with Carley Stenson as Elle|
|28 June 2012||Top That! A Tribute to Irving Berlin, Watford||Performed at a BBC Radio 2 'Friday Night Is Music Night' concert devoted to the songs of Irving Berlin at the Watford Colosseum. Broadcast 7 September 2012.|
|6 July 2012||Olympic Torch Relay Event||Performed a new song, 'Gold' especially composed for the occasion at Sparks Will Fly, an Olympic Torch Relay event in Chelmsford.|
|25 November 2013||The Salvation Army Christmas Concert||Performed 'Bring Him Home' and 'Blue Christmas' at this annual Christmas Concert at the Royal Albert Hall, London.|
|29 March 2014||Stephen Rahman-Hughes cabaret||Sang 'Father and Son' and two duets with Rahman-Hughes, 'Luck Be a Lady' and 'I Believe (When I Fall In Love)'.|
|5 April 2014||ISS Choral Spectactular||Guest at The Salvation Army International Staff Songsters Choral Spectacular at Regent Hall, London.|
|11 July 2014||Stephen Rahman-Hughes cabaret||Sang three numbers at The Pheasantry, London.|
|28 August 2014||Daniel Boys cabaret||Mead joined Boys in an unusual all-male duet of 'As Long As You're Mine' from Wicked.|
|12 October 2014||Gala Spectacular||Performed three songs at Bobby Davro's charity concert in aid of Woking & Sam Beare Hospices at the New Victoria Theatre, Woking.|
|10 May 2015||Let's Hear It for the Boys||Performed at charity concert hosted by Louise Dearman in aid of Alzheimer's Society.|
|7 June 2015||In Harmony with your Gut||Performed at charity concert in aid of Crohn's and Colitis UK and the St Mark's Hospital Foundation at St Paul's, Covent Garden, London.|
|18 October 2015||Brian McCann 40..15! Cabaret||Mead joined an impressive line-up of West End talent to sing at this cabaret at The Phoenix Artist Club, London.|
|8 December 2015||Christmas with the Stars||Performed two songs at the annual charity concert in aid of Bloodwise at the Royal Albert Hall, London.|
|25 February 2016||Music of the Movies||Performed a number of songs from his new album, released the same day, and Pure Imagination accompanied by a massed children's choir at this annual event in aid of youth charity Hybu at the Motorpoint Arena, Cardiff.|
UK and Ireland
Mead undertook his first solo concert in his home town of Southend in May 2010 and continued to tour the UK and Ireland during 2010 and 2011 with his own band. A second tour, The Love Tour, followed in February 2012 to coincide with the release of his third album, Love Songs. In the summer of 2012, Mead joined forces with Stephen Rahman-Hughes and Matt Rawle to tour as the West End Men, supported by special guest, Kerry Ellis. A further short tour with the West End Men followed in November 2012 with Ramin Karimloo replacing Matt Rawle in the line-up. Mead also starred in a month-long run of the West End Men from May to June 2013 at the Vaudeville Theatre in London. He completed further UK solo tours in the autumn of 2013 and in 2014 then in 2015, announced a new collaboration with Stephen Rahman-Hughes to form duo, Steve and Lee, their show Both Sides Now debuted in October of that year. Mead's new Some Enchanted Evening tour kicked off in July 2015, followed by the launch of his new album of the same name in February 2016, which is marked by a series of intimate London gigs with further UK-wide tour dates announced for March and October 2016. In November 2016 he joins other West End stars for two Broadway in Concert dates and a further Both Sides Now show with Stephen Rahman-Hughes. Mead has announced a monthly Up Front and Centre residency at London's Pheasantry throughout 2017, the first of its kind for the Chelsea cabaret venue.
|Year||Tour||Venues and dates|
|2010/11||An Evening With Lee Mead||2010 dates: Cliffs Pavilion, Southend-on-Sea (23 May); The Anvil, Basingstoke (13 June); Alban Arena, St Albans (27 June); Embassy Theatre, Skegness (25 July); Grimsby Auditorium, Grimsby (22 August); Opera House, Buxton (12 September); Town Hall, Leeds (17 October); Waterside Theatre, Aylesbury (7 November); New Wimbledon Theatre, London (14 November); Derngate Theatre, Northampton (3 December); Alexandra Theatre, Birmingham (4 December) and Coliseum Theatre, London (19 December).
2011 dates: Mayflower Theatre, Southampton (6 February); Hawth Theatre, Crawley (19 February); The Sage, Gateshead (22 February); Royal Concert Hall, Nottingham (23 February); De Montfort Hall, Leicester (25 February); Venue Cymru, Llandudno (27 February); ending in Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff (12 March). Following the tour, there were further solo concerts in National Concert Hall, Dublin (31 March) with the RTÉ Concert Orchestra; Kilworth House Theatre, Kilworth (16 July); The Forum, Bath (5 November) and Barbican Hall, London (22 December).
|2012||The Love Tour||Pavilion Theatre, Bournemouth (11 February); Bridgewater Hall, Manchester (12 February); Cliffs Pavilion, Southend-on-Sea (14 February); St David's Hall, Cardiff (19 February); Colston Hall, Bristol (23 February); Philharmonic Hall, Liverpool (24 February); Symphony Hall, Birmingham (26 February). A further concert, 'An Evening With Lee Mead' was held at the Assembly Hall, Worthing (10 March).|
|2012/13||West End Men||Fort Regent, Jersey (14 July 2012); G Live, Guildford (18 July 2012); Beau Sejour, Guernsey (28 & 29 July 2012); Royal Concert Hall, Glasgow (14 November 2012); The Sage, Gateshead (20 November 2012) and De Montfort Hall, Leicester (23 November 2012) and Vaudeville Theatre, London (25 May - 22 June 2013).|
|2013/14||Lee Mead in Concert||2013 dates: The Pheasantry, London (14-17 and 19 August); Villa Marina, Isle of Man (23 August); Forum 28, Barrow in Furness (15 September); Shanklin Theatre, Isle of Wight (24 September); The Platform, Morecambe (26 September); Camberley Theatre, Camberley (27 September); Civic Hall, Bedworth (28 September); and Town Hall, Cheltenham (29 September).
2014 dates: Sherman Cymru, Cardiff (4 May); Queen's Theatre, Barnstaple (1 June); Octagon Theatre, Yeovil (29 June); Beck Theatre, Hayes (20 July); Capitol Theatre, Horsham (10 August); G Live, Guildford (13 August); Theatr Hafren, Newtown (20 September); Cliffs Pavilion, Southend (5 October); Aberystwyth Arts Centre, Aberystwyth (2 November); Wycombe Swan Theatre, High Wycombe (12 November); West Cliff Theatre, Clacton (16 November); and Garrick Theatre, London (7 December - Christmas show).
|2015||Steve and Lee - Both Sides Now||The Pheasantry, London (31 October-1 November); Capitol Theatre, Horsham (29 November).|
|2015/16||Some Enchanted Evening||2015 dates: The Pheasantry, London (26-28 June - warm up gigs); Civic Hall, Bedworth (19 July); Shanklin Theatre, Isle of Wight (2 August); West Cliff Theatre, Clacton (16 August); Camberley Theatre, Camberley (5 September); The Apex, Bury St Edmunds (19 September); Queen's Theatre, Barnstaple (4 October); Octagon Theatre, Yeovil (25 October); Theatre Royal, Winchester (8 November); Lichfield Garrick Theatre, Lichfield (21 November); and Garrick Theatre, London (6 December - Christmas show).
2016 dates: The Pheasantry, London (4-6 March - album launch gigs); The Playhouse, Weston-super-Mare (10 March); Lighthouse Theatre, Kettering (18 March); The Lighthouse, Poole (23 March); Royal Spa Centre, Leamington Spa (2 October); City Varieties Music Hall, Leeds (6 October); Pavilion Theatre, Rhyl (7 October); Marina Theatre, Lowestoft (12 October); Embassy Theatre, Skegness (13 October); Pomegranate Theatre, Chesterfield (14 October); Brewhouse Theatre, Taunton (19 October); Town Hall, Cheltenham (20 October); Oakengates Theatre (The Place), Telford (21 October); New Theatre Royal, Portsmouth (26 October); Assembly Hall Theatre, Tunbridge Wells (27 October) and Cliffs Pavilion, Southend (28 October).
|2016||Broadway in Concert||Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff (16 November); London Palladium, London (17 November).|
|2016||Steve and Lee - Both Sides Now||Hippodrome Casino, London (27 November).|
|2017||Up Front and Centre||The Pheasantry, London (19 February, 26 March, 30 April, 28 May, 25 June, 30 July, 27 August, 24 September, 29 October and 26 November).|
Mead completed his first international concert tour of Japan in December 2011.
|Year||Tour||Venues and dates|
|2011||Tomomi Nishimoto Christmas Adagio||Mead toured Japan in December 2011 in concert with Sojung Lee also a vocalist. Civic Cultural Centre Muse, Tokorozawa (3 December); Suntory Hall, Minato-ku, Tokyo (4 December); Mihara Performing Arts Centre "Popolo", Hiroshima (6 December); Aichi Prefectural Arts Theatre, Nagoya (8 December); The Symphony Hall, Osaka (9 December); Alpha Anabuki Hall, Kagawa (10 December); Minato Mirai Hall, Yokohama (11 December); Sapporo Concert Hall Kitara, Sapporo (15 December); City Cultural Hall, Aomori (17 December); Opera City Concert Hall, Tokyo (18 December)|
|1 October 2007||Joseph and The Amazing Technicolour Dreamcoat||Mead's version of Any Dream Will Do was added to a special edition re-release of the 1991 London Palladium cast recording.|
|19 November 2007||Lee Mead||Mead's debut solo album achieved double gold status.|
|5 May 2008||Three and Out||Mead features on two songs on the Three and Out soundtrack, You've Got A Friend and Somebody Help Me.|
|6 October 2008||Andrew Lloyd Webber 60||Mead's version of Any Dream Will Do features on this triple CD album of the best of Andrew Lloyd Webber.|
|23 February 2009||Connie Fisher- Secret Love||Mead duets with Connie Fisher, winner of How Do You Solve A Problem Like Maria?, singing Next Time You Fall In Love from the musical Starlight Express.|
|9 March 2009||Nothing Else Matters||Mead's second solo album includes a mixture of covers and new songs, including some co-writes, and a duet of When The Stars Go Blue with Hayley Westenra.|
|9 November 2009||Bandaged Together||Mead appears on this double album, duetting with Hayley Westenra and the TOGS Chorus on We All Stand Together as well as singing All You Need Is Love. This charity album consists of a mixture of nostalgic and children's songs from years gone by.|
|13 February 2012||Love Songs||Mead's third solo album is, as the cover states, dedicated to different Love Songs. It includes moving covers of Falling Slowly, Hallelujah, Fix You and She.|
|26 February 2016||Some Enchanted Evening||Mead's fourth solo album harks back to the golden age of the Hollywood film musicals. Tracks include Luck Be a Lady, Singin' in the Rain and the title track Some Enchanted Evening.|
|18 June 2007||Any Dream Will Do #2 single.|
|3 December 2007||Gonna Make You A Star|
|10 March 2008||You And Me|
|7 November 2009||We Will Remember Them (Help For Heroes)|
|9 November 2009||All You Need Is Love (Children In Need)|
|19 September 2007||Rear of the Year accolade.|
|16 October 2007||lastminute.com People's Choice Theatre Award for Favourite Theatre Actor.|
|18 November 2007||Variety Club Award for "Outstanding New Talent."|
|8 December 2007||TV Times award for "Favourite Newcomer"|
|15 April 2008||Gold disc for debut album "Lee Mead."|
Mead was born in Southend-on-Sea to Joan (née Horning) and Stephen Mead. He has one brother, Casey Michael Mead, who is four years younger.
In November 2007, Mead began dating Any Dream Will Do judge, Denise van Outen,. The couple announced their engagement on 29 January 2009 and married in the Seychelles in April 2009. Their daughter was born on 1 May 2010, with one official photo released to publications in exchange for donations to The Louis Dundas Centre at Great Ormond Street Hospital. In July 2013 the couple released a joint statement stating that they had split but remained good friends.
Mead is patron of The Mushroom Theatre Company's charity Equal People which is based in Rayleigh, Essex and aims to bring able-bodied and disabled people together to socialise and perform. In 2016, he became patron of Chesterfield-based charity Kids 'n' Cancer, which helps children access the latest evolution of radiotherapy treatment, Proton Therapy.
He also was ambassador of Vodafone's 2008 Cut It Out Campaign in 2008 which aimed to reduce bullying. The campaign worked alongside the West End stage production of Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat. Children were invited to design their own 'dreamcoat' and the winning entries were then worn on stage by Mead during Anti-Bullying week.
- "Lee Mead swaps Casualty for Holby City". BBC Media Centre. 10 February 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- Dessau, Bruce (15 January 2010). "After Joseph Lee Mead turns to Oscar Wilde". The Times. London. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- JOSEPH and the Amazing TECHNICOLOR DREAMCOAT
- Nightingale, Benedict (18 July 2007). "Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat". The Times. London: News International. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- Palmer, Alun (18 July 2007). "Lee proves he's a winner". Daily Mirror. London: Trinity Mirror. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
Last night he grasped his prize with both hands as he went on stage in Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat. […] When the 25-year-old began singing Any Dream Will Do, this became a celebration of his TV triumph.
- Martland, Lisa (18 July 2007). "Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat". The Stage. London. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
- "Wicked proudly welcomes Lee Mead" (Press release). Wicked London Production Ltd. 10 May 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
Wicked... welcomes Lee Mead to the cast as Fiyero from today (10 May 2010).
- "Whatsonstage.com Awards Nominees Announced". Whatsonstage.com. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2010.
- Casualty – Starting Out BBC
- "Lee Mead joins Bedlam". The List. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- "TV Times Awards 2014 categories". whatsontv.com. 23 September 2014. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "National Television Awards 2015 shortlists announced". www.digitalspy.co.uk. 6 January 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- Sara Nathan (12 January 2008). "My dreamboat in a dreamcoat". London: The Sun. Retrieved 12 January 2008.
- Nathan, Sara (29 January 2009). "Denise to wed Joseph idol Lee". The Sun. London.
- "Wedding". Daily Mail. London. 29 April 2009.
- Nathan, Sara (6 May 2010). "Proud parents Denise Van Outen and Lee Mead introduce baby Betsy to the world". Daily Mail. London.
- "Denise Van Outen and Lee Mead confirm their split after four years of marriage". Dailymail.co.uk. 2013-07-28. Retrieved 2013-07-31.
- "About Us". Equal People. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- "About". Kids 'n' Cancer. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- Threepipe, Public Relations Agency
- Stacey, Alison (12 September 2008). "Anti-bullying campaign in the West End". The Independent. London. Retrieved 7 May 2010.