Lee Shulman

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Lee S. Shulman (born September 28, 1938) is an American educational psychologist. He has made notable contributions to the study of teaching, assessment of teaching, and the fields of medicine, science and mathematics.


Shulman is a professor emeritus at Stanford Graduate School of Education, past president of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, past president of the American Educational Research Association, and the recipient of several awards recognizing his educational research. From 1963 to 1982, Shulman was a faculty member at Michigan State University, where he founded and co-directed the Institute for Research on Teaching (IRT).

Shulman is credited with popularizing the phrase "pedagogical content knowledge" (PCK). He was the 2006 recipient of the University of Louisville Grawemeyer Award in Education for his 2004 book, The Wisdom of Practice: Essays on Teaching, Learning and Learning to Teach. [1]

Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)[edit]

Shulman (1986) claimed that the emphases on teachers' subject matter knowledge and pedagogy were being treated as mutually exclusive. He believed that teacher education programs should combine the two knowledge fields. To address this dichotomy, he introduced the notion of pedagogical content knowledge that includes pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge, among other categories. His initial description of teacher knowledge included curriculum knowledge, and knowledge of educational contexts.

Shulman also claimed that Sesame Street was the very best resource for teachers for expanding their pedagogical content knowledge.


  1. ^ "2006- Lee Shulman". grawemeyer.org. Archived from the original on 2015-06-10.

Further reading[edit]

  • Ball, D. L. (2000). "Bridging practices: Intertwining content and pedagogy in teaching and learning to teach" (PDF). Journal of Teacher Education. 51 (3): 241–247.
  • Freeman, D. (2002). "The hidden side of the work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach". Language Teaching. 35: 1–13. doi:10.1017/S0261444801001720.
  • Loughran, John; Berry, Amanda; Mulhall, Pamela (2012). Understanding and developing science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (2nd ed.). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. ISBN 978-94-6091-788-2.
  • Anne, Hlas; Susan, Hildebrandt (28 February 2010). "Demonstrations of pedagogical content knowledge: Spanish Liberal Arts and Spanish Education majors' writing". L2 Journal. 2 (1). ISSN 1945-0222.
  • Loughran, John; Berry, Amanda; Mulhall, Pamela (2012). Understanding and developing science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (2nd ed.). Rotterdam: SensePublishers. ISBN 978-94-6091-821-6.
  • Ma, Liping (2010). Knowing and teaching elementary mathematics: teachers' understanding of fundamental mathematics in China and the United States (Anniversary ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415873840.
  • Munby, H.; Russell, T.; Martin, A. K. (2002). Richardson, Virginia (ed.). Handbook of research on teaching (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association. pp. 877–904. ISBN 978-0935302264.
  • Rowan, B.; et al. (2001). "Measuring teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in surveys: An exploratory study". State College, Pennsylvania: Consortium for Policy Research in Education, Study of Instructional Improvement.
  • Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-31.
  • Palmer, Joy A.; Bresler, Liora; Cooper, David E., eds. (2003). Fifty modern thinkers on education: from Piaget to the present (Repr. ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415224093.

External links[edit]

Educational offices
Preceded by
Richard C. Anderson
President of the

American Educational Research Association

Succeeded by
David Berliner