Leflore County, Mississippi

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Leflore County, Mississippi
COTTON ROW HISTORIC DISTRICT, LEFLORE COUNTY, MS.jpg
Leflore County Courthouse
Map of Mississippi highlighting Leflore County
Location in the U.S. state of Mississippi
Map of the United States highlighting Mississippi
Mississippi's location in the U.S.
Founded 1871
Named for Greenwood LeFlore
Seat Greenwood
Largest city Greenwood
Area
 • Total 606 sq mi (1,570 km2)
 • Land 593 sq mi (1,536 km2)
 • Water 14 sq mi (36 km2), 2.3%
Population
 • (2010) 32,317
 • Density 55/sq mi (21/km2)
Congressional district 2nd
Time zone Central: UTC−6/−5
Website www.leflorecounty.org

Leflore County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 32,317.[1] The county seat is Greenwood.[2] The county is named for Choctaw leader Greenwood LeFlore, who signed a treaty to cede his people's land to the United States in exchange for land in Indian Territory. LeFlore stayed in Mississippi, settling on land reserved for him in Tallahatchie County.

Leflore County is part of the Greenwood, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area. It is located in the Mississippi Delta region, with its southern border formed by the Yazoo River. Its riverfront lands were developed before the Civil War as cotton plantations. More inland areas were developed in the later 19th century.

Leflore County, which is still largely rural, is noted for having the highest level of child poverty of any county in the United States. Mechanization of agriculture reduced jobs available for many workers in the 20th century, and there are few opportunities.[3] The population has declined dramatically since its peak in 1930 as people continue to leave for opportunities elsewhere.

History[edit]

Leflore County was formed in 1871 during the Reconstruction era from portions of Carroll, Sunflower and Tallahatchie counties. It was named for Greenwood Leflore,[4] a Choctaw chief. During the period of Indian Removal in the 1830s, he was one of the chiefs who signed the Treaty of 1830, by the terms of which the Choctaw sold to the US their remaining lands east of the Mississippi River. Most Choctaw migrated to the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), but Leflore and some others remained in Mississippi. He became a state and US citizen, a planter owning African-American slaves, and at times served as a politician.

Following the American Civil War, during Reconstruction the majority-black population of freedmen in the county gained emancipation and suffrage, participating for the first time in formal politics. They supported the Republican Party, as President Abraham Lincoln had gained their freedom. In the mid-1870s, the Red Shirts, a white paramilitary organization working on behalf of the Democratic Party, developed chapters in Mississippi. They worked to disrupt Republican meetings, suppress the black vote, and turn Republicans out of office so that white Democrats could regain control of the state legislature.

In the period from 1877 to 1950, Leflore County had 48 documented lynchings of African Americans, by far the highest number in the state.[5] Most occurred around the turn of the 20th century, as part of white imposition of Jim Crow conditions and suppression of black voting. Mississippi is the state in the South (and in the nation) with the highest number of lynchings. In general, they were a means of white terrorist control of the African-American population.

In 1890 the state legislature passed a new constitution that had a variety of devices to disenfranchise blacks; they developed ways around court cases that tried to dismantle these, and kept blacks excluded from the political system and racially segregated into the 1960s.

20th century to present[edit]

In the first half of the 20th century, many blacks left rural counties such as Leflore, in the Great Migration to northern and midwestern industrial cities in search of jobs and education: many people went north by train to Chicago, taking their music with them and changing the big city forever. Many more people left Mississippi from 1940 to 1970, often migrating to the West Coast for defense industry jobs.

As with other parts of the majority-black Delta, Leflore County was a major site of activism and white violence during the Civil Rights Movement. In 1955, the events leading up to the lynching of 14-year-old Emmett Till unfolded in the unincorporated community of Money, Mississippi. Till, a teenage African-American, was visiting from Chicago and staying with relatives in Money where Bryant's Grocery and Meat Market was located. At this store, Till encountered Carolyn Bryant and was accused of flirtatious behavior. Bryant's husband, Roy Bryant, and another white man, J.W. Milam, abducted Till later that evening from Money and beat and tortured him at several locations in Leflore and neighboring counties before shooting him and dumping his body in the river in Tallahatchie County, Mississippi. Bryant and Milam were acquitted by an all-white jury of Till's murder at the Tallahatchie County Courthouse, in Sumner, Mississippi. During a 2007 interview—made public in 2017—Carolyn Bryant disclosed that she had fabricated her testimony[6] of Till's actions.[7]

In 1963, the county had more than 13,000 blacks of legal voting age, but fewer than 270 were registered because of discrimination and suppression by whites. Blacks had been essentially disfranchised since implementation of Mississippi's new constitution in 1890, establishing poll taxes, literacy tests and other registration barriers. Meanwhile, 95% of eligible white voters were registered.[8]

The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee had moved its headquarters to Greenwood in early 1963, and by late March of that year, eight SNCC members were arrested while trying to register voters. The United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division filed suit against the city of Greenwood and Leflore County to obtain their release. The petition was denied by a local court, but the city of Greenwood entered into a voluntary agreement to release the students. In June 1963, 45 residents of Itta Bena were arrested in Leflore County while protesting an attack on churches where voter registration drives were being held. The Civil Rights Division filed suit against the county to obtain their release as well, but to no avail.[9] Passage of national civil rights legislation by Congress in 1964 and 1965 began to change the ground rules.

Organizers and marchers returned to the county in 1966 as part of the March Against Fear, initiated by James Meredith, who was shot and wounded by a white man two days into the march. Major civil rights leaders and marchers from a variety of organizations vowed to continue his march of more than 220 miles from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi. By the time they reached Greenwood, several hundred persons were in the group. They worked to organize and register voters, as most blacks in the county still lived in fear and had not registered. After previous registration drives, the white county board had cut off federal commodity subsidies to the black community, threatening the survival of numerous poor families. SNCC helped organize a national gathering of food for county residents to overcome the boycott.

In 1966, Stokley Carmichael, a new leader of SNCC, spoke in Greenwood for "Black Power", saying that blacks had to build their own bases of political and economic power, as had communities of Irish, Italian and Jewish immigrants to the United States.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 606 square miles (1,570 km2), of which 593 square miles (1,540 km2) is land and 14 square miles (36 km2) (2.3%) is water.[10]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
188010,246
189016,86964.6%
190023,83441.3%
191036,29052.3%
192037,2562.7%
193053,50643.6%
194053,406−0.2%
195051,813−3.0%
196047,142−9.0%
197042,111−10.7%
198041,525−1.4%
199037,341−10.1%
200037,9471.6%
201032,317−14.8%
Est. 201629,856[11]−7.6%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2010-2013[1]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 32,317 people residing in the county. 72.2% were Black or African American, 24.9% White, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% Native American, 1.5% of some other race and 0.6% of two or more races. 2.3% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).

As of the census[16] of 2000, there were 37,947 people, 12,956 households, and 8,887 families residing in the county. The population density was 64 people per square mile (25/km²). There were 14,097 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile (9/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 67.73% Black or African American, 30.00% White, 0.11% Native American, 0.65% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.98% from other races, and 0.50% from two or more races. 1.90% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

According to the census[16] of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Leflore County were African 67.73%, English 19%, and Scots-Irish 9.4%

There were 12,956 households out of which 35.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.00% were married couples living together, 27.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.40% were non-families. 28.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.33.

In the county, the population was spread out with 29.70% under the age of 18, 13.10% from 18 to 24, 27.00% from 25 to 44, 18.20% from 45 to 64, and 11.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $21,518, and the median income for a family was $26,059. Males had a median income of $25,959 versus $18,497 for females. The per capita income for the county was $12,553. About 29.10% of families and 34.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.00% of those under age 18 and 24.50% of those age 65 or over.

Government and infrastructure[edit]

The Delta Correctional Facility, operated by the Corrections Corporation of America on behalf of the Mississippi Department of Corrections, is located in Greenwood in Leflore County.[17][18]

Presidential elections results
Presidential elections results[19]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 28.8% 3,212 69.9% 7,787 1.3% 141
2012 28.1% 3,587 71.4% 9,119 0.5% 67
2008 31.4% 4,105 68.1% 8,914 0.5% 62
2004 37.2% 4,635 60.7% 7,566 2.1% 262
2000 41.0% 4,626 56.8% 6,401 2.2% 249
1996 38.0% 4,456 58.5% 6,853 3.5% 404
1992 42.4% 5,298 51.0% 6,374 6.6% 826
1988 51.0% 6,409 46.4% 5,830 2.7% 340
1984 49.6% 7,550 48.9% 7,443 1.4% 219
1980 42.4% 5,798 54.8% 7,498 2.8% 379
1976 46.6% 5,872 48.7% 6,135 4.6% 582
1972 75.6% 6,779 22.7% 2,038 1.7% 152
1968 13.0% 1,514 37.7% 4,386 49.3% 5,732
1964 93.6% 5,589 6.4% 380
1960 28.4% 1,317 26.1% 1,212 45.5% 2,112
1956 24.7% 887 49.3% 1,769 26.0% 932
1952 56.9% 2,434 43.1% 1,845
1948 2.7% 80 4.7% 139 92.6% 2,754
1944 7.7% 200 92.3% 2,399
1940 4.4% 111 95.6% 2,404
1936 1.6% 35 98.3% 2,137 0.1% 1
1932 1.8% 34 98.0% 1,877 0.2% 4
1928 4.5% 105 95.5% 2,219
1924 10.6% 135 89.4% 1,144
1920 3.9% 39 95.8% 969 0.4% 4
1916 3.2% 28 96.8% 853
1912 1.8% 12 91.8% 616 6.4% 43

Education[edit]

Communities[edit]

Cities[edit]

Towns[edit]

Census-designated place[edit]

Unincorporated communities[edit]

Ghost town[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved September 4, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ "Table 1: 2011 Poverty and Median Income Estimates - Counties". Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-10-10. 
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 184. 
  5. ^ Lynching in America, 3rd edition, Supplement by County, p. 6
  6. ^ "Carolyn Bryant Admits To Lying On Emmett Till... 62 Years Later!!!". VannDigital. Retrieved January 27, 2017. 
  7. ^ Carroll, Rory (27 January 2017). "Woman at center of Emmett Till case tells author she fabricated testimony". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 January 2017. 
  8. ^ Hendrickson, Paul (2003). Sons of Mississippi. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40461-9. 
  9. ^ John Doar (1997). "The Work of the Civil Rights Division in Enforcing Voting Rights Under the Civil Rights Acts of 1957 and 1960". Florida State University Law Review. 25 (1).  (available online) Archived 2012-03-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  14. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 6, 2014. 
  16. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  17. ^ "Private Prisons Archived 2015-05-04 at WebCite." Mississippi Department of Corrections. Retrieved on August 12, 2010.
  18. ^ "Ward Map." City of Greenwood. Retrieved on August 12, 2010.
  19. ^ David Leip. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 2017-10-25. 
  20. ^ "Location Archived 2012-06-03 at the Wayback Machine.." Mississippi Valley State University. Retrieved on April 5, 2012.
  21. ^ Lynch, Adam (18 November 2009). "Ceara's Season". Jackson Free Press. Retrieved 19 August 2011. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°33′N 90°18′W / 33.55°N 90.30°W / 33.55; -90.30