|Part of the Politics series|
Left-wing populism, also called social populism, is a political ideology that combines left-wing politics with populist rhetoric and themes. Its rhetoric often consists of anti-elitism, opposition to the Establishment, and speaking for the "common people". Recurring themes for left-wing populists include economic democracy, social justice, and scepticism of globalization. Socialist theory plays a lesser role than in traditional left-wing ideologies.
Criticism of capitalism and globalization is also linked to unpopular United States military operations, especially those in the Middle East. It is considered that the populist left does not exclude others horizontally and relies on egalitarian ideals. Some scholars also speak of nationalist left-wing populist movements, a feature exhibited by the Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua or the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela. Unlike exclusionary or right-wing populism, left-wing populist parties tend to claim to be supportive of minority rights, as well as to an idea of nationality that is not delimited by cultural or ethnic particularisms. Bernie Sanders and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, self-described democratic socialists, are examples of modern left-wing populist politicians in the United States. With the rise of Syriza and Podemos during the European debt crisis, there has been increased debate on new left-wing populism in Europe.
Traditionally, left-wing populism has been associated with the socialist movement; since the 2010s, there has been a movement close to left-wing populism in the left-liberal camp, some of which are considered social democratic positions. Left-liberal economic populism appealing to the working class has been prominent in some countries, such as the Joe Biden of the U.S. and Lee Jae-myung of South Korea, in the 2020s, where liberal and conservative parties are the main two parties.
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner (the President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015) and her husband Néstor Kirchner were said to practice Kirchnerism, a variant of Peronism that was often mentioned alongside other Pink tide governments in Latin America. During Cristina Fernández de Kirchner's time in office, she spoke against certain free trade agreements, such as the proposed Free Trade Area of the Americas. Her administration was characterized by tax increases, especially on agricultural exports during the late 2000s commodities boom, Argentina's main export, in order to fund social programs such as the PROGRESAR university scholarships, the universal allocation per child subsidy (commonly referred to as AUH in Argentina, Asignación Universal por Hijo), a means-tested benefit to families with children who qualified for the subsidy, and progressive social reforms such as the recognition of same-sex marriage.
The leadership of Siles Zuazo practised left-wing populism as well as that of former socialist President Evo Morales.
Lulism is a pragmatic centre-left ideology to the extent that it is called "socialist neoliberalism", but it appeals to a progressive, common-class image and also has populist elements in terms of popular mobilization.
Rafael Correa, the former President of Ecuador, has stressed the importance of a "populist discourse" and has integrated technocrats to work within this context for the common Ecuadorians. Correa has blamed foreign non-governmental organizations for exploiting the indigenous people in the conflict between the indigenous peoples and the government.
The current governing party, the National Regeneration Movement, is a left-wing populist party.
Huey Long, the Great Depression-era Governor-turned-Senator of Louisiana, was one of the first modern American left-wing populists in the United States. He advocated for wealth redistribution under his Share Our Wealth plan, which had its roots in the classical left-wing populist movement of Jacksonian democracy, which is related to the radical movement.
Meanwhile, Bernie Sanders and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, self-described democratic socialists, are examples of modern left-wing populist politicians. Ocasio-Cortez's Democratic primary victory over the establishment Democratic Caucus Chair Joe Crowley, a 10-term incumbent, was widely seen as the biggest upset victory in the 2018 midterm election primaries. The Nation magazine described Ocasio-Cortez as a "new rock star" who was "storming the country on behalf of insurgent populists." Elizabeth Warren and Joe Biden are also mentioned as a representative left-wing or liberal populist, and Warren is sometimes evaluated as a social democrat.
The presidency of Hugo Chávez resembled a combination of folk wisdom and charismatic leadership with doctrinaire socialism.
Yesh Atid is a radical centrist or liberal party. In Israeli politics, "liberal" is not particularly a concept that is distinguished by left or right, but Yesh Atid is evaluated that it has a left-wing populist element in part. They criticize elitism that causes political corruption and demand a position on material redistribution. However, Yesh Atid has an element of economic liberalism simultaneously.
Reiwa Shinsengumi, led by Tarō Yamamoto, is a representative Japanese left-wing populist movement. While he and his party use anti-established rhetoric, they are sometimes called "liberal populist". According to experts, Yamamoto uses a simple message to spotlight single individuals left behind, including people struggling with poverty or non-permanent employment, who used to devote themselves to radical conservatism.
Reiwa Shinsengumi is also called a "progressive populist", because they are not rooted in the traditional Japanese socialist or Labor movement, but are culturally and economically progressive, representing marginalized young people and minorities.
South Korea's leftist political party, the Progressive Party, advocates direct democracy, anti-neoliberalism and anti-imperialism. They support a liberal-nationalist foreign policy hostile to Japan.
Lee Jae-myung, one of DPK's major politicians, has been mentioned as a "populist" in some media outlets. Lee Jae-myung pledged to implement the world's first universal basic income system if elected in the 2022 South Korean presidential election but said he would not pay for it if the people opposed it. South Korea's right-wing politician Hong Joon-pyo saw Lee Jae-myung in September 2021 and accused him of being "Chávez of Gyeonggi Province". However, there is controversy in South Korea as to whether Lee Jae-myung can be viewed as a "left-wing populist" in the context of the United States or Europe. He once said he was "conservative" and suggested policies far from general left-wing populism in the United States and Europe, partially insisting on economic liberal policies such as deregulating companies on some issues. In addition, he showed a somewhat conservative tendency on some social agendas. In addition, Kim Hyun-jong, the head of the International Trade Special Division at the Lee Jae-myung Camp, met with Henry Kissinger, and Henry Kissinger gave Lee Jae-myung a handwritten autograph called "Good wishes". In addition, Lee Jae-myung's political orientation was somewhat ambiguous, so conservative journalist Dong-A Ilbo denied that he was a left-wing politician, while South Korea's far-left organization Workers' Solidarity evaluated him as a social democratic. (However, another South Korean left-wing undongkwon group denied that Lee Jae-myung is not a social democratic.) Lee is also a staunch supporter of free trade, unlike ordinary economic populists.
The Party of Democratic Socialism was explicitly studied under left-wing populism, especially by German academics. The party was formed after the reunification of Germany, and it was similar to right-wing populists in that it relied on anti-elitism and media attention provided by charismatic leadership. The party competed for the same voter base with the right-wing populists to some extent, although it relied on a more serious platform in Eastern Germany. This was limited by anti-immigration sentiments preferred by some voters, although the lines were, for example, crossed by Oskar Lafontaine, who used a term previously associated with the Nazi Party, Fremdarbeiter ("foreign workers"), in his election campaign in 2005. The PDS merged into the Left Party in 2007. The Left Party is also viewed as a left-wing populist party, but it is not the basis of the party as a whole.
Syriza, which became the largest party since January 2015 elections, has been described as a left-wing populist party after its platform incorporated most demands of the popular movements in Greece during the government-debt crisis. Populist traits in Syriza's platform include the growing importance of "the People" in their rhetoric and "us/the people against them/the establishment" antagonism in campaigning. On immigration and LGBT rights, Syriza is inclusionary. Syriza itself does not accept the label "populist".
The Italian Five Star Movement (M5S), which became the largest party in the 2018 general election, has often been described as a big tent populist party, but sometimes also as a left-wing populist movement; the "five stars", which are a reference to five critical issues for the party, are public water, sustainable transport, sustainable development, right to Internet access, and environmentalism, typical proposals of left-wing populist parties. However, despite its background in left-wing politics, the M5S has often expressed right-wing views on immigration.
In September 2019, the M5S formed a government with the centre-left Democratic Party (PD) and the left-wing Free and Equal (LeU), with Giuseppe Conte at its head. The government has been sometimes referred to as a left-wing populist cabinet.
The Socialist Party has run a left-wing populist platform after dropping its communist course in 1991. Although some have pointed out that the party has become less populist over the years, it still includes anti-elitism in its recent election manifestos. It opposes what it sees as the European superstate.
The left-wing populist party Podemos achieved 8% of the national vote in the 2014 European Parliament election. Due to avoiding nativist language typical of right-wing populists, Podemos can attract left-wing voters disappointed with the political establishment without taking sides in the regional political struggle. In the 2015 election for the national parliament, Podemos reached 20.65% of the vote and became the third largest party in the parliament after the conservative People's Party with 28.71% and the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party with 22.02%. In the new parliament, Podemos holds 69 out of 350 seats, which has resulted in the end of the traditional two-party system in Spain. In a November 2018 interview with Jacobin, Íñigo Errejón argues that Podemos requires a new "national-popular" strategy to win more elections.
Left-wing populist political parties
The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with Europe and the Americas and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (April 2017)
Active left-wing populist parties or parties with left-wing populist factions
Represented in national legislatures
- Argentina – Frente de Todos
- Belgium – Workers' Party of Belgium
- Bulgaria – Bulgarian Socialist Party
- Bosnia – Alliance of Independent Social Democrats
- Bolivia – Movement for Socialism
- Brazil – Workers' Party, Communist Party of Brazil, Socialism and Liberty Party
- Chile – Broad Front (factions), Chile Digno
- Colombia – Alternative Democratic Pole, Colombia Humana
- Cyprus – Citizens' Alliance, Progressive Party of Working People
- Denmark – Inuit Ataqatigiit, Republic
- Dominican Republic – Dominican Liberation Party (factions)
- Ecuador – Citizen Revolution Movement
- Europe – Party of the European Left, The Left in the European Parliament – GUE/NGL
- Estonia – Estonian Centre Party
- Finland – Left Alliance (Finland)
- France – La France Insoumise
- Germany – The Left
- Greece – Syriza
- Haiti – Platfòm Pitit Desalin
- Honduras – Libertad y Refundación (Libre)
- India – Communist Party of India (Marxist), Communist Party of India
- Indonesia – Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, Just and Prosperous People's Party
- Ireland – Northern Ireland – Sinn Féin, People Before Profit–Solidarity
- Italy – Democratic Party (factions), Five Star Movement (factions), Italian Left
- Japan – Reiwa Shinsengumi
- Luxembourg – The Left
- Mexico – National Regeneration Movement, Labor Party
- Mongolia – Mongolian People's Party
- Netherlands – Socialist Party
- Nicaragua – Sandinista National Liberation Front
- Norway – Red Party[better source needed]
- Paraguay – Guasú Front
- Peru – Free Peru
- Poland - Your Movement
- Portugal – Left Bloc
- Romania – Social Democratic Party
- Russia – Communist Party of the Russian Federation (factions), For a New Socialism
- San Marino – United Left, Active Citizenship
- Serbia – Socialist Party of Serbia, Movement of Socialists
- Slovakia – Direction - Slovak Social Democracy
- South Africa – Economic Freedom Fighters
- South Korea - Progressive Party
- Spain – Podemos, Más País, United Left
- Sweden – Left Party[better source needed]
- Taiwan – New Power Party
- Turkey – Peoples' Democratic Party, Workers' Party of Turkey
- United Kingdom – Labour Party (factions)
- United States – Democratic Party (factions), Democratic Socialists of America
- Venezuela – United Socialist Party of Venezuela
- Zimbabwe – ZANU–PF
Not represented in national legislatures
- Austria – Communist Party of Austria
- Chile – Equality Party, Progressive Party
- Czechia – The Left, Party of Civic Rights, Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia
- Estonia – Estonian United Left Party
- Finland – Communist Party of Finland
- Greece – Popular Unity, Course of Freedom
- Italy – Communist Refoundation Party, Democracy and Autonomy, Power to the People
- Iran – People's Mujahedin of Iran
- Malaysia – Socialist Party of Malaysia
- Namibia – Namibian Economic Freedom Fighters
- Russia – Patriots of Russia, Left Bloc, Left Front, Russian Socialist Movement
- Serbia – Party of the Radical Left
- Slovakia – Socialists.sk
- Turkey – Patriotic Party (Turkey)
- Ukraine – Communist Party of Ukraine
- United Kingdom – Scottish Socialist Party, Northern Independence Party
- Chantal Mouffe
- Democratic socialism
- Ernesto Laclau
- Jacobin (politics)
- Left-wing nationalism
- New Left
- Pink tide
- Popular socialism
- Right-wing populism
- Social democracy
- Socialism of the 21st century
- Welfare state
- ^ a b Albertazzi and McDonnell, p. 123.
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- ^ Roth, Silke (17 April 2018). "Introduction: Contemporary Counter-Movements in the Age of Brexit and Trump". Sociological Research Online. 23 (2): 496–506. doi:10.1177/1360780418768828.
- ^ Hartleb, Florian (2004). Rechts- und Linkspopulismus. Eine Fallstudie anhand von Schill-Partei und PDS [Right and left populism. A case study based on Schill Party and PDS] (in German). Wiesbaden. p. 162.
- ^ Mudde, C.; Rovira Kaltwasser, C. (2013). "Exclusionary vs. inclusionary populism: comparing contemporary Europe and Latin America". Government and Opposition. 48 (2): 147–174. doi:10.1017/gov.2012.11.
- ^ Custodi J (2020). "Nationalism and populism on the left: The case of Podemos". Nations and Nationalism. 27 (3): 705–720. doi:10.1111/nana.12663. S2CID 225127425.
- ^ a b Sullivan, Sean; Costa, Robert (2 March 2020). "Trump and Sanders lead competing populist movements, reshaping American politics". The Washington Post. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- ^ a b Ross Coleman, Aaron (22 August 2020). "Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez and the future of the left". Vox. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- ^ a b Lerer, Lisa; W. Herndon, Astead (18 February 2021). "When Ted Cruz and A.O.C. Agree: Yes, the Politics of GameStop Are Confusing". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- ^ a b Levitz, Eric (27 June 2018). "Ocasio-Cortez Proved That 'Identity Politics' Is an Asset for Berniecrats". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- ^ Mudde, Cas (17 February 2015). "The problem with populism". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- ^ Zabala, Santiago (2 December 2014). "In Europe, not all populist parties are the same". AlJazeera. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- ^ a b Toril Aalberg; Frank Esser; Carsten Reinemann, eds. (2014). Populist Political Communication in Europe. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 9781317224747.
Indeed, there are some similarities between Yesh Atid and left-wing populist parties. First, the distinction between the "pure people" and the corrupt political establishment, which characterizes left-wing populism (Alonso & Kaltwasser, 2014), also exists in Yesh Atid rhetoric. The same is true for the call for material redistribution, which characterizes both left-wing populism (Alonso & Kaltwasser, 2014) and Yesh Atid.
- ^ a b Helen Hardacre; Timothy S. George; Keigo Komamura; Franziska Seraphim, eds. (2021). Japanese Constitutional Revisionism and Civic Activism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 136. ISBN 9781793609052.
Sometimes regarded as a "liberal-populist" party, a new political party, Reiwa Shinsengumi, arose in a "riot" of people who believed they have been marginalized by Japanese capitalism and democracy.26 The party's charismatic leader, ... Yamamoto uses a simple message to spotlight single individuals left behind, including people struggling with poverty or non-permanent employment, who used to devote themselves to radical conservatism.
- ^ a b "Lee Jae-myung: Populist, Left-wing, Unapologetic". Korea Exposé. 23 February 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
- ^ a b Anthea Roberts; Nicolas Lamp, eds. (2021). Six Faces of Globalization: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why It Matters. Harvard University Press. p. 14. ISBN 9780674245952.
Right- wing populism lives on past Trump's presidency, for instance, just as left- wing populism continued to thrive after Elizabeth Warren and Bernie Sanders conceded the US Democratic primary.
- ^ a b "Here's What Elizabeth Warren Looks Like as a Comic Book Hero: Elizabeth Warren, a populist liberal icon, is now a comic book star". ABC News. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
- ^ a b "Are Elizabeth Warren and Bernie Sanders the same? The debate, explained". Vox. 18 June 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
Warren is a social democrat. Sanders is a democratic socialist. The difference between the two is best explained by how Warren and Sanders convey their skepticism toward capitalism, said Sheri Berman, a political scientist with Barnard College, who has written extensively on the history of the left.
- ^ a b "What an Elizabeth Warren Presidency Would Look Like". In These Times. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
Sanders, like Warren, clearly appreciates that movements are the motor that drives change, and a Sanders administration, like a Warren administration, would partner with movements to achieve change. Both candidates offer a compelling vision that can inspire people, and both share the goal of orienting America closer to social democracy.
- ^ "News Analysis: President Biden's speech to Congress offers a dose of left-leaning economic populism". Los Angeles Times. 29 April 2021.
- ^ Mayorga, Rene Antonio (January 1997). "Bolivia's Silent Revolution". Journal of Democracy. 8 (1): 142–156. doi:10.1353/jod.1997.0006. S2CID 154064089.
- ^ a b Kirk Andrew Hawkins, Venezuela's Chavismo and Populism in Comparative Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010, ISBN 978-0-521-76503-9, page 84
- ^ Luiz C. Barbosa, ed. (2015). Guardians of the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest: Environmental Organizations and Development. Routledge. p. 43. ISBN 9781317577645.
Lula da Silva's form of economic liberalism can be classified as "socialist neoliberalism." This means that one uses the wealth generated by the market to finance social programs to lift people out of poverty.
- ^ Armando Boito, ed. (2021). Reform and Political Crisis in Brazil: Class Conflicts in Workers' Party Governments and the Rise of Bolsonaro Neo-fascism. BRILL. p. 75. ISBN 9789004467743.
Being a variation of populism, Lulism did not organize its social base, which remained politically dispersed and was kept as a "deposit of votes" for the presidential candidates of the pt.
- ^ de la Torre, Carlos (2013). Populismus in Lateinamerika. Zwischen Demokratisierung und Autoritarismus (PDF) (in German). Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
- ^ Carlos de la Torre (2010). Populist Seduction in Latin America. Ohio University Press. p. 173.
- ^ Raúl L. Madrid (2012). The Rise of Ethnic Politics in Latin America. Cambridge University Press. p. 75.
- ^ Felbab-Brown, Vanda (3 July 2018). "Andrés Manuel López Obrador and a new era of politics in Mexico". Brookings. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
- ^ Albert Boime, ed. (2008). Art in an Age of Civil Struggle, 1848-1871. University of Chicago Press. p. 422. ISBN 9780226063423.
Mount's mature views on blacks were expressed formally through his affiliation with the Democratic Party, the party of slavery. He opposed both abolition and the left-wing populism generated by Jacksonian ideals.
- ^ Sean Patrick Adams, ed. (2013). A Companion to the Era of Andrew Jackson. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118290835.
The truth is that studies of Jacksonian radicalism have been few and far between in the last two decades (just check the dates of the books I have cited), so it is no surprise that very few people know about Paul Brown, William Mathers ...
- ^ Eugenio F. Biagini, ed. (2004). Liberty, Retrenchment and Reform: Popular Liberalism in the Age of Gladstone, 1860-1880. Cambridge University Press. p. 108. ISBN 9780521548861.
... which was one of the recurrent themes in European and in particular American radicalism : Jacksonian democrats were ...
- ^ Craig Calhoun, ed. (2012). The Roots of Radicalism: Tradition, the Public Sphere, and Early Nineteenth-Century Social Movements. University of Chicago Press. p. 266.
- ^ Nichols, John (15 August 2018). "The Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Effect". The Nation. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- ^ Wolf, Zachary B. (8 February 2023). "Joe Biden goes full populist as he searches for common ground | CNN Politics". CNN. Retrieved 4 May 2023.
- ^ Cas Mudde, Cristobal Rovira Kaltwasser, ed. (2017). Populism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 60.
- ^ "Democratic socialist Bernie Sanders is too far left for Sweden's ruling Social Democrats, official says". The Week. 20 February 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2022.
- ^ Michael Shamir, ed. (2017). The Elections in Israel 2013. Routledge. pp. 40–41. ISBN 9781351295826.
- ^ Robert J. Pekkanen; Steven R. Reed; Daniel M. Smith, eds. (2023). Japan Decides 2021: The Japanese General Election. Springer Nature. p. 65. ISBN 9783031113246.
Reiwa Shinsengumi is usually viewed as a progressive populist party.
- ^ "Record number of women and LGBTQ election hopefuls run to shake up Japan politics". The Japan Times. 7 July 2022.
The candidates include 50-year-old transgender candidate Karen Yoda from the Reiwa Shinsengumi party, whose catchphrase is "Diversity is power," ...
- ^ "South Korea's 'Bernie Sanders' touts universal basic income ahead of polls". Financial Times. 12 October 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
- ^ Shin, Hyonhee (14 September 2021). "'S.Korea's Bernie Sanders' tops presidential polls with talk of universal basic income". Reuters. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
- ^ "After Choi-gate". Jacobin magazine. 12 June 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2021.
This allows a populist figure like Lee Jae-myung, mayor of wealthy satellite city Seongnam, to be presented as a progressive presidential candidate, simply because he instituted a minor basic income program and has directly called for President Park's imprisonment.
- ^ "이재명 공약 핵심 "세계 최초 기본소득 지급하는 나라"". 11 October 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
- ^ "이재명 "기본소득, 국민 반대하면 추진 않겠다…그것이 민주주의"". The Chosun Ilbo. 2 December 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
- ^ "홍준표 "'경기도 차베스' 이길 야권 주자는 나뿐"". 경기시문. 4 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
- ^ "이재명 "보수 가치 제대로 서는 나라 만들고 싶어"" [Lee Jae-myung said "I want to create a country where conservative values are properly established".]. Yonhap News Agency. 21 September 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
- ^ "이재명 "관료적 규제 없애야...내가 친기업 1등"" [Lee Jae-myeong said, "We need to get rid of bureaucratic regulations ... I'm the number 1 pro-business".]. 머니투데이. 11 November 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
이 후보는 이날 서울 중구 대한상공회의소에서 최태원 대한상의 회장과 만나 "창의와 혁신을 가로막는 관료적 규제는 축소하거나 없애야 하는 것"이라면서 "기업은 새로운 아이템 발굴이 자유롭게 이뤄질 수 있도록 해야한다"고 밝혔다.[Candidate Lee met with Choi Tae-won, chairman of the Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry, at the Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Jung-gu, Seoul, and said "Bureaucratic regulations that hinder creativity and innovation should be reduced or removed", "Companies should be free to discover new items".]
- ^ ""이재명의 청년에 여성 자리는 없나": 심상정 "李, 反페미니즘 자처"" [Is there no female position in Lee Jae-myung says "young people"?: Sim Sang-jung said, "Lee (Jae-myung) claims to be anti-feminist".]. The Chosun Ilbo. 12 November 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
- ^ "김현종, 헨리 키신저 만났다…이재명에 "행운을 빈다"" [Kim Hyun-jong met Henry Kissinger. ... Henry Kissinger said "good wishes" to Lee Jae-myung.]. MBN 뉴스. 1 December 2021. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
- ^ "이재명, '좌파'보다 '박정희'에 가깝다" [Lee Jae-myeong. It's more like "Park Chung-hee" than "Left".]. Dong-A Ilbo. 7 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
- ^ "이재명은 사회민주주의 정치인이다" [Lee Jae-myung is a social democratic politician.]. Workers' Solidarity. 27 July 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
- ^ "학생운동권 "윤석열 지지…진정한 좌파라면 이재명 못찍어"". The Chosun Ilbo. 5 November 2021. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
"당신이 진정한 좌파라면 이재명을 '사회민주주의자' 혹은 '개혁의 적임자'로 판단하면 안 된다"["If you are a true leftist, you should not judge Lee Jae-myung as a 'social democratic' or 'right person for reform'."]
- ^ "외신 앞에 선 이재명, '다자외교·자유무역·한반도 평화' 강조". 메트로신문. 11 April 2023. Retrieved 14 April 2023.
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- ^ Albertazzi and McDonnell, p. 133.
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To provide an Islamic justification for their populist program, Mojahedin often utilized the euphemism coined by Shariati.
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