Left 4 Dead (series)
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|Left 4 Dead|
Series logo for Left 4 Dead
|Genre(s)||First-person shooter, Survival horror|
|Developer(s)||Valve South (2008)|
Valve Corporation (2009)
|Platform(s) of origin||Microsoft Windows|
|First release||Left 4 Dead|
November 17, 2008
|Latest release||Left 4 Dead 2|
November 17, 2009
The Left 4 Dead franchise is a series of cooperative first-person shooter, survival horror video games developed by Valve Corporation. Set in the days after a pandemic outbreak of a viral strain transforming the majority of the population into zombie-like feral creatures, the games follow the adventures of four survivors attempting to reach safe houses and military rescue while fending off the attacking hordes.
The games encourage cooperative play between up to four players, each taking the role of one of the survivor characters and the computer controlling any unassigned characters. Players use a combination of melee weapons, firearms, and thrown objects to fend off attacks from the bulk of the infected creatures, while using an assortment of healing items to keep their group alive. Certain unique infected creatures pose a more difficult challenge, typically requiring teamwork to take down effectively. The games are overseen by an "AI Director", designed to give the players a more dramatic experience based on their performance, penalizing players for stalling while rewarding players with special weapons by taking longer or riskier paths. The Director also makes gameplay dynamic, meaning that no two playthroughs are quite the same.
The Left 4 Dead franchise games take place in the days following a pandemic outbreak of an infection that transforms humans into feral, zombie-like creatures, seeking to kill those yet to be infected. Within the United States, the Civil Emergency and Defense Agency (CEDA) orders the creation of safe zones with the aid of the military, and evacuates as many people as possible to these areas, aiming to transfer them to islands and ocean-going ships, as the infected are unable to cross bodies of water. A number of people are discovered to be immune to the infection, though they can carry and unintentionally spread it to others. In both games, four of these "Carriers" or otherwise just immune humans, meet and become the game's "Survivor" characters, making their way to safe houses and extraction points.
- The first game follows four survivors as they travel from Pennsylvania to Florida. The game's four Survivors are:
- Bill: an old Vietnam War veteran.
- Louis: a frazzled IT analyst. The most optimistic of the four.
- Francis: an outlaw biker who hates everything, except for vests.
- Zoey: a college student who loves horror movies.
- The second game follows another group as they travel from Savannah, Georgia to New Orleans, Louisiana, and features four new Survivors:
- Coach: a portly high school football coach.
- Ellis: a talkative mechanic. Optimistic, a little naive, and a "good ol' boy" who finds the zombie apocalypse fun and exciting.
- Nick: a pessimistic gambler and con artist.
- Rochelle: a low-level TV reporter.
The Left 4 Dead games are first-person shooters incorporating survival horror elements. A player controls one of the four Survivor characters, and has the ability to move, jump, and use weapons in their possession. Players are limited to two weapons: a main firearm with limited ammunition taken from ammo caches, and either one (or two pistols) sidearm with unlimited ammunition or a melee weapon. Players also have three additional inventory slots. The third slot gives the player a thrown weapon, including a Molotov cocktail, a pipe bomb that can be used to lure a horde towards it before it explodes, or a bile jar that can be used to lure a horde to a specific area. The fourth slot provides for either a health kit which they can use on themselves or the other survivors, a defibrillator to revive a dead Survivor, or a special ammo deployment kit providing unique ammo such as explosive bullets. The fifth inventory slot is used for pain pills, giving the player a temporary health boost, or an adrenaline shot, temporarily increasing the player's speed. Some environmental objects like propane tanks or gasoline cans can be carried and thrown at hordes, upon which they can be fired upon as a makeshift explosive, but cannot be stored in the player's inventory. In Left 4 Dead 2, limited-use weapons such as the chainsaw or the machine gun can also be carried in a similar manner. The player can use whatever object they are holding to temporarily push back any Infected surrounding them.
A health bar is used to track each character's health; players are aware of the state of each other's health and special items, and each character is shown to other players through an outlined silhouette on the game's HUD, regardless of walls that separate the characters, and colored based on their health state. A character's health suffers from attacks from any Infected, environmental effects such as fires, and from friendly-fire incidents. When a character's health falls below a certain level, the character will not be able to move as fast until they can restore their health. If the player's health drops to zero, they become incapacitated, and a new temporary health bar appears, representing a bleed out period. Should this bar drop to zero, the character dies, and can only be restored either through a defibrillator, appearing later in a level in a "rescue closet" from which they must be freed, or when the remaining players reach the safe house. Otherwise, an incapacitated character can be revived with the assistance of any other character. However, if a character becomes incapacitated three times in a row without using a first-aid kit, they will immediately die the third time. Similarly, if a character falls over an edge, they will hang precariously for a limited time, falling to their death if they are not assisted in time.
In the main campaign mode, each campaign is divided into two to five sections. For all but the last section, the goal of the players is to reach the safehouse at the end of the level, where fresh supplies of weapons, ammo, and health items are typically found. In the final section, the campaign comes to a climax and requires the players to either make a stand against waves of Infected as they wait for a rescue vehicle, fill up an escape vehicle's gas tank while fending off the horde, or race through a gauntlet of Infected to make their way to the rescue point.
Additional game modes are also available. A 4-on-4 competitive mode is available, where in alternating matches, one side controls the Survivor characters while the other controls unique Infected creatures. When playing as the Survivors, the goal remains the same as the normal campaign mode. The Infected side tries to prevent the Survivors from making their way to the safehouse; should they be killed by the survivors, they will respawn later as a new creature. Scoring is based on how far the Survivors get and other factors, with the team with the most points at the end of a campaign considered the winner. Other modes are based on single-situation standoffs where the Survivors have to hold out as long as possible.
In Left 4 Dead 2 two additional modes have been introduced. In "realism" mode, several of the video game aspects are removed from the game, such as the identification of the location of teammates via their silhouette, the respawning of dead characters later in rescue closets, and more severe damage models. The sequel also features "mutations", game modes based on either the campaign or competitive modes where specific rules may be in place. For example, one mutation may give all the Survivor characters chainsaws from the start, while another may make every unique infected appear as a specific type, such as the Tank.
Both games support user-generated content through new maps and campaigns using tools provided by Valve; Left 4 Dead 2 also provides support for custom mutations. Valve has further supported the user community by highlighting popular third-party maps, and including select ones in software patches for the game.
The Left 4 Dead series uses a collection of artificial intelligence routines, collectively the "AI Director", to monitor and alter the gameplay experience in response to the players. Valve's primary goal with the AI Director was to promote replayability of the games' campaigns, as their previous multiplayer games with this feature, such as Counter-Strike and Team Fortress 2 have shown thriving communities of players that continue to play the games despite the limited number of maps available due to the unpredictable nature of online play. In considering this for Left 4 Dead, Valve identified that many games use static events that always occur at fixed points in a level, or limited dynamic events where one of several events could occur at fixed points. Valve themselves had used this idea in some key battles in Half-Life 2: Episode Two where the spawning of Combine forces would be based on the player's location. They recognized that such systems do not promote replayability or cooperation: players could easily memorize where events would occur, and those that had yet to experience the events would slow other players down. With the concept of the AI Director, Valve believed it could capture the same chaos and randomness that would occur in Counter-Strike and Team Fortress 2 in the cooperative gameplay experience, transforming it from simple memorization to a skills challenge. Valve has further termed this approach "procedural narrative", creating a new story each time the game is played.
The AI Director has several facets that combine to form "structured unpredictability" for each playthrough. The Director first procedurally generates a dramatic flow for the level, which identifies the size and location of hordes of common infected and uncommon infected throughout the level. The procedural generation considers each traversable area on the map, using pathfinding algorithms that Valve had incorporated into Counter-strike computer-controlled characters, and the "flow" of the map—the general direction from the start of the level to the safe house. As players progress through the map, the Director will spawn infected in areas near the players and out of sight, while removing infected from earlier portions of the map the players have passed through. The placement also considered the "Escape Route", the shortest path through the map, and will increase encounters along this route to increase the difficulty. Spawning rules are different for each of the infected; hordes are more often spawned behind players to take them by surprise, while special infected like the Hunter and Smoker will spawn ahead of the players, giving their individual AI the opportunity to lay in wait for the players. Procedural generation is also used to place weapons and other items throughout the level. Weapons and equipment can be programmed by the map designer to be generated by the Director at fixed points, allowing for some predictability for the players, and to give some creative control to the design for story-telling and visual effects.
Overriding the procedural generation is the aim to create "active dynamic pacing" of the game by continuous monitoring of players, and altering the predetermined pacing to react to this. Each player character is tracked by a metric called the Survivor Intensity, which increases as the character takes damage, becomes incapacitated, or another character dies nearby, among other effects, and slowly decays in time. The Director will alter its previously developed schedule for spawning of infected to build up Survivor Intensity to a certain threshold; when this occurs, the game sustains this peak for a few seconds, then enters a period where it relaxes and reduces the spawning of infected, allowing the players to finish their current encounter and allow their Survivor Intensities to fall away from the threshold. The Director then repeats this cycle until the players have reached the end of the level.
The boss infected encounters are generated through different means, creating a sequence based on cycling without repetition between three situations: Tank, Witch, or "No event". Boss events are then generated based on the number of areas the players have passed through. These events are not modified by the dynamic pacing of the game; Valve discovered when these were controlled by the pacing, players would often be at too high of an intensity to allow these encounters to occur. Keeping the events on a separate track allows the pacing to be unpredictable, further enhancing the replayability goal of the Director.
The Director also creates mood and tension with emotional cues, such as visual effects, audio cues for specific types of infected, and character communication. Within Left 4 Dead 2, the Director has the ability to alter placement of walls, level layout, lighting, and weather conditions, and reward players for taking more difficult routes with more useful weapons and items. A dedicated Director routine dynamically controls music and other ambient sound effects, monitoring what a player has experienced to create an appropriate sound mix. The process is client-side and done by a multi-track system. Each player hears their own mix, which is being generated as they play through the game, and dead players watching a teammate hear their teammates' mix.
Valve sees the AI Director as a tool to be used for other games. A software patch for the cooperative game Alien Swarm added a game mode, Onslaught, that used a version of the AI Director from Left 4 Dead to dynamically generate enemies for the players to fight.
Valve has investigated the use of biofeedback from the players directly as input for the Director. At the 2011 Game Developers Conference, Valve demonstrated a simple test where a player, fitted with a device to measure skin conductance level, played through a Left 4 Dead 2 level. Certain in-game actions, such as hearing a threatening noise or passing an opening doorway, would cause the skin conductance to rise. Valve postulates that such information fed into the Director could create a much more effective player experience.
The Infected characters within the game are divided into four categories. The most abundant are the "common" infected, the least deformed of the infected creatures. Alone, these infected are weak, but in large numbers, they pose a significant threat to the Survivors. Often, the Director will engineer a "horde", where a large number of the common infected charge the players. Hordes can also be created by setting off in-game "crescendo events" that usually involve some loud noise created by the players, or by activating a car alarm. As such, many individual levels feature a unique, noisy event, such as the raising of a rusty elevator, where a very large horde will be attracted, with the players given forewarning so that they can prepare for the onslaught.
A second type of infected introduced in Left 4 Dead 2, are the "uncommon infected". Uncommon infected are unique to certain campaigns and, though not any stronger than the common infected, have a special ability that can hamper the players' progress. For example, the uncommon infected in "Hard Rain" are infected road workers that are still wearing protective ear pieces, making them immune to the lure of pipe bombs.
The third type of infected creature are the "special" infected. Each of these creatures appear less frequently during a campaign, and are designed to keep the players working together as a team. They have very specific vocalizations, as well as leitmotifs which are inserted into the game's soundtrack when the AI Director places one, allowing Survivor players some forewarning. They serve as playable characters for the Infected in the games' versus modes.
- Hunter - a nimble and agile Infected that is able to leap large distances and tackle a single Survivor, who will take damage until either they are killed or the Hunter is either killed or shoved off. The pounced Survivor is rendered completely incapable of taking action, encapsulating the intent of the special infected: they must be rescued by other Survivors as they cannot help themselves.
- Smoker - an Infected with a long tongue that it uses to ensnare and strangle Survivors, rendering them helpless until the tongue is hit or the Smoker killed or stunned with explosives or shoving. When killed, it leaves a cloud of smoke that temporarily obscures the Survivors' vision and makes them cough.
- Boomer - a slow-moving bloated Infected that vomits bile onto Survivors; though not harmful itself, the bile attracts common infected to the character. When killed, a Boomer explodes, covering any nearby Survivors in more bile.
- Spitter - an Infected that spews a large amount of acidic "spit" at the Survivors. Survivors standing in the "goo" suffer quickly-increasing damage until they move out of the puddle. The Spitter herself is quite weak and upon her death, she leaves a small puddle of acid that also damages Survivors.
- Charger - an Infected with a large mutated arm that attacks by charging Survivors at high speed. The charge attack is capable of knocking down and effectively stunning every Survivor at once, and the Survivor at the forefront of the attack is carried as far as the Charger runs or until the Charger hits a wall, at which point the Charger begins to pummel the Survivor. Survivors being pummeled are completely helpless and will be killed unless the Charger is killed. The Charger is also unique among the Special Infected in that, due to its hulking size, it cannot be shoved; only frag rounds and explosives can stumble a charger. The charger is also quite lethal in its standard melee attack while not charging.
- Jockey - a small Infected with a hunchback that can "ride" a Survivor, hence the name. A Jockey can control a Survivor's movement while riding them, steering the Survivor into danger. A Survivor suffers damage as long as a Jockey rides them and is completely helpless unless the Jockey is shoved or killed.
Finally, there are two special "boss" infected characters that the AI Director includes at rare moments:
- The Witch - an infected woman with glowing eyes and long clawed fingers. Witches are unique in that they are passive, preferring to be left alone to cry. However, if a Survivor "startles" her, either with their flashlight, by invading her space, or by damaging her, she will charge that Survivor and automatically incapacitate them. Once incapacitated, the Witch will viciously attack the downed Survivor until either they are killed or she is. If she kills the Survivor who initially disturbed her, then she will run away. On higher difficulty levels, a Witch can automatically kill a Survivor. She is not particularly durable, but she can run faster than Survivors, making it difficult to slay her before someone takes damage. She is the strongest and fastest infected on foot. However, she has the second most hit points, behind the Tank. She can be stunned by explosives and frag rounds.
- The Tank, is an enormous Infected with superhuman strength. The Tank can charge Survivors and smash them to the floor, or can throw debris, rocks and cars at them, the latter resulting in instant incapacitation. Kiting is a valid tactic, but Survivors must do so for an extended period of time, a Tank on Normal difficulty has ten times the health of all the Survivors combined. In versus —modes, players may not control the Witch, and may only play as a Tank if the AI Director has already chosen to spawn one. He is the second strongest infected and has the highest number of hit points by far over all of the other infected. Due to his gargantuan size, the Tank can only be stumbled by exploding oxygen canisters or propane tanks. In Left 4 Dead: The Sacrifice, he is Bill's murderer.
Cast and characters
|Character||Main Games||Downloadable Content|
|Left 4 Dead
|Left 4 Dead 2
|Crash Course DLC
|The Sacrifice DLC
|The Passing DLC
|Cold Stream DLC|
|William "Bill" Overbeck||Jim French
|No new lines||Jim French||Body||L4D ported campaigns|
|Vince Valenzuela||L4D ported campaigns|
|Earl Alexander||L4D ported campaigns|
|Jen Taylor||L4D ported campaigns|
|Chad Coleman||Chad Coleman|
(no new lines)
|Eric Ladin||Eric Ladin|
(no new lines)
|Nicolas "Nick"||Hugh Dillon
|Hugh Dillon||Hugh Dillon|
(no new lines)
|Rochelle Aytes||Rochelle Aytes|
(no new lines)
|Common Infected||Mike Patton and Fred Tatasciore||Mike Patton and Fred Tatasciore (no new lines)|
|Smoker||Mike Patton||(no new lines)|
|Hunter||Mike Patton||(no new lines)|
|Boomer||Fred Tatasciore||(no new lines)|
|Tank||Fred Tatasciore||(no new lines)|
|Spitter||Dee Bradley Baker||Dee Bradley Baker (no new lines)|
|Jockey||Dee Bradley Baker||(no new lines)|
|Charger||Dee Bradley Baker||(no new lines)|
|Helicopter Pilot||Dennis Bateman||Dennis Bateman
(No Mercy port)
|Nathan Vetterlein||Nathan Vetterlein|
(Death Toll port)
(Houseboat radio voice)
|John Patrick Lowrie||John Patrick Lowrie|
(Death Toll port)
|Airplane Pilot||Gary Schwartz||Gary Schwartz|
(Dead Air port)
(Farmhouse radio voice, APC driver)
|David Scully||David Scully|
(Blood Harvest port)
|Smitty "The Drinker"
(Midnight Riders lead singer)
|Papa Gator and Rescue 7
|Bob Gunter and Bill Huggins|
|2008||Left 4 Dead|
|2009||Crash Course DLC|
|Left 4 Dead 2|
|2010||The Passing DLC|
|The Sacrifice DLC|
|2012||Cold Stream DLC|
- Left 4 Dead: Was released in November 2008. The first game's development was started by Turtle Rock Studios, who were bought by Valve during the game's creation, with continued development occurring at Valve's studios.
- Left 4 Dead 2: Was released a year later in November 2009. Valve attributed the short turnaround between the titles as a result of having many ideas to expand on the first game, but more than could be reasonably done through software patching or downloadable content. The fast turnaround of the sequel was initially criticized by many players of the first game, leading to a temporary effort to boycott the second game. Valve helped to placate matters, demonstrating that it was still developing content for the first game, including a crossover campaign, "The Passing", between the characters of both games.
- Crash Course: Is the first DLC campaign for Left 4 Dead. It is free on the PC, but costs $7.00 (formerly 560 Microsoft points) for the Xbox 360. It was released on September 29, 2009. According to Valve it is meant to bridge the gap between No Mercy and Death Toll.
- The Passing DLC: Is the first DLC crossover campaign in Left 4 Dead 2, which includes a new campaign and "new co-operative challenge modes of play" and introduces a new firearm, the M60; the Golf Club, and a new Uncommon Infected called the Fallen Survivor. It was released April 22, 2010.
- The Sacrifice DLC: is a three-chapter DLC for both Left 4 Dead and Left 4 Dead 2 and was released on October 5, 2010. Takes place after Blood Harvest and is considered to be the prologue to The Passing, as both campaigns are connected to each other.
- Cold Stream DLC: Is the third DLC for Left 4 Dead 2. It was announced in a blog post on February 16, 2011. Cold Stream was released on March 22, 2011 in beta form on Steam, and it was officially released in its final form on Steam on July 24, 2012. Cold Stream was released on the Xbox Marketplace August 3, 2012 for 560MSP. It was created by map making community member Matthew Lourdelet and features various wall graffiti featuring the author's friends.
Spin-offs and crossover
- The Mercenaries: No Mercy makes a return on the PC version of Resident Evil 6. As an exclusive to No Mercy, Capcom and game developer Valve had teamed up to allow Left 4 Dead 2 content for No Mercy. The content includes the main cast from Left 4 Dead 2 being playable characters with their own loadouts alongside the Witch and the Tank replacing the Bloodshot and the Napad as enemies.
- Pixel Force: Left 4 Dead: Is a downloadable indie game where the game is played as if it were released for NES.
- Left 4 Dead: Seizonshatachi (Left 4 Dead: Survivors): Is a game released at December 10, 2014 in Japanese arcades.
- On August 20, 2015, a free update was released exclusively for the PC version of the game Zombie Army Trilogy which imported the eight survivor characters from the Left 4 Dead games.
- In March 2017, asymmetric horror game Dead by Daylight released the "Left Behind" DLC exclusively for PC, which unlocked Bill as a playable character. It also unlocked Zoey, Ellis, Francis and Rochelle costumes for Meg, Dwight, Jake and Claudette respectively.
Tied to the release of "The Sacrifice" downloadable content, a four-part web comic drawn by Michael Avon Oeming was released to describe the events of the first set of survivors, Bill, Louis, Zoey, and Francis, that led them to meet the second group, Coach, Ellis, Rochelle, and Nick. Each of the parts provides a backstory for each of the first survivor characters at the onset of the pandemic, and also follows directly up on the final campaign from the first game, "Blood Harvest", where the survivors, identified as carriers, are taken to a secure military facility. The use of the comic medium to expand the game's story outside of the game's bounds has been used by Valve before in promoting Team Fortress 2.
Merchandise and other products
Within Left 4 Dead 2, a fictional southern rock band called the Midnight Riders was introduced. Several songs have been produced for the game and tie-in promotions. Two of them, "Midnight Ride" and "One Bad Man", have appeared as downloadable content for the Rock Band series via the Rock Band Network. Valve released a series of holiday cards themed after the survivors, created by Alexandria Neonakis. Three plush toys have been released based on the Left 4 Dead series' infected; first with the Boomer, and later with the Hunter and the Tank. They are to be followed by two more plush toys yet to be released. They were also created by Alexandria Neonakis. Valve sells a number of different apparel on its web site, including T-shirts, caps, and posters, with some of it based on the above-mentioned Midnight Riders.
In June 2011, it was confirmed that Valve had signed a deal with NECA, to produce exclusive action figures, which includes Left 4 Dead and other Valve series. There are currently two figures produced so far, Left 4 Dead's Boomer (Which was released in June), and Left 4 Dead 2's Smoker (Which was released in November).
- Booth, Michael (2009). "The AI Systems of Left 4 Dead" (PDF). Valve Corporation. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
- "Left 4 Dead 2 Interview". eurogamer.net. July 3, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2009.
The AI director—I don't want to say it fell out of Half-Life 2, but it was definitely a jumping-off point of stuff we did in Half-Life 2, particularly Episode 2. There are a couple of key battles where the number of Combine, and where they come at you from, uses something like that. It's much cruder than what we accomplished with Left 4 Dead, but there was some of that there
- Newell, Gabe (November 21, 2008). "Gabe Newell Writes for Edge". Edge. Archived from the original on September 9, 2012. Retrieved November 22, 2008.
The events are trying to give them a sense of narrative. We look at sequences of events and try to take what their actions are to generate new sequences. If they've been particularly challenged by one kind of creature then we can use that information to make decisions about how we use that creature in subsequent encounters. This is what makes procedural narrative more of a story-telling device than, say, a simple difficulty mechanism.
- Gabe Newell (2008). EA E3 Presentation Video (Video presentation). Left 4 Dead 411.
- Walker, John (June 1, 2009). "Left 4 Dead 2: Exclusive RPS Preview". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved June 1, 2009.
- "E3 09 Live Game Demos at GameSpot". GameSpot. June 2, 2009. Retrieved June 2, 2009.
- Valve Corporation (2008). Left 4 Dead. PC. Level/area: No Mercy (developer commentary).
Tim Larkin: We took several steps to keep the music interesting enough that the players would be inclined to keep it on as they play. We keep it changing so it won't become tedious; to this end, we created a music director that runs alongside the AI director, tracking the player's experience rather than their emotional state. We keep the music appropriate to each player's situation and highly personalized. The music engine in Left 4 Dead has a complete client-side, multi-track system per player that is completely unique to that player and can even be monitored by the spectators. Since some of the fun of Left 4 Dead is watching your friends when you're dead, we thought it was important to hear their personal soundtrack as well. This feature is unique to Left 4 Dead.
- Senior, Tom (August 24, 2010). "Aliens Swarm adds AI Director, gets even harder". PC Gamer. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
- Scimeca, Dennis (March 4, 2011). "Valve on the Importance of Using Sweat to Make Games Better". G4 TV. Retrieved March 7, 2011.
- Yin-Poole, Wesley (April 30, 2014). "There's a new Left 4 Dead... for Japanese arcades". Eurogamer. Gamer Network. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
- Mastrapa, Gus (September 15, 2010). "Left 4 Dead Comic Tells Story Between Missions". Wired. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- "Left 4 Dead: The Sacrifice comic launches with part one". Game Daily. September 14, 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- O'Conner, Alice (August 14, 2009). "Valve Talks Team Fortress 2 Comic Book Plans, Movie and TV Show Possibilities". Shacknews. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- Fletcher, JC (April 16, 2010). "Left 4 Dead 2's 'The Passing' rolls into town next week". Joystiq. Retrieved March 10, 2011.
- Pigna, Kris (November 14, 2009). "Send Your Season's Greetings with Valve's Kickass Holiday Cards". 1Up.com. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
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- Moore, Joe (July 21, 2011). "SDCC 2011 NECA Previews Valve Toys". The Toyark - News. Retrieved February 5, 2016.