Legal drinking age
The legal drinking age is the age at which a person can legally consume or purchase alcoholic beverages. These laws cover a wide range of issues and behaviors, addressing when and where alcohol can be consumed. The minimum age alcohol can be legally consumed can be different from the age when it can be purchased in some countries. These laws vary among different countries and many laws have exemptions or special circumstances. Most laws apply only to drinking alcohol in public places, with alcohol consumption in the home being mostly unregulated (an exception being the UK, which has a minimum legal age of five for supervised consumption in private places). Some countries also have different age limits for different types of alcoholic drinks.
Some Islamic nations prohibit Muslims, or both Muslims and non-Muslims, from drinking alcohol at any age, due to Islam forbidding the consumption of alcohol. In other countries, it is not illegal for minors to drink alcohol, but the alcohol can be seized without compensation. In some cases, it is illegal to sell or give alcohol to minors. The following list indicates the age of the person for whom it is legal to consume and purchase alcohol.
Kazakhstan, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Paraguay, Solomon Islands, India (certain states), the United States (except U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico), Yemen (Aden and Sana'a), Japan, Iceland, Canada (certain Provinces and Territories), and South Korea have the highest set drinking ages, however some of these countries do not have off-premises drinking limits. Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Georgia, Moldova, Morocco, and Western Sahara have the lowest set drinking ages.
|Drinking Age||Purchase age|
|Burundi||16||No limit if accompanied by parents|
|Cameroon||18||21||18 on the premises, 21 off the premises|
|Cape Verde||18|
|Central African Republic||18|
|Equatorial Guinea||None|
|Morocco||16||Forbidden for Muslims|
|Republic of the Congo||18|
|South Africa||18||The parent, adult guardian of a minor or a person responsible for administering a religious sacrament, may on occasion supply to that minor a moderate quantity of liquor to be consumed by the minor in the presence and under the supervision of that parent, guardian or other person.|
|Western Sahara||16|
|Drinking age||Purchase age|
|Antigua and Barbuda||16||The sale and distribution of alcohol to a person under 16 years of age is illegal.|
|Barbados||18||Those aged 10–17 are allowed to consume alcohol provided they are with a parent or guardian.|
|Belize||18||Drinking age is rarely enforced. IDs are almost never requested.|
|British Virgin Islands||16||It is illegal to sell or to supply alcohol to anyone under the age of 16.|
|Canada||18||In Alberta, Manitoba and Quebec, the legal drinking age is 18.|
|19||In Ontario, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut, the legal drinking age is 19.|
|Chile||18||The minimum age is 18 for buying and consuming alcohol. Selling alcohol to a minor may incur a fine. One must provide identification upon request. Residents of Chile over the age of 18 must carry their Chilean identification card issued by the Civil Registry and Identification Service at all times.|
|Falkland Islands||18|
|Guyana||18||Except 16 for wine or malt liquor to be consumed with a meal|
|Jamaica||None||18||Minors can drink if accompanied by parent or legal guardian as well as someone with permission from their parent or legal guardian.|
|Mexico||18||A person must be eighteen years or over to legally purchase and consume alcoholic beverages in Mexico. The drinking age however isn't strictly enforced, and IDs are barely requested.|
|Puerto Rico||18||The minimum age for the selling of any alcohol beverage is 18. Although a valid Puerto Rico license ID or passport is required as proof of age to buyers who look under the age of 18, it is generally not a common practice to ask for ID to enter a venue that sells alcohol or to sell you alcohol at other establishments. This law can be more enforced in some tourist areas and on foreigners visiting the island by some more exclusive hotels, bars, and upscale clubs. Very few of the more exclusive venues in the tourist areas may have their own entrance rules regarding age including not allowing anyone under the age of 25 or 23 to enter and consume alcohol or change this depending on specific nights/events and restricted by gender/sex (i.e. women over 18 allowed to enter but only men over 21 on that same night).|
|Trinidad and Tobago||18|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||18|
| United States
(50 states and integral territories)
|21||The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 withholds revenue from states that allow the purchase of alcohol by anyone under the age of twenty-one. Prior to the effective date of that Act, the drinking age varied from state to state. Some states do not allow those under the legal drinking age to be present in liquor stores or in bars (usually, the difference between a bar and a restaurant is that food is served only in the latter). Contrary to popular belief, since the act went into law, only a few states prohibit minors and young adults from consuming alcohol in private settings. As of January 1, 2010, fifteen states and the District of Columbia ban underage consumption outright, seventeen states do not ban underage consumption, and the remaining eighteen states have family member or location exceptions to their underage consumption laws.
Federal law explicitly provides for religious exceptions. As of 2005, thirty-one states have family member or location exceptions to their underage possession laws. However, non-alcoholic beer in many (but not all) states, such as Idaho, Texas, and Maryland, is considered legal for those under the age of twenty-one.
The states of Washington and Wisconsin allows the consumption of alcohol in the presence of parents.
Some U.S. states have legislation that make providing to and possession of alcohol by persons under twenty-one a gross misdemeanor with a potential of a $5,000 fine and a year in jail or more.
See also: Minor in Possession
|United States Virgin Islands||18|
|Drinking age||Purchase age|
|Bangladesh||Illegal for Muslims ||Alcohol will be sold to foreigners in certain locations, albeit clandestinely.|
|Brunei||Illegal||Non-Muslims over 17 years of age are allowed to import alcohol not to exceed maximum total volume 2 liters of liquor and 12 cans of beer at 330 ml for personal use, once in 48 hours. This alcohol must be “stored and consumed at the place of residence of the importer” and is “not to be given, transferred or sold to another person.”.|
|China||18||Introduced in January 2006. Weakly enforced to not enforced.|
|Hong Kong||18||The regulation is only applicable to restaurants, bars and clubs, where a liquor license is required. Private drinking is also not regulated.|
|India||18–25 (varies between states)||
Main article: Alcohol laws of IndiaConsumption of alcohol is prohibited in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Manipur and Nagaland.
|Indonesia||None||21||No law prohibits minors from consuming and possessing alcohol. The legal age for purchasing alcohol is 21, but this law is rarely implemented. ID is not often requested. There is a ban on the sale of alcoholic beverages in mini-markets and halal restaurants catering to Muslims.|
|Iran||Illegal ||There is a ban on alcohol, but religious minorities may purchase small amounts from shops owned by the same religious minority.|
|Israel||None||18||Israel law prohibits selling or serving alcohol to minors, but it does not prohibit minors to drink.|
|Lebanon||18||Often unenforced and according to a global school health study, 40% of minors over 13 drink alcohol and up to 25% buys it from stores.|
|Malaysia||18||Will be increased to 21 on 1 December 2017|
|Maldives||Illegal except for tourists, 18||Sale of alcohol is limited to tourist resorts. It is illegal to sell alcohol to local Maldivians|
|Nepal||18||The legal age for consumption of alcohol in Nepal is 18. However, there is a part of the Nepal society that flouts the law based on their religion and allows their children to drink alcohol at a much younger age.|
|Oman||21||Residents need personal liquor licenses to consume alcohol in their private residences.|
|Pakistan||Illegal ||Non-Muslim citizens may possess alcohol to be used in accordance with religious ceremonies|
|Palestine||16||Legal in most cities|
|Qatar||19||Muslims are allowed to purchase alcohol, but generally not allowed to consume. Non Muslims are allowed to purchase, and consume alcohol. The only legal distributor of alcohol in the country is the Qatar Distribution Company located in Doha.|
|Saudi Arabia||Illegal||Drinking or possessing alcohol is illegal in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Persons who drink or possess alcohol are subject to arrest and trial. Punishments range from heavy fines, lengthy prison terms and whippings.|
|Singapore||None (Private places, sometimes with permission from parents/guardian)
18 (Public places e.g. bars and restaurants)
|South Korea||None||19||The age limit for alcohol is after January 1 of the year one's age turns to 19. However, there is no age restriction for drinking alcohol.|
|Thailand||20||The Alcoholic Beverage Control Act of 2008 increased the drinking age in Thailand from 18 to 20, private drinking is not regulated in private locations.|
|United Arab Emirates||18–21 (varies between states).||Expatriate non-Muslim residents may request a liquor permit to purchase alcoholic beverages, but it is illegal for such holders to provide drinks to others.
The legal age for drinking alcohol is 18 in Abu Dhabi (although a Ministry of Tourism by-law allows hotels to serve alcohol only to those over 21), and 21 in Dubai and the Northern Emirates (except Sharjah, where drinking alcohol is illegal).
It is a punishable offence to drink, or to be under the influence of alcohol, in public.
|Yemen||Illegal||Exception is in Aden Region where it's legal for 21 and up|
|Drinking age||Purchase age|
|Armenia||None||18||There are no laws mandating alcohol vendors to ID potential underage drinkers. ID checks are very rarely, if ever, carried out.|
|Austria||16||Burgenland, Lower Austria and Vienna|
|16 for beer and wine
18 for distilled beverages
| Carinthia, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol and Vorarlberg
Carinthia also requires adolescents to maintain a blood alcohol level below 0.05%.
|Belgium||None||16 for beer and wine
18 for spirits
|Since 10 January 2010, it is illegal to "sell, serve, or offer" any form of distilled alcohol to those under the age of 18 or any alcoholic drink to those under 16. So fermented drinks like beer or wine are permitted above 16. Previously, it was illegal to sell alcoholic drinks to under-16s, but accompanying adults could buy drinks for them.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||None||18|
|Czech Republic||None||18||It is illegal to provide alcohol to minors (punishable by fine or up to 1 or 2 year(s) imprisonment). Consumption itself is not prohibited by law.|
|Denmark||None||16 to buy alcohol <16.5% ABV
18 to buy alcohol >16.5% ABV
18 to be served in restaurants, bars, discos etc.
|While there is no age requirement for drinking alcohol in Denmark, there are laws which prevent minors from buying alcohol:
By tradition, youths are privately allowed to drink alcohol after their confirmation. If a shop or bar fails to ask for an ID card and is identified having sold alcohol to an underage, it is subject to fine. A national ID card, obtained in the local town hall, can serve as age verification. This card is rarely used though since a passport or moped-licence can sometimes be used.
|Finland||18 for possession and purchase of 1.2–22% ABV
20 for possession and purchase of 23–80% ABV
18 for all in bars, clubs and restaurants
|All major grocery chains have implemented a policy to ask for ID if the customer looks under 30. Stores may refuse to sell alcohol if the customer is accompanied by a minor, or if proxy purchasing is suspected. Purchasing alcohol on behalf of a minor is a criminal offence.
Police may search minors in public places and confiscate or destroy any alcoholic beverages in their possession. Incidents are reported to the legal guardian and social authorities, who may intervene with child welfare procedures. In addition, those aged 15 or above are subject to a fine.
In private, offering alcohol to a minor is considered a criminal offence if it results in drunkenness and the act can be deemed reprehensible as a whole, considering the minor's age, degree of maturity and other circumstances.
|France||None||18||France has no explicitly stated consumption age, but selling alcohol to a minor (under 18) is illegal and can be fined 7500 euros. This age was raised from 16 to 18 in 2009.|
|Germany||14 when accompanied by a custodial person
16 for beer and wine
18 for spirits and aliments containing spirits above negligible amount
|16 for beer and wine
18 for spirits and aliments containing spirits above negligible amounts
See also: Alcohol laws in Germany
|Gibraltar||None||16/18||It is illegal to sell alcoholic drinks to anyone under the age of 18.
The minimum age to be served in licensed premises is 16 if:
|Greece||None||18||In 2008, the consumption of alcoholic beverages was prohibited for minors in public. However, the law does not apply to private events or private premises.|
|Iceland||None||20||Possession or consumption of alcohol by minors is not an offence, but supplying them with alcohol is. However, law allows alcohol possessed by a minor to be confiscated.|
|Ireland||18||It is illegal for minors to buy alcohol or for a third party to attempt to buy it for minors. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for anybody under the age of consent without permission from their guardians.|
|Italy||None||18||In 2012 the then Health Minister Renato Balduzzi proposed to raise the age to 18. Selling alcohol to those under the age of 18 in shops carries a fine between €250 and €1000. Serving alcoholic beverages to those under the age of 16 is a criminal offense and is punished with prison up to one year, if the individual is 16 or 17 it will be treated as an offense which is fined between €250 and €1000 (Legge n. 189/2012).|
|Liechtenstein||16 for wine, beer and cider
18 for spirits and spirit-based beverages. e.g. alcopops
|Wine, beer and ciders as well as some other party drinks sometimes without spirits may be purchased by the age of 16. Spirits as well as alcopops may be sold only to people at least 18.|
|Lithuania||18||Minors under the age of 18 are prohibited from consuming alcoholic beverages or from having them.|
|Macedonia||18||Must show an ID card upon request. In certain smaller places, such as family-owned convenience stores and street kiosks, there is little to no enforcement on how old or young somebody purchases alcohol. In larger supermarkets, it is against the law to sell alcohol after 9 PM. There is little to no enforcement for drinking privately, but drinking in bars may require an ID.|
|Malta||17||Must provide identification upon request.|
|Moldova||None||16||It is illegal to sell alcohol to anyone under the age of 16. There is no consumption age.|
|Netherlands||18||The legal age for purchasing and consumption of alcoholic beverages was raised from 16 to 18 on 1 January 2014. However, many places have officially or unofficially retained a less strict regulation towards 16- and 17-year-olds. Alcohol is commonly available upon parental permission. Selling alcoholic beverages to people under 18 is illegal, although giving it away in private is not.|
20 (≥22% ABV)
|Selling alcohol to or buying alcohol for minors is illegal. Minors are defined as under 18 for beer and wine, under 20 for drinks that contain 22% ABV or more. Minors who buy alcohol are not held criminally responsible; instead, the crime lies with those who sold it or obtained it for them.
Alcohol possessed by minors may be confiscated as evidence. Drinking in public is prohibited, though this is rarely enforced in recreational areas.
|Poland||None||18||Article 15 of The Act on Upbringing in Sobriety and Counteracting Alcoholism clearly states that buyers or persons being served must be at least 18 and prove it with ID if they look like they may not be at least that age. There is no mention of consumption age in this or any other act in Poland. Drinking on streets, town squares, and in parks is illegal regardless of age.|
|Portugal||None||16 (beer & wine)
18 (other beverages)
|Romania||None||18||According to law 61/1991 updated in 2008, paragraphs 21-25, it is illegal to serve or sell alcohol to minors.|
|Russia||None||18||There is no law or regulation in Russia that prohibits minors from consuming alcohol, but selling alcohol to minors is prohibited by federal and additional regional laws.|
|Slovenia||None||18||There is no law regulating the possession and consumption, but it is illegal to sell or offer alcohol of any kind to minors.|
|Spain||18||Asturias was the last autonomous community in Spain where the drinking age was increased to 18 (previously 16) on 1 May 2015.|
See also: Alcohol in SwedenMany clubs choose to have higher age limits than 18, commonly 20 or 23. It is legal to drink below 18, but it is illegal to sell, lend or give alcohol to someone under that age and the police can seize alcohol from them, apart from being served alcohol supervised in private "in moderation". It is legal to serve an underage person alcohol in a private place. The reason for lower limit in bars than in Systembolaget shops is that bartenders have a legal responsibility for how drunk a guest gets.
|16 for fermented alcoholic drinks (with less than 15% ABV and natural wines with less than 18% ABV);
18 for spirits 
|Whoever offers or supplies alcoholic beverages to a child under the age of 16 years in an amount which is harmful to one's health is punished with imprisonment up to 3 years or a fine. Whoever sells or supplies spirits to a person under the age of 18 years is punished with a fine up to 10.000 CHF.|
|18||The canton Ticino prohibits selling and consumption of any type of alcohol by minors under the age of 18. Some shops and supermarkets may not sell alcohol to minors under the age of 18.|
See also: Alcohol laws of Turkey
|United Kingdom||18 (on licensed premises)
16 (beer, wine or cider with a meal on licensed premises)
5 (not on licensed premises)
None (under medical supervision, or in an emergency)
None (liqueur confectionery)
|Legislation in England and Wales:
|18 (in public without a meal or adult supervision)
16 (beer, wine or cider on licensed premises with meal)
5 (on private premises)
16 (beer, wine or cider with a meal on licensed premises)
None (liqueur confectionery)
|Legislation in Scotland:|
|18||Legislation in Northern Ireland:
It is illegal to sell, serve, offer or consume alcoholic beverages in public under the age of 18.
|Challenge 21 and Challenge 25 (applies to all of the United Kingdom)
Under the BBPA's Challenge 21 and Challenge 25 schemes, customers attempting to buy alcoholic beverages are asked to prove their age if in the retailer's opinion they look under 21 (or optionally 25) even though the law states they must be a minimum of 18. Many supermarket and off-licence chains display Challenge 21 (or Challenge 25) notices stating that they will not serve persons who look under 21 (or 25) without ID.
|Drinking age||Purchase age|
Main article: Alcohol laws of AustraliaVaries by state. Some states restrict possession and consumption to over 18, all states restrict purchasing to over 18. Minors may consume alcohol in a private residence with parental supervision.
|Fiji||18||The drinking age was 21 from 2006 to 2009 but was lowered to 18 in 2009.|
|Micronesia, Federated States of||21|
|New Zealand||None||18||Minimum age applies for beverages with 1.15% ABV or over; no restrictions on beverages less than 1.15% ABV.
Persons under 18 may drink outside private residences or private functions if accompanied by their parent or legal guardian. Alcohol may be supplied to minors only by, or with express consent from, their parent or legal guardian.
|Northern Mariana Islands||21|
|Papua New Guinea||18|
|Part of the Politics series on|
- Drinking Age Limits - International Center for Alcohol Policies
- "Minimum Legal Age Limits". IARD. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
- "Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy - Country Profiles". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "Alcohol - Somalia" (PDF). WHO. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- Department of Trade & Industry (26 April 2004). "The National Liquor Act, 59 of 2003" (PDF). Government Gazette. 446 (26294). Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "Sale of alcohol to minors widespread in South Sudan - report". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "Sudan: Country Specific Information". U.S. Department of State.
- Nkwame, Valentine Marc (24 January 2009). "Ugandans 'drink like fish'". The Arusha Times. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "THE LICENSING (INTOXICATING LIQUOR) ACT - CHAPTER 249 - PART V - 24." (PDF). laws.gov.ag. Retrieved 2015-01-09. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "Liquor_Licensing_Act_AB" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "Ley Nacional De Lucha Contra El Alcoholismo" (in Spanish). 31 March 1997. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "Liquor Licences Act (Cap. 106) - PART IV - 34: Sale of intoxicating liquor to children." (PDF). ird.gov.vg. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "LIQUOR LICENCE ACT 1974 - Procuring drink for drunken person or minor 42." (PDF). cada.bm. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Drinking Age in Canada". YourLaws.ca. January 2010. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "Legal Drinking Age for Alcohol in Canada".
- Susan Munroe. "Legal Drinking Age in Canada". About.com News & Issues.
- "LIQUOR LICENSING LAW - 21., 22." (PDF). gov.ky. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Alcohol y menores de edad". cnd.com.do. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Ley N° 1.642 / 2000 - QUE PROHÍBE LA VENTA DEBEBIDAS ALCOHÓLICAS A MENORES DE EDAD Y PROHÍBE SU CONSUMO EN LA VÍA PÚBLICA". portalguarani.com. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- Exceptions to Minimum Age of 21 for Possession of Alcohol as of January 1, 2009, Alcohol Policy Information System
- "Judge: State law barring underage drinking is unconstitutional". 14 July 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Washington State Legislature. "RCW 66.44.270; Furnishing liquor to minors". State of Washington. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "Helpful Visitor Information for the Virgin Islands". Vinow.com. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- Institute for War and Peace Reporting (2009-06-17). "Drinkers Dismissive of Latest Alcohol Ban". ARR No. 322. Retrieved 2010-02-28.
- "Bangladesh" (PDF). Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004. World Health Organization. 2004. Retrieved 2009-03-28.
- "Rules And Regulations For Establishment And Operation Of Industrial And Commercial Ventures In Bhutan, 1995" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-04-29.
- "Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Cambodia" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- China bans under-age drinking, China Daily, 2006-01-06. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- Law of Hong Kong, CAP 109B, Dutiable Commodities (Liquor) Regulations
- "States with total and phase-wise prohibition of alcohol in India". 6 April 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
- "Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Jordan" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- "Kazakhstan to ban public smoking & raise drinking age, KazakhstanLive" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-01-30.
- Who Are The Abstainers? (PDF). International Center for Alcohol Policies. June 2000.
- "Lebanon's underage drinking problem - Executive Magazine". Executive Magazine. 2013-03-14. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
- Boo Su-Lyn (28 May 2016). "Putrajaya raises legal drinking age, imposes health warnings". Malay Mail Online. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
- "Alcohol in the Maldives". MainlyMaldives.co.uk. 5 December 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
- Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Mongolia
- "Drinking Age in Nepal". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Drinking Age in North Korea". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Oman". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
- Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Philippines
- Article 2 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law (zh:兒童及少年福利法) of the Republic of China, effective since 2003-05-28 in Taiwan Area, defines children and youth as people under the age of 18.
- Clause 1 of Section 1 of Article 26 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law (zh:兒童及少年福利法) of the Republic of China, effective since 2003-05-28 in Taiwan Area
- Section 2 of Article 26 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law of the Republic of China
- Section 1 of Article 55 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law of the Republic of China
- Section 3 of Article 26 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law of the Republic of China
- Section 2 of Article 55 of the Children and Youth Welfare Law of the Republic of China
- Patin, Jennifer. "Thailand Tourist Information: A Guide to Laws in Thailand". Thailand Law Forum. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "ต่ำกว่า 20 ปี ไม่ขายสุราให้". Thaihealth.or.th. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "United Arab Emirates travel advice - GOVUK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-26.
- "International Drinking Guidelines". International Center for Alcohol Policies. Retrieved 2009-02-17.
- Rauchen und Alkohol State legilations
- "Vente et consommation d'alcool en Belgique". jeunesetalcool.be. Retrieved 2014-12-31.
- "Prodaja alkoholnih pića osobama mlađim od 18 godina". jeunesetalcool.be. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- ""Πώλησης Οινοπνευματωδών Ποτών" Νόμου (Κεφ. 144)". businessincyprus.gov.cy. Archived from the original on 2014-12-14. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
-  Collection of Laws of the Czech Criminal Code (Czech Republic). 379/2005 Sb. ZÁKON - ČÁST PRVNÍ Ochrana před škodami působenými tabákovými výrobky, alkoholem ajinými návykovými látkami § 11, § 12, § 14 , § 15: Omezení prodeje a dovozu. Retrieved on 20. October 2014.
- "379/2005 Sb. - o opatřeních k ochraně před škodami působenými tabákovými výrobky, alkoholem a jinými návykovými látkami a o změně souvisejících zákonů - Text předpisu - Portál veřejné správy". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Trestní zákoník (zákon č. 40/2009 Sb.) §204".
- "Trestní zákoník (zákon č. 40/2009 Sb.) §201".
- Lenka Krbcová (23 September 2010). "Policie: "Máme vaše dítě. Pilo."". Vitalia.cz. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- AF Cecilie Lund Kristiansen. "Butikker har styr på nye alkohol-regler" (in Danish). Politiken.dk. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- "Alcohol culture in Denmark". Alcoholcultureindenmark.webbyen.dk. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- "Lov om forbud mod salg af tobak og alkohol til personer under 16 år" (in Danish). Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- Få unge har købt legitimationskort, Danmarks Radio, 01. July 2006
- "Alkoholiseadus". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Alkoholilaki 1143/1994 - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö - FINLEX ®". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "If you look under 30, get your ID out". YLE News. 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2013-04-21.
- Rikoslaki 50a:1-3
- "Laki rikesakkorikkomuksista 756/2010 - Ajantasainen lainsäädäntö - FINLEX ®". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Code de la santé publique - Article L3353-3 - Legifrance". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Code de la santé publique - Article L3342-1 - Legifrance". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Law passed on 23 July 2009.
- French Public Health Code, Art L3353-4.
- Protection of Young Persons Act, Amendment by Article 3, Act (PDF). 31 October 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
- Children and Young Persons (Alcohol, Tobacco, and Gaming) Act 2006 (Gibraltar Laws).
- Practical Information School for Renewable Energy Science, Iceland
- INTOXICATING LIQUOR ACT 2008 Online database of all the laws of the Republic of Ireland (Managed by: Office of the Attorney General). INTOXICATING LIQUOR ACT 2008 - 37A.— (1) a); 37C.— (3). Retrieved on 20. October 2014.
- "Alcohol and the law". Citizensinformation.ie. 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- "Vietata la vendita di alcolici ai minori di anni 18: emanata la legge". asaps.it. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato S.p.A. "Trova Norme & Concorsi - Normativa Sanitaria". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Kosovo Beer". Brookston Beer Bulletin. 2012-11-19. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Alkoholisko dzērienu aprites likums". likumi.lv. May 1, 2004. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Jugendgesetz vom 19. Dezember 1979" (PDF). Gesetze.li. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- "Lietuvos Respublikos Alkoholio kontrolės įstatymas". lrs.lt.
- "RECUEIL DE LEGISLATION - A –– N° 237 29 décembre 2006" (PDF). legilux.public.lu. 2006-09-29. Retrieved 2014-06-02.
- Weather & Time. "What is the legal drinking age in Macedonia?". ChaCha. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- "Legal Drinking Age in Malta - Buying Alcohol from Bars - Malta Blog". Malta.cc. 2009-12-29. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
- LEGE Nr. 1100din 30.06.2000 cu privire la fabricarea şi circulaţia alcoolului etilicşi a producţiei alcoolice art Nr : 917 - Articolul 30. Restricţii privind comercializarea cu amănuntul a producţiei alcoolice j) Law about production and sale of ethyl alcohol (Moldova). Retrieved 2014-31-12.
- "Ook volgend jaar mogen 16 en 17-jarige Katwijkers alcohol drinken". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Proposition to Odelstinget rejecting the idea of holding minors criminally responsible for the purchase or consumption of alcohol". Regjeringen.no. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- "Alkoholloven §8-13".
- "Police: It's okay to drink in public parks". Aftenposten. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
- "USTAWA z dnia 26 października 1982 r. o wychowaniu w trzeźwości i przeciwdziałaniu alkoholizmowi. (tekst jednolity: Dz. U. 2002 r. Nr 147 poz. 1231)" (PDF) (in Polish). Retrieved 2014-03-30.
- "The Act on Upbringing in Sobriety and Counteracting Alcoholism." (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-10.
- "Portugal drinking ban stops teenagers getting too spirited". euronews. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Legea nr. 61/1991 (Actualizata 2008), pentru sanctionarea faptelor de incalcare a unor norme de convietuire sociala, a ordinii si linistii publice" (in Romanian). June 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- Федеральный закон о государственном регулировании производства и оборота этилового спирта, алкогольной и спиртосодержащей продукции (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "Drinking Age in Serbia".
- "Zákon č. 219/1996 Z. z. o ochrane pred zneužívaním alkoholických nápojov a o zriaďovaní a prevádzke protialkoholických záchytných izieb". Retrieved 2016-05-20.
- "Zákon o ochrane pred zneužívaním alkoholických nápojov a o zriaďovaní a prevádzke protialkoholických záchytných izieb". Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Asturias raises legal drinking age from 16 to 18". ThinkSpain. 8 March 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
- "Systembolaget - Rules on selling". Systembolaget.se. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- "Alkohollag (1994:1738)". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "817.02 Lebensmittel- und Gebrauchsgegenständeverordnung Art. 11". admin.ch. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "680 Bundesgesetz über die gebrannten Wasser Art. 41 IV. 1. i.". admin.ch. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "311.0 Schweizerisches Strafgesetzbuch vom 21. Dezember 1937 (Stand am 1. Januar 2015) - Art. 411" (PDF). admin.ch (in German). Swiss Federal Council. Retrieved 2015-08-09.
- "680 Bundesgesetz vom 21. Juni 1932 über die gebrannten Wasser (Alkoholgesetz) - Art. 57". admin.ch (in German). Swiss Federal Council. Retrieved 2015-08-09.
- "Jugendschutz". bag.admin.ch. Retrieved 2015-01-09.
- "Licensing Act 2003 section 150". Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- "Children and Young Persons Act 1933". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Deregulation Act 2015 section 70". Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- "Alcohol and young people - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-11-10.
- "Licensing (Scotland) Act 2005". Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "BBPA Home - Industry Briefings - Challenge 21".
- "ALCOHOL REFORM ISSUES PAPER" (PDF). samoalawreform.gov.ws. Samoa Law Reform Commission. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Alcohol and young people". Victorian State Government, Department of Health, Australia. Archived from the original on 2010-03-04. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "Offence for supplying alcohol to minors". Department of Health Victoria. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "State lowers legal drink age - Fiji Times Online". Fijitimes.com. 2009-05-20. Retrieved 2009-06-20.
- The Drinking Age On Guam Is Now 21, Pacific News Center, July 8, 2010.
- "Young people and alcohol". communitylaw.org.nz. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- "2 Interpretation -- Sale of Liquor Act 1989 No 63 (as at 01 July 2011), Public Act -- New Zealand Legislation Online". Parliamentary Counsel Office. 1 July 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
- "The law about supply to young people". Alcohol.org.nz. Retrieved 30 April 2016.
- Crimes, Procedure and Evidence Rules 2003, s50(3).