Legal education in the Philippines

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Legal education in the Philippines is developed and offered by Philippine law schools, supervised by the Legal Education Board, that has replaced the Commission on Higher Education in respect to legal education. The Supreme Court regulates admission to the Bar and administers the Bar Examinations. Furthermore, the minimum curricular requirements for membership in the Philippine Bar are set forth in the Rules of Court promulgated by the Supreme Court.

Law degree programs are considered professional/post-baccalaureate programs in the Philippines. As such, admission to law schools requires the completion of a bachelor's degree, with a sufficient number of credits or units in certain subject areas.

Graduation from a Philippine law school constitutes the primary eligibility requirement in order to take the Philippine Bar Examination, the national licensure examination as precursor to admission to the practice of law in the country. The bar examination is administered by the Supreme Court during the months of September, or October, or November every year.

Members of the bar in the Philippines are required to take mandatory continuing legal education in order to continue practicing their profession.

Legal education in the Philippines normally proceeds along the following route:

  • Undergraduate education (usually 4 years)
  • Taking of Philippine Law School Admission Test or PhilSAT(Based on LEB Memorandum Order 7, series of 2016)
  • Law school (usually 4 years)
  • Admission to the bar (usually by taking a Philippine bar exam)
  • Legal practice and mandatory continuing legal education

History[edit]

The University of Santo Tomas established its Faculties of Canon Law and Civil Law in 1733. From 1734 to 1800, of only 3,360 students, only 29 graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law, 8 with the degree of Licentiate in Civil Law and 3 with the degree of Doctor of Civil Law in that university.[1]

In 1899, after the Malolos Constitution was ratified, the Universidad Literia de Filipinas was established in Malolos, Bulacan. It offered Law as well as Medicine, Surgery and Notary Public. In 1899, Felipe Calderón founded the Escuela de Derecho de Manila and adopted the name Manila Law College in 1924. The University of the Philippines opened its College of Law in 1910. There were around 50 Filipino and American students.[1] Justice Sherman Moreland of the Supreme Court of the Philippines was named its first Dean, but after he ultimately declined the position, he was replaced by George A. Malcolm, who is recognized as the college's first permanent dean.

Legal Systems[edit]

The Philippine legal system is an amalgamation of the world's major systems. These systems include the Roman civil law which was inherited from Spain; the Anglo-American common law which were derived from the laws of the United States; and Islamic law otherwise known as the Shariah law of the Muslim world.

Law degree programs[edit]

Law degrees in the Philippines may be classified into three types—professional, graduate level, and honorary.

Professional law degrees[edit]

In order to be eligible to take the bar examinations, one must complete one of the two professional degrees: The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) program or the Juris Doctor (J.D.) program. Advanced degrees are offered by some law schools, but are not requirements for admission to the practice of law in the Philippines.

  • Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) - The LL.B. is the most common law degree offered and conferred by Philippine law schools. It is a standard four-year law program covering all bar exam subjects. Almost all law schools follow a standard LL.B. curriculum, wherein students are exposed to the required bar subjects. Other schools, like the University of the Philippines College of Law, allow students to substitute electives for bar review subjects offered in the fourth year of study.[2]
  • Juris Doctor (J.D.) - The J.D. degree was developed and first conferred in the Philippines by the Ateneo Law School in 1991. The J.D. program is a four-year law program. Like the standard LL.B. program, the J.D. curriculum covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations. Unlike the LL.B., the Ateneo J.D. program requires students to finish the core bar subjects in 2½ years, take elective subjects, undergo an apprenticeship, and prepare and defend a thesis.[3] Aside from the Ateneo, other law schools offer the J.D.: the University of Batangas College of Law,[2] and just recently, the University of the Philippines College of Law [4] The change in degree title from Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) to Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree at the University of the Philippines was approved by its president, Dr. Emerlinda R. Roman, on July 31, 2007. In 2009, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Law and the Silliman University College of Law started its own J.D. curriculum.[5][6] In 2010 the Central Philippine University in Iloilo City started to offer this degree.[7] Juris Doctor (JD) program of Central Philippine University College of Law is the first Juris Doctor (JD) program in any Law schools in the Philippines approved by the Philippine Legal Education Board.

University of St. La Salle in Bacolod city is also offering a J.D. program.[citation needed] Centro Escolar University School of Law and Jurisprudence offers J.D. program in their Makati campus.

Graduate law degrees[edit]

Beyond the J.D. or LL.B., members of the Philippine bar have the option of pursuing graduate degrees in law.

Honorary law degrees[edit]

Some Philippine universities also confer the honorary Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degree. It is given to famous individuals who, in the discretion of the awarding institution, were found to have made significant contributions to a certain field, or to the improvement of society or development of the conditions of mankind in general. Honorary law doctorates in the past include:

Practicality[edit]

While advanced law degrees (LL.M., D.C.L., S.J.D., LL.D.) may elevate a lawyer's standing in academic settings, the basic law degree (LL.B., J.D.) remains the most important academic qualification to be admitted to the practice of law in the Philippines.[18]

Ecclesiastical law degrees[edit]

A few Roman Catholic seminaries and graduate schools offer degree programs in canon law, an ecclesiastical program that is not required in the Philippine Bar Examinations.The University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Canon Law runs the oldest academic programs of this kind. Its Licentiate of Canon Law (J.C.L.) and Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D.) programs are open to priests, nuns, theologians, and even to lay people (i.e., trial court judges, law deans, family lawyers etc.). Judges of the Roman Catholic Marriage Tribunal typically hold academic degrees in the field.[19] Degrees in canon law, strictly speaking, are not considered law degrees in the Philippines.

Developments[edit]

There is a move among members of the Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS) to convert their LL.B. programs into J.D. curricula.[3] There are currently two possible directions for the change: First, the conversion of LL.B. programs through adopting a model substantially similar to the J.D. curriculum introduced by the Ateneo de Manila Law School (the J.D. Programs of the FEU-La Salle consortium and the University of Batangas Law School are of this mold), and second, simply changing the name of the degree conferred from "LL.B." to "J.D." while essentially retaining the same course offerings as those in the DECS Model Law Curriculum (DECS Order No. 27, series of 1989).[3]

Admission to the practice of law[edit]

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines has given the Supreme Court the sole power to admit individuals to the practice of law in the Philippines.[20] This power is exercised through a Bar Examination Committee, an ad hoc academic group tasked to formulate questions, administer proceedings, grade examinations, rank candidates, and release the results of the Philippine Bar Examination.

To be eligible to take the national bar exam, a candidate must be a Filipino citizen, at least twenty-one years of age, and holder of a bachelor's degree and a law degree obtained from a government recognized law school in the Philippines. Graduates of law schools from other countries must obtain a law degree from the Philippines to qualify for the Philippine Bar.[21] In March 2010 the Supreme court issued Bar matter 1153 allowing Filipino who are foreign law graduates to take the Bar exam provided that applicant complies with the following conditions: a) completion of all courses leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws or its equivalent degree; (b) recognition or accreditation of the law school by the proper authority; and (c) completion of all fourth year subjects in the Bachelor of Laws academic program in a law school duly recognized by the Philippine Government d) must have completed a separate bachelor's degree."

Philippine Bar Examinations[edit]

The Philippine Bar Examinations is the national licensure exam for admission to the practice of law. It is conducted during the four Sundays of September, or October, or November of every year. It is arguably the hardest and the most media-covered of all government licensure examinations in the country.[22] It is also reputedly one of the hardest bar examinations in the world.[23]

For candidates intending to practice Islamic law in the Philippines, the Special Bar Exams for Shari’a Court Lawyers is given every two years. The Supreme Court Bar Office conducts the exam while the Office of Muslim Affairs determines the qualification and eligibility of candidates to the exams.[24]

Attorneys-at-law[edit]

To be a full-fledged lawyer in the Philippines and be eligible to use the title Attorney, a candidate must graduate from a Philippine law school, take and pass the Philippine Bar Examinations, take the Attorney's Oath, and sign his name in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court.[25]

The full names of lawyers are found in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court, and in a similar list included in a Supreme Court publication entitled Law List.[26]

Legal Education Board[edit]

The Legal Education Board supervises all law schools and continuing legal education providers in the Philippines.[27] The Board is headed by a Chairman who is a retired justice of a collegiate court (i.e., Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Sandiganbayan, Court of Tax Appeals, etc.). Regular members of the Board include a representative from each of the following:[27]

  • Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP)
  • Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS)
  • Philippine Association of Law Professors (PALP)
  • active law practitioners
  • bona fide law students

The Board has made legal reforms which include—the stricter selection of law students and law professors; improvements in quality of instruction and facilities of law schools; provisions for legal apprenticeship of law students; and the requirement of attendance to continuing legal education seminars for practicing attorneys.[27]

Mandatory Continuing Legal Education[edit]

Lawyers with names appearing in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court, unless disbarred, are all members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP).[28]

However, to be IBP members of good standing, lawyers are required to complete, every three years, at least thirty-six hours of continuing legal education seminars approved by the Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Committee (MCLE). Members who fail to comply shall pay a non-compliance fee, and shall be listed as a delinquent member.[29]

The Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Office, established by the Supreme Court, is the official government agency tasked to implement compliance with the MCLE requirement.[29]

The MCLE Office is headed by former Supreme Court Justice Carolina C. Grino-Aquino, widow of former Supreme Court Chief Justice Ramon Aquino. Its office is located at the fourth floor of the IBP Building in Ortigas Center.

Philippine law schools[edit]

There are one-hundred-five (105) law schools[30][31] legitimately operating throughout the Philippines. These include independent law schools, resident colleges, and affiliated units of much larger private and public universities:[32]

University of Baguio School of Law Gen. Luna Rd. Baguio City

Name Location
Adamson University College of Law 900 San Marcelino Street, Ermita, Manila
Aemilianum College, College of Law Rizal Street, Piot, Sorsogon City
Aklan Catholic College College of Law Archbishop Reyes Street, Kalibo, Aklan
Andres Bonifacio College College Park, Dipolog City, Zamboanga del Norte
Aquinas University College of Law 2-S King's Building, JAA Penaranda Street, Legazpi City, Albay
Araullo University College of Law Maharlika Highway, Bitas, Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija
Arellano University Law Foundation Taft Avenue & Menlo Street, Pasay City
Ateneo de Davao College of Law Jacinto Street, Davao City
Ateneo Law School 20 Rockwell Drive, Rockwell Center, Makati City
Ateneo de Zamboanga University College of Law La Purisima Street, Zamboanga City Proposed 2011
Basilan State College, College of Law Sumagdang, Isabela City, Basilan
Bicol Colleges Daraga, Albay
Bukidnon State University Fortich Street, Malabalay, Bukidnon
Bulacan State University College of Law McArthur Highway, Malolos City, Bulacan
Cagayan State University Caritan, Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Camarines Norte School of Law Itomang, Talisay, Camarines Norte
Central Philippine University College of Law Lopez Jaena Street, Jaro, Iloilo City
Centro Escolar University School of Law and Jurisprudence Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, Makati City
Christ the King College Magsaysay Blvd., Calbayog City, Samar
Colegio dela Purisima Concepcion 1 Arzobispo Street, Roxas City, Capiz
Cor Jesu College Sacred Heart Avenue, Digos, Davao del Sur
Cordillera College Bugayan, La Trinidad, Benguet
De La Salle University College of Law 2401 Taft Avenue, Malate, Manila
De La Salle Lipa College of Law Lipa, Batangas
Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University College of Law, Mid-La Union Campus Catbangen, City of San Fernando, La Union
Dr. Vicente Orestes Romualdez Educational Foundation, Inc. Calanipawan Road, Tacloban City, Leyte
East Central Colleges B. Mendoza Street, San Fernando City, Pampanga
Far Eastern University Institute of Law Nicanor Reyes, Sr. St. (formerly Morayta Street), Sampaloc, Manila
(The La Salle-FEU MBA-JD Program is offered at De La Salle Professional Schools, RCBC Plaza, Ayala Ave., Makati City. It is offered in consortium with the De La Salle Graduate School of Business.)
Fr. Saturnino Urios University College of Law San Francisco St. & J.C. Aquino Avenue, Butuan City, Agusan del Norte
Fernandez College of Arts and Technology Gil Carlos Street, Baliuag, Bulacan
Foundation University College of Law Dr. Miciano Street, Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental
Harvardian Colleges Lourdes Street, San Fernando City, Pampanga
Holy Name University College of Law Janssen Heights, Dampas District, Tagbilaran City, Bohol
Isabela State University Cauayan City, Isabela
José Rizal University College of Law 82 Shaw Blvd., Mandaluyong City
Leyte Colleges Zamora St., Tacloban City
Liceo de Cagayan University College of Law Rodolfo N. Pelaez Blvd., Carmen, Cagayan de Oro City
Luna Goco Colleges Lalud, Calapan, Oriental Mindoro
Lyceum of the Philippines University College of Law L.P. Leviste Street, Makati City
Lyceum of the Philippines University-Cavite College of Law Governor's Drive, General Trias, Cavite
Lyceum-Northwestern University College of Law Amado Street, Dagupan City, Pangasinan
Manila Law College Foundation (formerly Escuela de Derecho de Manila) Sales Street, Sta. Cruz, Manila
Manuel L. Quezon University College of Law R. Hidalgo St., Quiapo, Manila
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation College of Law Foundation St., Lucena City, Quezon
Mariano Marcos State University College of Law Batac City, Ilocos Norte
Masbate Colleges Rosero Street, Masbate City, Masbate
Medina Colleges Manengcol, Ozamiz City, Misamis Occidental
Mindanao State University College of Law Marawi City, Lanao del Sur
Misamis University College of Law Bonifacio St., Ozamiz City, Misamis Occidental
New Era University College of Law Barangay New Era, Diliman, Quezon City
Negros Oriental State University College of Law Kagawasan Avenue, Dumaguete City
Northeastern College Maharlika Highway, Villasis, Santiago City
Northwestern University College of Law Airport Avenue, Laoag City
Notre Dame University College of Law Notre Dame Avenue, Cotabato City
Pagadian College of Criminology & Sciences Rizal Avenue, Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Norte
Palawan State University College of Law Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Law Gen. Luna Street, Intramuros, Manila
Philippine Advent College Dapaon Street, Sindangan, Zamboanga del Norte
Philippine Law School F.B. Harrison Street, Pasay City
Polytechnic University of the Philippines College of Law Santa Mesa, Manila
Saint Paul School of Business and Law Palo, Leyte
Samar College Mabini Avenue, Catbalogan City, Samar
San Beda College of Law Mendiola Street, San Miguel, Manila
San Beda College of Law in Alabang Don Manolo Boulevard, Alabang Hills, Muntinlupa City
San Pablo Colleges Hermanos Belen Street, San Pablo City, Laguna
San Sebastian College - Recoletos College of Law Claro M. Recto Avenue, Manila
Saint Louis College Carlatan, San Fernando City, La Union
Saint Louis University School of Law Bonifacio Street, Baguio City
Saint Mary's University College of Law Ponce Street, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya
Silliman University College of Law Hibbard Avenue, Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental
Southwestern University College of Law Urgillo Street, Sambag District, Cebu City
Tabaco Colleges Cabiles Avenue, Tabaco, Albay
University of Asia and the Pacific School of Law and Governance Pearl Drive, Ortigas Center, Pasig City
University of Batangas College of Law M.H. del Pilar Street, Batangas City
University of Bohol College of Law Maria Clara Street, Tagbilaran City
University of Cagayan Valley (formerly Cagayan Colleges Tuguegarao) Balzain, Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
University of Cebu College of Law Sanciangko St., Cebu City
University of Cebu - Banilad College of Law Banilad, Cebu City
University of the Cordilleras College of Law Harrison Road, Baguio City
University of the East College of Law Claro M. Recto Avenue, Manila
University of Eastern Philippines College of Law University Town, Catarman, Northern Samar
University of Iloilo College of Law Rizal & Iznart Streets, Iloilo City
University of Luzon College of Law Perez Blvd., Dagupan City, Pangasinan
University of Manila College of Law MV delos Santos Street, Sampaloc, Manila
University of Mindanao College of Law Bolton Street, Davao City
University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos School of Law Libertad Street, Bacolod City, Negros Occidental
University of Nueva Caceres College of Law Jaime Hernandez Street, Naga City, Camarines Sur
University of Pangasinan College of Law Arellano Street, Dagupan City, Pangasinan
University of Perpetual Help System DALTA College of Law Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona, Las Piñas City
University of Perpetual Help System JONELTA College of Law Santo Niño, Biñan, Laguna
University of San Agustin College of Law Gen. Luna Street, Iloilo City
University of San Carlos College of Law P. del Rosario Street, Cebu City
University of San Jose-Recoletos College of Law Magallanes Street, Cebu City
University of St. La Salle College of Law La Salle Avenue, Bacolod City
University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law España Blvd., Sampaloc, Manila
University of Southern Philippines Foundation College of Law Salinas Drive, Lahug, Cebu City
University of the Philippines College of Law Diliman, Quezon City
University of the Visayas College of Law Colon Street, Cebu City
Virgen de los Remedios College 10 Fontaine St., East Bajac-bajac, Olongapo City
Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation School of Law Martin P. Posadas Avenue, San Carlos City, Pangasinan
Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan College of Law Corrales Ave., Cagayan de Oro City
Wesleyan University - Philippines - School of Law Mabini Extension, Cabanatuan City
Western Mindanao State University College of Law Normal Road, Baliwasan, Zamboanga City

Notable law schools[edit]

Oldest law schools[edit]

The fifteen oldest law schools are as follows:[1]

  • University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law, established in 1734, is the oldest law school in the Philippines. In 1734, the University of Santo Tomas opened a Faculty of Civil Law and a Faculty of Canon Law. From 1734 to 1800 (66 years), out of 3,360 students, only 40 students graduated from various law programs: 29 in Bachelor of Civil Law, 8 in Licentiate in Civil Law, and 3 in Doctor of Law, reflecting the rigid training in these courses. The school has produced four Philippine Presidents, three Vice Presidents, and six Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.
  • Universidad Literia Filipinas, established in 1898, was the second oldest law school in the country. It is no longer operating. The university was established in Malolos, Bulacan and offered programs in law and notary public. The school later moved to Tarlac.
  • Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation) was established in 1899. Don Felipe Calderón, author of the 1899 Malolos Constitution, founded the school. In 1924, the school was renamed the Manila Law School. It was further renamed Manila Law College Foundation.
  • University of the Philippines College of Law, established in 1910, is the flagship law school of state colleges and universities in the Philippines. In 1910, the College of Law of the University of the Philippines opened with fifty (50) Filipino and American students. Justice Sherman Moreland of the Philippine Supreme Court was named as the first dean, but after he ultimately declined the post, he was replaced by George A. Malcolm, the first permanent dean of the College. The school has dominated past and present memberships in the Philippine Supreme Court and other collegiate courts.
  • Philippine Law School was established in 1915. Former Presidents Diosdado Macapagal and Carlos P. Garcia attended the school.
  • University of Manila College of Law was established in 1918. Cecilia Muñoz Palma, the first woman to be appointed Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court and the President of the 1986 Constitutional Commission, earned her Master of Laws from this institution.
  • Far Eastern University Institute of Law, established in 1934, is the alma mater of former Supreme Court Chief Justice Artemio Panganiban, former Philippine President Corazon Aquino, former Philippine Court of Appeals Presiding Justices Oscar Herrera and Salome A. Montoya, and Sandiganbayan senior associate justice Edilberto Sandoval.
  • Silliman University College of Law was established in 1935 with a class of 22 freshmen. Carlos P. Garcia, 4th President of the Republic of the Philippines took law subjects in the school before finally proceeding to the Philippine Law School. Atty. Felix Gaudiel, a long serving dean of the college was a member of the 1973 Constitutional Convention.[33][34][35]
  • Southern College of Law was established in 1935. It is no longer operating.
  • Ateneo de Manila Law School, established in 1936, is the alma mater of former Chief Justice Claudio Teehankee, 1986 Constitutional Commissioner Fr. Joaquin Bernas, S.J.., and former Philippine Vice President Teofisto Guingona.
  • University of San Carlos College of Law in Cebu City, was established in 1937. It is the only law school in the Visayas and Mindanao to be granted license by the Supreme Court to have a Clinical Legal Education Program (CLEP), whereby its senior students are allowed to handle actual cases in the court with the assistance and under the guidance of a licensed member of the Bar. Likewise, it is the first law school outside Manila to be accredited by the Supreme Court to conduct Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE) seminar for lawyers.[36]
  • The Arellano University School of Law, formerly as the Arellano Law College and officially as Arellano Law Foundation, was established in 1938. It formed the early beginnings of Arellano University. Popular broadcaster and former Leyte Representative Ted Failon, former Court of Appeals Presiding Justice Manuel Gaviola, former Senator Francisco Sumulong, and former Congressman Jose Zafra attended the school.
  • Central Philippine University College of Law was established in March 18, 1939, but pre-law courses were offered in 1923.
  • University of San Agustin School of Law was established in 1939.
  • Francisco Law School was established in 1940. It is now defunct.
  • Manuel L. Quezon University was established in 1947. The school can look back with understandable pride to its successful alumni who are scattered throughout the Philippines holding responsible positions in the government and in private business organizations and educational institutions. Among them are former Justices Ricardo C. Puno, Sr., Isagani A. Cruz and Sedfrey Ordonez, the late Mayor of Manila, Antonio Villegas, Justice Artemio Tuquero now Dean of the College of Law, Justices Jose Vitug and Jose Melo, Atty. Augusto B. Sunico who became the president of the University, Atty. Norberto Gonzales and Atty. Lorenzo Miravite.
  • San Beda College of Law, was founded in 1948. Famous alumni include former Senator and Education Secretary Raul Roco, former Senator Rene Saguisag, and former Supreme Court Associate Justice Florenz D. Regalado who holds the highest bar exam grade in the history of the Philippine Bar Examinations.

Bar Performance[edit]

Bar passing rate[edit]

The bar passing rate is the proportion of successful bar exam passers in relation to the total number of bar exam takers coming from a particular law school. The national bar passing rate (proportion of all bar exam passers in relation to all bar exam takers) changes every year, and has gone from an all-time high of 75.17% in 1954 to an all-time low of 16.59% in 1999.[37]

The most recent ranking (December 2015) for the top ten law schools in the Philippines by the Legal Education Board is based on the cumulative performance of law schools in the 2012, 2013 and 2014 Bar Examinations. The list only included law schools which had 20 or more examinees:[38]

  1. University of the Philippines (73.71%)
  2. Ateneo de Manila University (67.55%)
  3. San Beda College-Manila (67.13%)
  4. University of San Carlos (58.00%)
  5. Ateneo de Davao University (53.02%)
  6. University of Santo Tomas (43.98%)
  7. University of Cebu (41.49%)
  8. San Beda College-Alabang (39.10%)
  9. Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (35.80%)
  10. Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan (32.20%)

Bar topnotchers[edit]

Bar topnotchers are bar examinees who garnered the highest bar exam grades in a particular year. Every year, the Supreme Court releases the bar top ten list. The list contains the names of bar examinees who obtained the ten highest grades. It is possible for more than ten examinees to place in the top ten because numerical ties in the computation of grades usually occur.[39]

Schools which have produced bar topnotchers (1st placers)[40] include:

Two bar examinees topped the bar exams without graduating from any Philippine law school:

In the past, non-law school graduates were allowed to take the bar. However, the Revised Rules of Court and Supreme Court Circulars allow only Philippine law graduates to take the bar, necessarily excluding non-law graduates and foreign law graduates from taking part in the exercise.

Law schools with prestigious alumni[edit]

The quality of law schools is often measured by the prestige, influence, or wealth of famous law alumni.[22]

Some of the law schools and their famous alumni include:

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Jorge Coquia. The Legal Profession. Rex Book Store, 1993.
  2. ^ a b c d Curriculum models, Philippine Association of Law Schools, 2006.
  3. ^ a b c Cesar Villanueva, Philippine Leadership Crisis and the J.D. Program
  4. ^ [1].
  5. ^ PLM Curricula and Degree Programs.
  6. ^ [The Weekly Sillimanian Vol. LXXXII No.4: SU Law adopts Juris Doctor Program. By: Princess Dianne Kris S. Decierdo]. Published July 15, 2009.
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ Official Prospectus, Law Department, University of Santo Tomas Graduate School, 2006.
  9. ^ List of programs, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (University of the City of Manila), 2007.
  10. ^ "History of Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan". XU Webteam. Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Honoris causa list, University of Santo Tomas, 2007.
  12. ^ a b c d e List of Honorary Degree Awardees, Ateneo de Manila University. Last updated 2007.
  13. ^ a b c d e Honoris causa list, University of the East, 2007. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "uehon" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  14. ^ Honoris causa list, University of Iloilo, 2007.
  15. ^ Honoris causa list, Centro Escolar University, 2007.
  16. ^ Honoris causa list, Xavier University, 2007.
  17. ^ "Lopez Group Chair: SU Campus is 'Most Environmentally Friendly'". SU NetNEWS. Retrieved 2010-12-09.
  18. ^ Ricardo B. Teruel. Practical Lawyering in the Philippines. Revised Edition. Central Professional Books, 1999.
  19. ^ Official prospectus, University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Canon Law, 2006.
  20. ^ Section 5, Article VIII, The Philippine Constitution, 1987.
  21. ^ Section 2, 5-6; Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  22. ^ a b Alexander L. Lacson. "A Nation Under Lawyers." The Practice: Business and Leisure Magazine for Lawyers. August–September 2004 Issue.
  23. ^ Reports made by members of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Session of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, September 2005.
  24. ^ Court En Banc Resolution, Supreme Court of the Philippines, September 20, 1983.
  25. ^ The Legal Profession, a lecture delivered by Associate Justice Edgardo F. Sundiam of the Philippine Court of Appeals, Ateneo School of Law, June 2006.
  26. ^ Official Website, Supreme Court of the Philippines. Last accessed June 2007.
  27. ^ a b c Republic Act No. 7662, approved on December 23, 1993.
  28. ^ Bar Matter No. 850, Resolution of the Supreme Court En Banc, August 22, 2000, as amended on October 2, 2001, providing for the rules on Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE) for Active Members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP).
  29. ^ a b Supreme Court Administrative Order No. 113-2003.
  30. ^ Milagros Santos-Ong, Office of the Director of Library Services, Supreme Court of the Philippines. May 2006.
  31. ^ Milagros Santos-Ong, Philippine Legal Research, Central Professional Books, 2007.
  32. ^ Directory of Members, Philippine Association of Law Schools, June 2007.
  33. ^ Silliman University: History. Accessed July 19, 2009.
  34. ^ Silliman University College of Law. Accessed July 19, 2009.
  35. ^ G.R. No. L-35546 September 17, 1974 BENIGNO S. AQUINO, JR., ET AL. vs. JUAN PONCE ENRILE, ET AL.. Accessed July 19, 2009.
  36. ^ University of San Carlos College of Law Website
  37. ^ "Bar Passing Percentage from 1946 to 2003." The Practice: Business and Leisure Magazine for Lawyers. August–September 2004 Issue.
  38. ^ "Top 10 best performing law schools in the Philippines". ABS-CBNNews.com. ABS-CBN News. December 2, 2015. Archived from the original on June 8, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2017. 
  39. ^ List of Bar Topnotchers from 1913 to 2006, Office of the Bar Confidant, Supreme Court of the Philippines.
  40. ^ List of Bar Topnotchers from 1913 to 2000, Office of the Bar Confidant, Supreme Court of the Philippines.
  41. ^ List of members, Ateneo de Manila Law Alumni Association, 2006.
  42. ^ List of members, Far Eastern University Law Alumni Association, 2006.
  43. ^ List of members, San Beda Law Alumni Association, 2006.
  44. ^ List of members, University of Santo Tomas Law Alumni Association, 2006.
  45. ^ List of members, University of the Philippines Law Alumni Association, 2006.