Legality of cannabis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Legal status of cannabis)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Map of world cannabis laws
Legal status of recreational cannabis across the world
  Legal
  Illegal but decriminalised
  Illegal but often unenforced
  Illegal

See also countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis.

The legality of cannabis for medical and recreational use varies by country, in terms of its possession, distribution, and cultivation, and (in regards to medical) how it can be consumed and what medical conditions it can be used for. These policies in most countries are regulated by the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs that was ratified in 1961, along with the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances and the 1988 Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.[1][2]

The use of cannabis for recreational purposes is prohibited in most countries; however, many have adopted a policy of decriminalization to make simple possession a non-criminal offense (often similar to a minor traffic violation). Others have much more severe penalties such as some Asian and Middle Eastern countries where possession of even small amounts is punished by imprisonment for several years.[3] Countries that have legalized recreational cannabis are Canada, Georgia, South Africa, and Uruguay, along with nine states and the District of Columbia in the United States. A policy of limited enforcement has also been adopted in many countries, in particular Spain and the Netherlands where the sale of cannabis is tolerated at licensed establishments.[4][5]

Countries that have legalized the medical use of cannabis include Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Peru, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Others have more restrictive laws that only allow the use of certain cannabinoid drugs, such as Sativex or Marinol. In the United States, 31 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the medical use of cannabis, but at the federal level its use remains prohibited for any purpose.


By country[edit]

Country/Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 Afghanistan Illegal Illegal Illegal Production banned by King Zahir Shah in 1973.[6]
 Albania Illegal Illegal Illegal The law of prohibition exists but however with high availability of cannabis plants throughout the country, this law is often unenforced.[7][8][9]
 Algeria Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Andorra Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Angola Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Antigua and Barbuda Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Argentina Decriminalized Legal Illegal Decriminalized for personal use in small amounts and for consumption in private locations, the Supreme Court ruled in 2009.[10]

Medicinal cannabis is legal in Chubut since 23 September 2016,[11] in Santa Fe since 30 November 2016[12] and at national level since 21 September 2017.[13]

 Armenia Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Australia Decriminalized for personal use in the Northern Territory, South Australia, and the Australian Capital Territory[14][15] Legal at federal level and in all states.[16] Qualifying conditions and other details vary by state.[17] Legal for medical purposes.
 Austria Possession for personal use decriminalized as of January 2016. Cannabis-derived drugs Allowed for medical purposes.[18]
 Azerbaijan Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Bahamas Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Bahrain Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Bangladesh Illegal but often unenforced Illegal Illegal Sale banned in 1989.[19] Possession of cannabis is illegal in Bangladesh, with penalties ranging from six months to fifteen years. However, cannabis is openly sold in many parts of the country and the laws are rarely enforced.[20][21]
 Barbados Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Belarus Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Belgium Decriminalized up to three grams Cannabis-derived drugs[22] Decriminalized for cultivation of one plant Since 2003, adults over the age of eighteen had been allowed to possess up to three grams.[23][24]
 Belize Decriminalized up to 10 grams Illegal Illegal Cannabis use in Belize is common and largely tolerated; however, possession can result in fines or imprisonment.[25] In 2016, national media reported that legislation to decriminalize possession of up to ten grams was "in the works".[26]
 Benin Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Bhutan Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis is illegal, but grows prolifically in Bhutan and has multiple traditional uses, such as feeding pigs and producing textiles.[27]
 Bolivia Decriminalized up to 50 grams Illegal Illegal
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Illegal Illegal Illegal In 2016 it was announced that the Ministry of Civil Affairs had formed a task force to explore the legalizing of cannabis and cannabinoids for medicinal purposes.[28]
 Botswana Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis (or dagga) is illegal.[29][30]
 Brazil Decriminalized for small amounts and private use Illegal Decriminalized for small amounts Since 2006, the possession of illegal drugs like cannabis (for personal consumption) entails a warning, community service and education on the effects of drug use. The same measures apply to the planting or preparation of small amounts of any illegal drug.

Selling and transportation of any illegal drugs, as well as the possession or cultivation of larger amounts is characterized as drug trafficking, a criminal act punished with five to fifteen years in prison and a significant fine.[31]

 Brunei Illegal Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 Bulgaria Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis is classified as a class A (High-risk) drug, together with Heroin, Cocaine, Amphetamines and MDMA (ecstasy). Until 2004, a loosely defined "personal dose" existed.
 Burkina Faso Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Burundi Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Cambodia Illegal but often unenforced Illegal Illegal but often unenforced Cannabis is formally illegal in Cambodia.[32] This prohibition is however lax and enforced opportunistically.[33][34][35] Many "Happy" restaurants located in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap and Sihanoukville publicly offer food cooked with marijuana, or as a side garnish.[36]
 Cameroon Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Canada Currently illegal (tolerated in some areas), but to be legalized 17 October 2018 Legal Currently illegal, but to be legalized 17 October 2018 Legal with government issued licence for medicinal or industrial purposes. On 20 April 2016, Health Minister Jane Philpott announced that new legislation would be introduced in spring 2017 to legalize and regulate cannabis in Canada.[37] See Legislation: "Controlled Drugs and Substances Act"[38]
 Cape Verde Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Central African Republic Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Chad Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Chile Decriminalized Legal Legal[39] In 2005, Law 20.000 formally decriminalized private and personal cannabis use.[40] Since 2014, Chile allows the cultivation of cannabis for medicinal purposes with the authorization of The Chilean Agriculture Service (SAG).[41]

Cultivation of marijuana, personal or collective, is legal in Chile. The Supreme Court ruled in 2015.[42][43][44] Sale of marijuana-derived medication is allowed on prescription in pharmacies, from December 2015.[45]

Currently in 2016, a regulation bill which will allow Chileans to grow small amounts of marijuana for medicinal, recreational or spiritual use has been approved by the country's lower house of Congress.[46][47]

 People's Republic of China (PRC) Illegal Illegal Illegal[48]
 Colombia Decriminalized up to 22 grams for personal use Legal for medical use. Legal up to twenty plants for personal consumption. No limit for medicinal use and if licensed by the "National Anti-narcotics Council" Since 1994, cannabis has been legalized for possession of small amounts up to 22 grams for personal consumption. In 2016, The Supreme Court of Justice stated that someone who is caught with a greater amount than the statutory limit cannot be criminally prosecuted if it is found that the person carries the substance to satisfy their own consumption needs.[49] It is legal to possess up to twenty plants for personal consumption.[50][51][52]
 Comoros Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis was legal during the Comorian historical period between January 1975 and May 1978, when president Ali Soilih legalized cannabis consumption among other measures.[53][54]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Republic of the Congo Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Costa Rica Decriminalized[55][56] Illegal Decriminalized Some interpret the law to say cannabis is illegal, but there is a high tolerance of smoking marijuana throughout the country.[55] A decriminalization system is de facto implemented, since police officers do not detain people carrying enough for only personal consumption, yet no amount has been defined as a minimum for possession. The usage of cannabis in Costa Rica is very high.[56]
 Croatia Decriminalized[57][58] Legal[58] Illegal From 2013, the possession of small amount of marijuana and other light drugs is a misdemeanor which leads to a fine of 5000–20000kn ($800–3500) depending on the case in question.

In 2015, the Ministry of Health officially legalized the use of cannabis-based drugs for medicinal purposes for patients with illnesses such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, or AIDS.[58]

 Cuba Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Cyprus Illegal Legal for cancer patients[59] Illegal (decriminalized for some farms to grow hemp) Class B substance – life imprisonment is possible for use and maximum eight years for possession (at the maximum two years for the first offence for under 25-year-olds).[60]
 Czech Republic Decriminalized up to 10 grams since 2014.[61] Initially decriminalized in 2010 for up to 15 grams.[62] Legal Decriminalized for cultivation of up to five plants. Cultivation for medicinal purposes subject to license legal. Since 2010 possession of up to fifteen grams for personal or medicinal use or cultivation of up to five plants is a misdemeanor subject to minor fine - mostly not enforced. Popular destination for smokers.[63][64]

Medicinal use of cannabis on prescription has been legal and regulated since 2013.[65][66]

 Denmark Illegal for recreational use, however, the law is often unenforced by police. (Declared legal in Freetown but this is unrecognized by Danish authorities) Legal Legal with government license. Licenses issued for medical production only. As with all drugs, cannabis-related offences are punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to two years[67] Freetown Christiania, a self-declared autonomous community in Copenhagen, is known for its cannabis trade.
 Djibouti Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Dominica Illegal Illegal Illegal Class B drug to cultivate, sell or possess.[68]
 Dominican Republic Illegal Illegal Illegal
 East Timor Illegal Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 Ecuador Decriminalized up to ten grams Illegal Illegal As defined by Law 108, possession of small amounts of cannabis is decriminalized.[69][70][71] Possession of under ten grams is considered personal use and it is not punished.[72]
 Egypt Illegal but often unenforced Illegal Illegal Although technically illegal, use is widespread and part of every day culture. Convictions for personal use are very rare.[73] Formerly a plant of high status with several documented medicinal uses in ancient times, cannabis was made illegal in 1925 with the League of Nations’ Geneva International Convention on Narcotic Control, and has been aggressively targeted at various points since then.[74]
 El Salvador Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Equatorial Guinea Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Eritrea Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Estonia Decriminalized Illegal Illegal Up to 7.5 grams is considered an amount for personal use, and is punished with a fine. Large amounts and distribution are criminal offences and punishable with a custodial sentence of up to half a decade.[75]
 Ethiopia Illegal Illegal Illegal Despite being the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement, possession of cannabis can result in up to six months imprisonment.[76]
 Fiji Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Finland Illegal but sometimes not enforced Legal under license. Legal for medicinal use only Since 2001 personal use cases are generally not prosecuted in court but subject to summary fine.

Since 2006, use of medicinal cannabis has been possible under a special license. In 2014, 223 licenses were issued.[77]

 France Illegal Some cannabis-derived drugs. Illegal Cultivating, selling, owning or consuming cannabis is prohibited.[78] However, legislation permitting the sale of medications containing cannabis derivatives was enacted in June 2013.[79][80]
 Gabon Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Gambia Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Georgia Legal for possession and consumption but not for sale, per a July 2018 ruling by the Constitutional Court of Georgia[81][82] Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of cannabis exists. Illegal
 Germany Possession illegal, but consumption legal Legal to those with a prescription Legal if permission is given by "Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices" The possession of recreational cannabis is illegal, while consumption itself is legal on the basis of it being considered self-harm, which is not considered a crime. The possession of small amounts is prosecuted, but charges are virtually always dropped.

By January 2015, 241 patients have obtained permission for medicinal cannabis products from a pharmacy since 2008.[83] In mid 2016 around 5000 patients received cannabis products.[84]

On 4 May 2016 the Cabinet of Germany decided to approve the measure for legal cannabis for seriously ill patients who have consulted with a doctor and "have no therapeutic alternative". German Health Minister, Hermann Gröhe, presented the legal draft on the legalization of medicinal cannabis to the cabinet, which took effect in early 2017.[85][86][84][87][88][89]

 Ghana Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Greece Illegal Legal Illegal
 Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat) Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Grenada Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Guatemala Illegal Illegal Illegal In 2016 a constitutional commission rejected proposals to legalize medicinal or recreational use of cannabis.[90][91]
 Guinea Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Guinea-Bissau Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Guyana Illegal Illegal Illegal Possession of 15 grams or over can result in charges of drug trafficking.[92]
 Haiti Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Honduras Illegal Illegal Illegal The possession, sale, transportation and cultivation of cannabis is illegal in Honduras.[93]
 Hong Kong, SAR of China Illegal Illegal Illegal The possession, sale, transportation, cultivation of cannabis is illegal under the Dangerous Drug Ordinance.[94] (Chapter 134 of the Law of Hong Kong)
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 Hungary Illegal Illegal illegal There is no distinction in Hungarian law between illicit drugs according to dangers. Heroin use has the same legal consequences as cannabis use.[95]
 Iceland Illegal Illegal Illegal Banned in 1969.[96] Consumption is illegal even in small amounts. Possession, sale, transportation and cultivation could result in jail time. Possession is not strictly enforced. Heavy fines are given.[97]
 India Illegal at the federal level.
Legal or tolerated in several states such as Bihar, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, and the North-Eastern states.
Decriminalized in Gujarat.
Illegal Illegal at the federal level.
Industrial hemp legal at the state level in Uttarakhand.
Legal or tolerated in several states such as Bihar, Gujarat, Odisha, West Bengal and the North-Eastern states.
Government-owned shops in holy cities like Varanasi and few other north Indian states sell cannabis in the form of bhang. Despite the high prevalent usage, cannabis remains illegal, but is rarely enforced and treated as low priority across India. Large tracts of cannabis grow unchecked in the wild in many parts of northern and southern India.[98] In November 2015, Uttarakhand became the first state of India to legalise the production of industrial hemp.[99] Bhang was removed from the Prohibition Act in Gujarat in February 2017, hence its consumption and sale has been decriminalized in the state.[100] Many states such as Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal and the North-Eastern states have their own laws allowing cannabis, locally known as Ganja. In 2016, a Private Member’s Bill was scheduled to be tabled in the Lok Sabha, which calls for the legalisation and regulation of "non-synthetic" intoxicants, including cannabis and opium.[101]
 Indonesia Illegal Illegal Illegal Banned in 1927.[102] Minimum sentence of four years in prison (additional fines may apply) if caught in possession.[103] However, if the user voluntarily reports himself/herself to the police, or is reported by his/her family, the charges will be dropped in accordance to 2009 Narcotics Act, article 24 paragraph 2, 3, 4.
 Iran Illegal, but not strictly enforced Illegal Illegal
 Iraq Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Ireland Illegal[104] Illegal[104] Illegal[104] The National Drugs Strategy of 2009–2016 did not favour decriminalising cannabis.[105] A new strategy is planned from 2017.[106] Cannabis-derived medicines may be licensed since 2014.[107][108] A review of policy on medicinal cannabis was announced in November 2016,[109] and a private member's bill to legalise it passed second stage in the Dáil in December 2016.[110][111][112]
 Israel Currently illegal; decriminalization to take effect in April 2019 Legal Licensed medicinal providers only Illegal for recreational use, but limited medicinal uses have been permitted since the 1990s.[113]
In early 2017, Gilad Erdan, the nation's Public Security Minister, announced that Israel planned to decriminalize the possession of cannabis for personal use.[114]
In March 2018, the Knesset (parliament) unanimously approved the decriminalization bill.[115]
 Italy Decriminalized; allowed for religious usage Legal Illegal Possession of small amounts for personal use is a misdemeanor subject to fines and the suspension of documents (passports or drivers licenses). The sale of cannabis products is illegal and punishable by imprisonment; cultivation is likewise punishable by imprisonment, even if in small amounts and for exclusive personal use. Licensed cultivation for medicinal and industrial use is strictly regulated.[116]
 Ivory Coast Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Jamaica Decriminalized; legal for Rastafari Legal Legal On 25 February 2015, the Jamaican House of Representatives passed a law decriminalizing possession of up to two ounces of cannabis. The new law includes provisions legalizing the cultivation for personal use of up to five plants, as well as setting up regulations for the cultivation and distribution of cannabis for medicinal, religious purposes and natural growth.[117] In 2018, the first medical cannabis dispensary was opened in Jamaica.[118]
 Japan Illegal Illegal Illegal Restricted in 1948.[119] Use and possession are punishable by up to half a decade imprisonment and a fine. Cultivation, sale, and transport are punishable by up to 7 years or a decade imprisonment and a fine.[120]
 Jordan Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Kazakhstan Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Kenya Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Kiribati Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Kosovo Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Kuwait Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Kyrgyzstan Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Laos Illegal but often unenforced Illegal Illegal
 Latvia Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis is illegal in Latvia.[121] Possession of larger quantities can be punished with up to 1.5 decades in prison. Possession of quantities up to one gram can result in a fine of €280, for second offences within a year period criminal charges are applied.
 Lebanon Illegal Illegal Illegal Hashish banned in 1926;[122] cannabis cultivation banned in 1992.[123] Possession is illegal. However, large amounts are grown within the country and personal use, as long as not in public is not a major issue.[124]
 Lesotho Illegal but tolerated Illegal Medicinal cultivation with Ministry of Health authorisation[125]
 Liberia Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Libya Illegal Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 Liechtenstein Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Lithuania Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Luxembourg Decriminalized Legal Illegal Transportation and consumption are illegal. Since 2001, decriminalized and prison penalty has been substituted by a monetary fine ranging from €250 to €2,500.[126][127]
 Macau, SAR of China Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Macedonia Illegal Legal Illegal If one possesses a larger amount, a jail sentence of anywhere from three months to five years may be given.[128]

Medicinal cannabis was legalized in 2016.[129]

 Madagascar Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Malaysia Illegal Illegal Illegal Malaysian legislation provides for a mandatory death penalty for convicted drug traffickers. Individuals arrested in possession of 15 grams (0.5 ounces) of heroin or 200 grams (7 ounces) of marijuana are presumed by law to be trafficking in drugs.[130]
 Malawi Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis is illegal in Malawi, but remains a popular drug and widely cultivated; Malawian cannabis is famed internationally for its quality.[131] Chamba is grown mainly in central and northern regions like Mzuzu.[132]
 Maldives Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Mali Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Malta Decriminalized up to 3.5g Legal Illegal As of 2015, simple possession is decriminalized, but remains an arrestable offense for the police purpose of collecting intelligence about drug trafficking. Cultivation for personal use will no longer be punishable by a mandatory prison sentence or suspended sentence.[133][134]
 Marshall Islands Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Mauritania Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Mauritius Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Mexico Decriminalized Legal for medical use,
THC content below 1%.[135]
Legal for medical purposes.
Decriminalized for personal use.
On 21 August 2009 Mexico decriminalized "personal use" possession of up to five grams of Cannabis.[136]
In November 2015, the Supreme Court ruled that four individuals from the Mexican Society for Responsible and Tolerant Personal Use would be permitted to grow and smoke their own marijuana. The court voted 4-1 that prohibiting people from growing the drug for consumption was unconstitutional as it violated the human right to the free development of one's personality.[137]
In December 2016, Mexico's Senate voted to legalize the medical use of cannabis - this was approved by the Chamber of Deputies in April 2017.[138]
 Micronesia Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Moldova Decriminalized Illegal Illegal Possession of small quantity and personal use is not a crime in Moldova, but it is an administrative offence according to Article 85 of the Administrative Offences Code, passed in 2008. Selling, cultivation and transport, however, remain illegal and penalized. The illegal purchase or possession of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances in small amounts without the purpose of further distribution, as well as their consumption without a prescription, are sanctioned with a fine of up to three conventional units or with community service of up to 40 hours.
 Monaco Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Mongolia Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Montenegro Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Morocco Illegal but often unenforced Illegal Illegal Cannabis in Morocco has been illegal since the nation's independence in 1957, reaffirmed by a total ban on drugs in 1974, but is partially tolerated in the country, where it has been cultivated for centuries and is still among the world's top producers of hashish.
 Mozambique Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Myanmar Illegal but often unenforced Illegal Illegal but often unenforced
 Namibia Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis is illegal; in 2007 the government proposed but declined a 20-year jail sentence for any drug possession.
   Nepal Illegal (legal during Maha Shivaratri) Illegal Illegal All cannabis licenses canceled in 1973.[6] Despite being illegal, cannabis is cheap and widely available in Nepal, and the police have little-to-no interest in cannabis-related issues.[139]
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 Netherlands Illegal – but use and sale is tolerated in licensed coffeeshops.[5] Possession of up to five grams is decriminalized. Legal Decriminalized up to five plants;[140] plants are generally still destroyed. Home growers can be evicted [141] for one single plant[142] or have their mortgage canceled.[143] Personal possession has been decriminalized since 1976, and cannabis products are only sold openly in certain licensed coffeeshops.[144][145][146] There is a zero tolerance policy in Caribbean parts of the Netherlands.[147]

In some cities, access to coffeeshops is resticted to residents of the Netherlands.[148] Coffeeshops are also unable to legally obtain cannabis, often putting them at risk (this policy is called 'achterdeur-beleid').[149] Possession is decriminalized up to five grams (in case of a police control it is still confiscated), and for public use.

 New Zealand Illegal Limited cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals Illegal Banned in 1927.[150] Cultivation, possession and sale of cannabis is illegal.[151] Legislation to decriminalize medicinal use was introduced in December 2017, but has yet to pass.[152][153] A planned referendum on legality of cannabis is to be held in the future, tentatively scheduled for 2020.
 Nicaragua Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Niger Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Nigeria Illegal Illegal Illegal
 North Korea (DPRK) Unknown Unknown Unknown There are conflicting reports on the legal status of cannabis in North Korea. Multiple reports from defectors and tourists claim there is no law regarding the possession of cannabis (as a result, it is not classified as a drug) in North Korea or if there is, it is mostly unenforced. However, other reports claim that cannabis is illegal.[154]
 Norway Illegal (in progress of decriminalization) Legal Illegal Up to fifteen grams is considered an amount for personal use, and is punished with a fine in the case of first-time offenders; possessing more is punished more harshly. In December 2017, the Norwegian Parliament announced its intention to decriminalize certain psychoactive drugs for personal use, including cannabis and provide for medical treatment to users rather than enforce fines and imprisonment.[155]
 Oman Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Pakistan Illegal, but often unenforced (particularly in some tribal regions) Illegal Illegal The use of cannabis is prohibited in Pakistan, however the smoking of hashish in Peshawar and the northern parts of Pakistan tends to be tolerated. One may be sent to jail for up to six months if found with charas in other parts of the country.[156]
 Palau Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Panama Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Papua New Guinea Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Paraguay Decriminalized up to ten grams Illegal Illegal In Paraguay, Law N° 1.340 (Art. 30), exempted from punishment those in possession of a maximum of ten grams of marijuana for personal consumption.[157][158]
 Peru Decriminalized Legal[159] Illegal Possession is decriminalized Art. 299 of the Criminal Code. Possession of under eight grams is considered personal use and it is not punished.[160][161][162][163]

Illegal: Cultivation, production or sell is punished with eight to fifteen years in prison.[164][165]

 Philippines Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Poland Illegal, but sometimes not enforced for small amounts Legal Illegal On 26 May 2011, Poland introduced legislation that would give prosecutors the option to not prosecute for possession of small quantities of cannabis for personal use, if it is a first offence, or if the person is drug dependent.[166] The legislation raised the maximum possible penalty for placing a large number of drugs from ten to twelve years in prison. However, for possession of large quantities of drugs would result up to ten years in prison (previously up to eight years).[167]
 Portugal Decriminalized up to 25g herb or 5g hashish Legal Decriminalized In 2001, Portugal became the first country in the world to decriminalize the use of all drugs.[168]
 Qatar Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Romania Illegal Cannabis-derived drugs, less than 0.2% THC Illegal Romania was (before 1990) a leader in hemp fiber, second only to China. Possession of small quantities of drug preparations is punishable by a large fine for first offenders, six months to two years in prison if the person has been convicted before. Possession of large amounts or trafficking is punishable by two to seven years of jail time.[169] Decriminalization proposed.[170] Limited medical use approved in 2013.[171][172]
 Russia Decriminalized for possession of up to six grams Illegal Decriminalized for cultivation of up to twenty plants[citation needed] Possession of under six grams of cannabis or two grams of hashish is an administrative rather than criminal infraction.[173]
 Rwanda Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Saint Lucia Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Samoa Illegal Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 San Marino Illegal Legal Illegal
 São Tomé and Príncipe Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Saudi Arabia Illegal Illegal Illegal Use and possession for personal use of any kind of recreational drugs is punishable by imprisonment if caught. Imprisonment for personal use could go up to six months jail time or more. Dealing and smuggling of high amounts of drugs usually result in harsher prison time or even execution, although recently executions are rare. Foreigners who use drugs might be deported.[174]
 Senegal Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Serbia Illegal [175] Illegal Illegal Possession is punishable by a fine or by imprisonment of up to three years. Sale and transport are punishable by imprisonment from three to twelve years. Cultivation is punishable by imprisonment from six months to five years. Higher penalties for organized crime.[176]
 Seychelles Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Sierra Leone Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis banned in 1920.[177]
 Singapore Illegal Illegal Illegal Banned in 1870.[178] Cannabis is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act, making it illegal to cultivate, sell or possess. Those who are caught with 500g of cannabis or more, are presumed as drug traffickers, and are punished with a possible death penalty.[179][180]
 Slovakia Illegal Illegal Illegal Possession or use of small amounts of Cannabis (or only one joint) is punishable by up to eight years in prison.[181][182] In April 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that Robert Fico, the incoming Slovak prime minister, might push for partial legalisation of cannabis possession, and has argued for the legalisation of possession of up to three doses of cannabis for personal use.[182]
 Slovenia Decriminalized Cannabis-based drugs Legal for quantities with ≤ 0.2 % THC on a ≤ 0.1 ha surface, or ≥ 0.1 ha surface with a governmental permit for cannabis cultivation.[183] Cannabis-based drugs are legal for medicinal use, but not cannabis itself.[184][185] Possession of any drug for personal use is decriminalized.[186]
 Solomon Islands illegal illegal illegal
 Somalia Illegal Illegal Illegal
 South Africa Legal for possession and consumption but not for sale. Use is legal, but no system for the dispensing of medicinal cannabis exists. Legal for personal consumption. Up to 3kg. On 18 September 2018, the Constitutional Court of South Africa decriminalised the private use and cultivation of cannabis in the country, the first African country to do so. Users are allowed up to 3kg, anything above is considered dealing by SAPS (South African Police Service).[187][188]
 South Korea Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis banned under the Cannabis Control Act of 1976.[189]
 South Sudan Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Spain Use and possession in private areas is allowed.[190] Consumption in public areas or in public view can result in a fine of 300 €. Possession of more than 70/100 gr (depending on the autonomous community) is considered possession with the intention of trafficking.[191] Limited cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals Allowed in private areas in amounts for personal use (including in approximately 800 Cannabis Social Clubs across the country).[190] If the plants are located somewhere visible from the street/public place, it is an administrative offense.[192] Sale and importation of any quantity of cannabis is a criminal offence, punishable by jail time. All actions related to cannabis apart from sale or trade aren't considered criminal offenses,[193] and normally are misdemeanors punishable by a fine.[194]

In June 2017, Catalonia legalized cannabis after the government voted by 118 to 9 to regulate the local cannabis clubs,[195] but that law was appealed by the state and declared unconstitutional.[196]

 Sri Lanka Illegal Used in some Ayurvedic medicines Illegal Cannabis is illegal in Sri Lanka though it is commonly used in Ayurvedic traditional medicines.[197]
 Sudan Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Suriname Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis was banned in Suriname in the early 20th century, having been popularized there by Asian immigrants.[198]
 Swaziland Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Sweden Illegal Illegal Illegal It is illegal to sell, transfer, purchase, use or possess any quantity of cannabis in Sweden. Social stigmatisation through social rejection and exclusion from the labourmarket and social services are the most common sanctions in matters regarding personal use. The national police runs a "disturb and annoy" program aimed at users supported by the national "zero tolerance" policy. .[199][200]
  Switzerland Decriminalized Legal Illegal Since 2012, possession of ten grams or less is decriminalized to a fine.[201]
 Syria Illegal Illegal Illegal Under the policies of the government of Bashar al-Assad, many cannabis offences, from simple use to trafficking, reportedly often carried a sentence of life imprisonment. As the country has become destabilized as a result of civil war, people living in areas controlled by Kurdish separatists have begun growing cannabis as a way of making money to fight poverty.[202]
 Taiwan (Republic of China, ROC) Illegal Illegal Illegal Cannabis is a schedule 2 narcotic in the ROC, and possession can result in up to three years imprisonment.[203]
 Tajikistan Illegal Illegal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes
 Tanzania Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Thailand Illegal but often unenforced Illegal Illegal Criminalized in 1935.[204] According to the Thailand Narcotics Act, B.E. 2522 (1979), possession, cultivation, and transport (import/export) of up to 10 kg cannabis may result in a maximum sentence of half a decade in prison or a fine.[205]
 Togo Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Tonga Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Trinidad and Tobago Illegal Illegal Illegal Banned in 1925.[206]
 Tunisia Illegal Illegal Illegal Banned in 1953.[207] Using or possessing entails 1–5 years of imprisonment + 1000-3000 dinars (around 500$-1500$).[208][209][210]
 Turkey Illegal Cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals Legal for medical purposes.[211] The cultivation of marijuana is legal in nineteen provinces in Turkey for medical purposes only. However, with permission this can also be conducted in other provinces too.[212] Consuming any drug (personal use or not) is illegal and requires juridical process. Possessing, purchasing or receiving any illegal drug, including Cannabis, is punishable by one to two years in prison; there is also the option of treatment or probation for up to three years. If users refuse treatment or do not comply with probation requirements, the courts can decide on sentencing.[213] Sale and supply is punishable by a prison term of five to ten years, and production or trafficking by a minimum term of ten years.[213]
 Turkmenistan Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Tuvalu Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Uganda Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Ukraine Decriminalized for possession of up to five grams Illegal Decriminalized up to ten plants [214]
 United Arab Emirates Illegal Illegal Illegal Even the smallest amounts of the drug can lead to a mandatory four-year prison sentence.[215]
 United Kingdom Illegal Cannabis-based medicines will be available by autumn 2018 according to a plan announced by Home Secretary Sajid Javid.[216] Illegal Banned in 1928,[217] made a Class B drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971[218]
 United States Legal in 9 states, the District of Columbia, Northern Mariana Islands, and some Indian Reservations – but illegal at federal level. An additional 13 states and the U.S. Virgin Islands have decriminalized.
Legal in 31 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia – but illegal at federal level.[219]
Illegal at federal level, permitted locally in some states allowing recreational or medical use. Laws vary by state, territory, Indian Reservation, and the District of Columbia. Federal law classifies cannabis as a Schedule I prohibited substance under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. The United States Supreme Court has ruled in Gonzales v. Raich that the federal government has the ability to regulate and criminalize cannabis, even for medicinal purposes. However, individuals acting in accordance with state medical cannabis laws are protected from federal prosecution by the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment. Recognized Indian Reservations are allowed to regulate cannabis for both recreational and medical use under a policy announced by the Justice Department in 2014.[220]
 Uruguay Legal; buying prohibited for foreigners Legal for all uses. Legal for up to six plants José Mujica has fully legalized any use of Cannabis in Uruguay; law does not specify quantity for "personal amount".[221] As of 10 December 2013, the House of Representatives and Senate passed a bill legalizing and regulating the production and sale of the drug. The new law says that buyers must be eighteen or older, residents of Uruguay, and must register with the authorities. Authorities will grow the cannabis that can be sold legally.[222][223][224]
 Uzbekistan Illegal Illegal Illegal Opiates, cannabis and other plants containing psychotropic substances are illegal.[225]
 Vanuatu Illegal Illegal Illegal
  Vatican City Illegal Illegal Infeasible
 Venezuela Illegal Illegal Illegal As of 15 September 2010 possession of up to 20 grams of Marijuana or 5 grams of genetically modified Marijuana, if proven not to be for medicinal or personal consumption, is punishable by one to two years in prison at judge's discretion. If deemed to be for personal consumption, the user is subject to security measures involving rehabilitation and detoxification procedures. Articulos 131 y 153 de la Ley Organica de Drogas.[226]
 Vietnam Illegal but often unenforced Illegal Illegal
 Yemen Illegal Illegal Illegal
 Zambia Illegal Illegal Legal if licensed by the Minister of Health; however, no licenses are currently issued
 Zimbabwe Illegal Legal Illegal
Country/Territory Recreational Medical Cultivation Notes


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Habibi, Roojin; Hoffman, Steven J. (March 2018). "Legalizing Cannabis Violates the UN Drug Control Treaties, But Progressive Countries Like Canada Have Options". Ottawa Law Review. 49 (2). Retrieved 22 July 2018. 
  2. ^ Bewley-Taylor, David; Jelsma, Martin; Rolles, Steve; Walsh, John (June 2016). "Cannabis regulation and the UN drug treaties" (PDF). Retrieved 22 July 2018. 
  3. ^ Powell, Burgess (24 February 2018). "The 7 Countries With The Strictest Weed Laws". High Times. Retrieved 21 July 2018. 
  4. ^ Smith, Tasha (5 June 2018). ""New Amsterdam" No More? Spain's Cannabis Clubs Fight to Stay Open". Merry Jane. Retrieved 23 August 2018. 
  5. ^ a b Haines, Gavin (21 February 2017). "Everything you need to know about marijuana smoking in the Netherlands". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 July 2018. 
  6. ^ a b Martin Booth (30 September 2011). Cannabis: A History. Transworld. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-1-4090-8489-1. 
  7. ^ Growing marijuana is an increasing regional problem, SETimes.com, 7 August 2012, retrieved 2013-04-18 
  8. ^ Report Says Albania Cannabis Growth Mounting, balkaninsight.com, 7 March 2013, retrieved 2013-04-18 
  9. ^ Albanian Police Seize Cannabis Shipment, balkaninsight.com 
  10. ^ TNI. "Argentina - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  11. ^ "Por primera vez una provincia argentina habilitó el uso de marihuana medicinal". www.politicargentina.com. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  12. ^ ellitoral.com. "Es Ley el uso medicinal del aceite de cannabis". ellitoral.com. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  13. ^ "El Gobierno reglamentó la ley de cannabis medicinal". Infobae. 22 September 2017. 
  14. ^ Ryan, Jackson (20 April 2018). "Everything You Need To Know About The Plan To Legalise Cannabis In Australia". Lifehacker. Retrieved 5 August 2018. 
  15. ^ "Cannabis and the law". cannabissupport.com.au. Retrieved 5 August 2018. 
  16. ^ "Medical Marijuana in Australia". marijuanadoctors.com. Retrieved 16 July 2018. 
  17. ^ Jolly, William (28 February 2018). "Medicinal Marijuana Legal In Australia". Canstar. Retrieved 16 July 2018. 
  18. ^ "AFP: Austria allows cannabis for medical purposes". afp.google.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2008. Retrieved 21 July 2008. 
  19. ^ "Drug Abuse: Where is The Way of Remedy? (Part II- Some Dangerous Silent Killers)". DhakaInsider. 20 June 2014. Archived from the original on 15 November 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016. 
  20. ^ Government of Bangladesh. "Narcotics Control Act, 1990" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2016. 
  21. ^ "Dhaka, Bangladesh – We Be High". webehigh.org. webehigh. Retrieved 2015-12-05. 
  22. ^ "Medical cannabis plantation offers patients new perspectives - Flanders Today". www.flanderstoday.eu. 
  23. ^ Police fédérale - CGPR Webteam. "Federale politie - Police fédérale". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  24. ^ "Cannabis legal status vault – Belgium". www.erowid.org. Erowid.org. Retrieved 2011-02-17. 
  25. ^ Hubbard, Kirsten. "Drug Laws and Penalties in Central America". About.com. Retrieved 2 January 2014. 
  26. ^ Adele (2016-02-20). "Laws in the works for marijuana decriminalization | Amandala Newspaper". Amandala.com.bz. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  27. ^ "Bhutan" (PDF). UNODC: South Asia Regional Profile: 21–26. September 2005. Retrieved 30 November 2016. 
  28. ^ Bosnia Today. "Bosnia to legalize medical marijuana this year - Bosnia Today". Bosniatoday.ba. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016. 
  29. ^ "Drugs and related substances act no. 18 of 1992" (PDF). Government of Botswana. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  30. ^ "Is dagga the healing of a nation?". Sunday Standard. 7 October 2013. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  31. ^ Congresso Nacional (23 August 2006). "Lei nº 11.343". www.planalto.gov.br (in Portuguese). Brasília: Presidência da República - Casa Civil. Retrieved 13 October 2009. 
  32. ^ "Law on Drug Management (Drug Control)". Council for the Development of Cambodia. Retrieved 16 July 2017. Article 2 : Except for the cases of the article 14, the cultivation of opium poppy, cocoa plants, cannabis indica and cannabis saliva in the Kingdom of Cambodia, shall be prohibited. 
  33. ^ Soenthrith, Saing (15 March 2013). "Foreigners Arrested in Siem Reap Marijuana Bust". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 16 July 2017. Police in Siem Reap City on Tuesday arrested 18 people, including 14 foreign nationals, during raids on two establishments, where they confiscated a stash of marijuana and an as-yet-unidentified powder, police said. 
  34. ^ Goldberg, Lina. "Recreational drugs in Cambodia". Move To Cambodia. Retrieved 16 July 2017. Foreigners are rarely prosecuted for small amounts of marijuana, but expect to pay a few bribes if you do get caught. 
  35. ^ Harfenist, Ethan (30 May 2015). "The high life". Phnom Penh Post. Retrieved 16 July 2017. 
  36. ^ Happy Restaurants (sic) in Sihanoukville, GoSihanoukville.com, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  37. ^ Federal marijuana legislation to be introduced in spring 2017, Philpott says, CBC News, 20 April 2016, retrieved 2016-04-20 
  38. ^ Controlled Drugs and Substances Act, retrieved 2011-10-01 
  39. ^ "Instructivo para acreditar el uso medicinal del cannabis frente a procedimientos policiales" (PDF) (in Spanish). Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  40. ^ TNI. "Chile - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  41. ^ "Chile plants cannabis for medicinal use". BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  42. ^ "El cultivo colectivo de Cannabis, legal en Chile". Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  43. ^ "Autocultivo de marihuana es legal en Chile - Delaferia". Delaferia. Archived from the original on 25 February 2016. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  44. ^ "Ana María Gazmuri: "En Chile hoy en día el autocultivo es legal"" (in Spanish). 24 August 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  45. ^ Grupo Copesa (20 October 2015). "En diciembre estaría autorizada la venta de medicamentos con cannabis en farmacias". Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  46. ^ "Chile lawmakers approve marijuana decriminalisation bill". BBC News. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  47. ^ Aftab Ali (8 July 2015). "Chile cannabis decriminalisation: Lawmakers move to let people grown their own marijuana". The Independent. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  48. ^ Chen, J.; Li, Y.; Otto, J.M. (2002). Implementation of Law in the People's Republic of China. The London Leiden Series on Law. Springer Netherlands. p. 202. ISBN 978-90-411-1834-9. 
  49. ^ "Drogas: la dosis mínima ya no será tan mínima". Semana.com. 2016-03-14. Retrieved 2016-11-23. 
  50. ^ Ley 30 de 1986, alcaldiabogota.gov.co, 31 January 1986 
  51. ^ "Colombia Just Legalized Medical Marijuana". BuzzFeed. 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  52. ^ "Decreto Número 2467 de 2015" (PDF). Ministry of Health and Social Protection (Colombia). 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  53. ^ Dossiers sur les 30 Chefs d'Etat ou de Gouvernements tués Archived 23 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.(in French)
  54. ^ French, Howard (1997). "The Mercenary Position". Transition (73): 110–121. doi:10.2307/2935448. ISSN 0041-1191. JSTOR 2935448. Retrieved 29 June 2018. 
  55. ^ a b Chinchilla ve complicado legalizar la marihuana – EL PAÍS – La Nación, Nacion.com, 24 August 2010, archived from the original on 17 February 2011, retrieved 17 February 2011 
  56. ^ a b Marijuana in Costa Rica: Laws, History and Potential, The Costa Rica News, 18 December 2015, retrieved 2015-12-30 
  57. ^ "Zakon o suzbijanju zlouporabe droga" (in Croatian). Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  58. ^ a b c "Croatia Legalises Marijuana for Medical Use". Balkan Insight. 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-27. 
  59. ^ Tharoor, Avinash (1 February 2017). "Cyprus Set to Provide Cannabis Oil to Cancer Patients". Talking Drugs. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  60. ^ "Overviews of legal topics: possession of cannabis for personal use". EMCDDA. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  61. ^ "Nejvýš 10 gramů konopí. Soud nově stanovil větší než malé množství drog - Legalizace.cz". 9 April 2014. 
  62. ^ "Aktuální zákon o konopí v ČR - Legalizace.cz". 19 October 2017. 
  63. ^ The Next Amsterdam – Culture Magazine, Ireadculture.com, retrieved 2011-12-14 [permanent dead link]
  64. ^ Carney, Sean (8 December 2009), Wall Street Journal. Czech Govt Allows 5 Cannabis Plants For Personal Use From 2010. 8th December 2009, Blogs.wsj.com, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  65. ^ "Czech Republic Pharmacies Began Selling Medical Cannabis". The420times.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  66. ^ "Czech Republic Legalizes Medical Marijuana Use". Huffingtonpost.com. 15 February 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  67. ^ Denmark marijuana laws – cannabis growing and marijuana seeds, 1stmarijuanagrowerspage.com, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  68. ^ Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act, Chapter 40:07 (PDF), retrieved 2011-02-17 
  69. ^ Ecuador, Drug Law Reform in Latin America, retrieved 2011-01-31 
  70. ^ Law 108 – Ecuador (PDF), retrieved 2011-01-31 
  71. ^ US Embassy, Ecuador – Information for American Citizens (PDF), retrieved 2011-01-31 
  72. ^ [1] Archived 2 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  73. ^ Lama Hasan (5 May 2010), Egypt's Pot Problem? A Marijuana Shortage, ABC News, archived from the original on 1 March 2011, retrieved 31 January 2011 
  74. ^ Seshata, Cannabis in Egypt, The Sensi Seed Bank, retrieved 2014-01-20 
  75. ^ Europe Guide : Maps of Europe by language, religion, population density, hair and eye color, etc, Eupedia.com, 19 April 1994, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  76. ^ US warns American Rastas about Ethiopian laws, iol.co.za, 29 January 2005, retrieved 2011-10-08 
  77. ^ Silvàn, Sini. "Lääkekannabis edelleen marginaalinen lääke" (in Finnish). YLE. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  78. ^ Code de la santé publique (in French), Legifrance.gouv.fr, 29 July 2004, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  79. ^ Marie Jamet (6 November 2013). "Legalising or decriminalizing cannabis in France: not that easy". Euronews. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  80. ^ Ann Törnkvist (10 June 2013). "French law on pot-based medicine takes effect". The Local. Retrieved 15 December 2013. 
  81. ^ "Georgian Court Abolishes Fines For Marijuana Consumption". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 30 July 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018. 
  82. ^ "Marijuana consumption regulations unveiled by Georgia's Interior Ministry". Agenda.ge. 5 September 2018. Retrieved 7 September 2018. 
  83. ^ 241 Patienten haben bisher eine Ausnahmeerlaubnis zur Verwendung von Cannabisblüten aus der Apotheke erhalten, cannabis-med.org, retrieved 2015-02-17 
  84. ^ a b Kade, Claudia. "Ab 2017 gibt es Cannabis auf Kassenrezept". Die Welt. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  85. ^ Berlinger, Joshua. "Germany to legalize medicinal marijuana by 2017". CNN. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  86. ^ "Germany to legalise cannabis for medicinal purposes". The Telegraph. 3 May 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  87. ^ "Cannabis als Medizin". Bundesministerium für Gesundheit. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  88. ^ "Cannabis auf Kassenkosten". Tagesschau. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  89. ^ "Medical Cannabis is Now Officially Legal in Germany". Seedsman. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  90. ^ Milena Lopez. "Comisión Rechaza Uso Medicinal De La Marihuana En Guatemala". Tn8.tv. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  91. ^ Juan Toro. "Guatemala: Rechazan uso de marihuana medicinal - Cluster Salud, La Industria de la vida". Clustersalud.americaeconomia.com. Retrieved 2016-11-30. 
  92. ^ "Rastafarian community protests against 'unjust' marijuana laws". Stabroek News. Retrieved 2015-12-06. 
  93. ^ "Ley Sobre Uso Indebido y Trafico Ilicito de Drogas y Sustancias Psicotropicas" (PDF). 
  94. ^ Information on the official web site of the Hong Kong Police Force, Police.gov.hk, retrieved 2011-12-14 
  95. ^ Minstrel, Társaság a Szabadságjogokért: Drogjog 1999 Voted Vote D2ID : 62, Daath.hu, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  96. ^ "Marihuana og LSD loks bannað hér!" (in Icelandic) (235). Tíminn. 25 October 1969. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  97. ^ Lög um ávana- og fíkniefni 1974 nr. 65 21. maí, www.althingi.is, retrieved 2009-02-09 
  98. ^ Panchal, Arjuna (8 November 2015). "Starting the day with the cup that kicks". Gujarat: Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 7 January 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2008. At seven in the morning, people begin slowly trooping into government-run original bhang shops in the district for the drink, made from the leaves of cannabis that grows wild in many parts of Gujarat, India. 
  99. ^ "Uttarakhand To Become First Indian State To Legalise Cannabis Cultivation". Indiatimes. Retrieved 12 March 2017. 
  100. ^ "Gujarat further tightens prohibition - Times of India". indiatimes.com. Retrieved 6 September 2017. 
  101. ^ "Bill for legalised supply of opium, marijuana cleared for Parliament". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 20 January 2017. 
  102. ^ Thomas H. Slone (2003). Prokem. Masalai Press. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-0-9714127-5-0. 
  103. ^ "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia No. 35 Tahun 2009 tentang Narkotika" (PDF). BNN RI. Retrieved 3 May 2013. 
  104. ^ a b c "Drug offences". Dublin: Citizens Information Board. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  105. ^ "National Drugs Strategy (interim) 2009-2016" (PDF). Official publications. Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs. June 2009. p. 26, sec.2.49. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  106. ^ "Minister Catherine Byrne TD announces a Public Consultation on the New National Drugs Strategy" (Press release). Ireland: Department of Health. 6 September 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  107. ^ "Medicinal Products Availability: : Written answers". Dáil Éireann debates. KildareStreet.com. 26 Oct 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  108. ^ "S.I. No. 323/2014 - Misuse of Drugs (Amendment) Regulations 2014." Irish Statute Book. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  109. ^ Harris, Simon (10 November 2016). "Joint Oireachtas Committee on Health: Quarterly Update On Health Issues: Discussion". Oireachtas Joint and Select Committees proceedings. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  110. ^ "Cannabis for Medicinal Use (Regulations) Bill 2016: Second Stage [Private Members]". Dáil debates. kildarestreet.com. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  111. ^ "Medicinal cannabis bill passes Dáil without vote". RTE.ie. 2016-12-01. Retrieved 2016-12-02. 
  112. ^ "Cannabis for Medicinal Use Regulation Bill 2016 Bill 2016 [PMB]". Bills. Oireachtas. Retrieved 5 December 2016. 
  113. ^ Cannabis legal status vault – Israel, Erowid.org, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  114. ^ Israel to decriminalise marijuana for personal use, The Independent, 2017-01-26, retrieved 2017-01-27 
  115. ^ "Israel's parliament unanimously votes to progress cannabis decriminalisation". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-08-12. 
  116. ^ "linkonline.it". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  117. ^ "Jamaica Lawmakers Decriminalize Small Amounts of 'Ganja'". ABC News. 25 February 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2015. 
  118. ^ Bud, Monterey (19 March 2018). "Jamaica's Kaya Farms Becomes First Medical Marijuana Dispensary To Open". marijuana.com. Retrieved 15 July 2018. 
  119. ^ Minoru Shikita; Shinichi Tsuchiya (6 December 2012). Crime and Criminal Policy in Japan: Analysis and Evaluation of the Showa Era, 1926–1988. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-4612-2816-5. 
  120. ^ Cannabis Control Law, japanhemp.org, retrieved 2015-08-04 
  121. ^ "Par Krimināllikuma spēkā stāšanās un piemērošanas kārtību" (in Latvian). likumi.lv. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  122. ^ Robert Connell Clarke (1998). Hashish!. Red Eye Press. ISBN 978-0-929349-05-3. 
  123. ^ Réalités. Spectacle du monde. May 1996. p. 354. Les Américains ne lâchant pas prise, le gouvernement libanais interdisait officiellement la culture du pavot et du cannabis en 1992. 
  124. ^ In Lebanon, a comeback for cannabis / The Christian Science Monitor, CSMonitor.com, 16 October 2007, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  125. ^ "Lesotho Just Granted Africa's First Legal Marijuana License". 13 September 2017. 
  126. ^ "Art. 7 and Art. 8 refer to the usage of narcotics" (PDF), Excerpt of the "Mémorial A" of the Luxembourgish legislation 
  127. ^ Joyce H. Lowinson (2005). Substance Abuse: A Comprehensive Textbook. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-0-7817-3474-5. 
  128. ^ European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies, Encod.org, archived from the original on 18 May 2011, retrieved 17 February 2011 
  129. ^ "Macedonia: Parliament Legalizes Medical Marijuana". Eurasia Review. [permanent dead link]
  130. ^ Malaysia, Travel.state.gov, archived from the original on 17 February 2011, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  131. ^ "AFRICA | Malawi Rastas' marijuana struggle". BBC News. 2000-09-11. Retrieved 2011-04-20. 
  132. ^ "Marijuana Cultivation Increases in Malawi - New York Times". Nytimes.com. 1998-12-17. Retrieved 2011-04-20. 
  133. ^ "New drugs reform law into force today– what has changed?". MaltaToday.com.mt. 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  134. ^ Neil Camilleri (2015-03-17). "Simple possession to remain an 'arrestable offence' - but only to fight drug trade – Bonnici - The Malta Independent". Independent.com.mt. Retrieved 2016-11-26. 
  135. ^ Janikian, Michelle (14 September 2017). "Legal Pot In Mexico: Everything You Need to Know". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 15 November 2017. 
  136. ^ "Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession". The New York Times. 21 August 2009. Retrieved 2010-04-04. 
  137. ^ "Mexico court ruling could eventually lead to legal marijuana". BBC. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-05. 
  138. ^ "Mexico approves legalising medical marijuana". The Independent. 30 April 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-01. 
  139. ^ "Kathmandu, Nepal", webehigh, retrieved 1 November 2016 
  140. ^ "Aanwijzing Opiumwet (2015A003)". 
  141. ^ "Hennep? Einde huurcontract!". 
  142. ^ Roes, Thijs (13 January 2017). "Met je gezin voor twee planten op straat gezet. En meer uitwassen van de strijd tegen wiet". 
  143. ^ "De keerzijde van straffeloosheid - VVS Advocaten". 26 October 2016. 
  144. ^ Use drop-down menu on site to view Netherlands entry., Eldd.emcdda.europa.eu, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  145. ^ Drugs Policy in the Netherlands, Ukcia.org, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  146. ^ "Amsterdam Will Ban Tourists from Pot Coffee Shops". Atlantic Wire. 27 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-23. 
  147. ^ "wetten.nl - Regeling - Opiumwet 1960 BES - BWBR0028519". wetten.overheid.nl. 
  148. ^ "Rechtspraak.nl - Zoeken in uitspraken". uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl. 
  149. ^ Veiligheid, Ministerie van Justitie en. "Toleration policy regarding soft drugs and coffee shops". www.government.nl. 
  150. ^ Dangerous Drugs Act, 1927
  151. ^ Illicit Drugs - offences and penalties, New Zealand Government, retrieved 2016-05-28 
  152. ^ "Medicinal cannabis legislation introduced to 'ease suffering'". NZ Herald. 20 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  153. ^ "Government rules terminally ill people allowed to smoke cannabis". Newshub. 20 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017. 
  154. ^ Shearlaw, Maeve (13 May 2014). "Mythbusters: uncovering the truth about North Korea". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 June 2016. 
  155. ^ "Historisk i Stortinget: Slutt på straff for rusmisbrukere". 
  156. ^ Cannabis legal status vault – Pakistan/Peshawar, Erowid.org 
  157. ^ TNI. "Paraguay - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  158. ^ "En Paraguay, la posesión y consumo personal de la marihuana es legal". E'a. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  159. ^ Collyns, Dan (20 October 2017). "Peru legalises medical marijuana in move spurred by mother's home lab". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 July 2018. 
  160. ^ "Modificando el Código Penal en materia de Tráfico Ilícito de Drogas". Instituto de Defensa Legal – Seguridad Ciudadana. Archived from the original on 2012-10-15. 
  161. ^ "Ley Nº 28002" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2013. 
  162. ^ "Código Penal. Decreto Legislativo Nº 635". 
  163. ^ Manuel Vigo. "Peru rules out proposals to legalize marijuana". Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  164. ^ "Legalización de la marihuana en Perú a debate". Peru21. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  165. ^ TNI. "Peru - Drug Law Reform in Latin America". Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  166. ^ "Poland Approves Drug Decriminalization -- Sort Of". stopthedrugwar.org. Retrieved 26 April 2016. 
  167. ^ Drugs in small quantity and for personal use with no punishment – Poland, Interia.pl, 26 May 2011, archived from the original on 29 May 2011, retrieved 29 May 2011 
  168. ^ EMCDDA: Drug policy profiles, Portugal, Emcdda.europa.eu, 17 August 2011, retrieved 2011-12-14 
  169. ^ Pedepsele pentru traficul și consumul de droguri s-au redus. Totuși..., Reporter NTV, 10 February 2015, retrieved 4 September 2017 
  170. ^ Raport pentru EBA: Comisia prezidenţială susţine dezincriminarea consumului de droguri şi sexul comercial, Antena3.ro, 22 September 2009, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  171. ^ "Romania Legalizes Medical Marijuana, Becomes 10th EU Country To Permit Theraputic Use". Novinite. 6 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  172. ^ "ANM: Nu avem nicio cerere de punere pe piaţă a canabisului medicinal; dacă ar fi, am aproba-o". Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  173. ^ USA. "Half a gram – a thousand lives". Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. PMC 2474596Freely accessible. 
  174. ^ US Department of State – International Travel – Saudi Arabia, Travel.state.gov, archived from the original on 11 December 2013, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  175. ^ Serbian Cannabis: Between Pain and the Law, VICE, 2016, retrieved 2016-07-27 
  176. ^ Krivični zakonik (The Criminal Code), paragraf.rs, 2013, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  177. ^ Emmanuel Akyeampong; Allan G. Hill; Arthur Kleinman (1 May 2015). The Culture of Mental Illness and Psychiatric Practice in Africa. Indiana University Press. pp. 39–. ISBN 978-0-253-01304-0. 
  178. ^ Nanthawan Bunyapraphatsō̜n (1999). Medicinal and poisonous plants. Backhuys Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-90-5782-042-7. 
  179. ^ Cannabis legal status vault – Singapore, Erowid.org, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  180. ^ "MISUSE OF DRUGS ACT". Attorney-General's Chamber. Singapore Government. 31 March 2008. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  181. ^ "High contrast". The Economist. London: Economist Newspaper. 26 August 2010. ISSN 0013-0613. OCLC 60625410. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  182. ^ a b Rousek, Leos (3 April 2012). "Slovakia's Incoming Leftist Premier Wants to Relax Tough Cannabis Laws". The Wall Street Journal. New York, NY: Dow Jones. ISSN 0099-9660. OCLC 43638285. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  183. ^ "Uradni list Republike Slovenije". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  184. ^ "Slovenija dovolila uporabo konoplje v medicinske namene". Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija. Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  185. ^ "Uporaba konoplje v medicini". "NIJZ". Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  186. ^ "Zakon o proizvodnji in prometu s prepovedanimi drogami (ZPPPD)". "Uradni List". Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  187. ^ Lindeque, Mia. "ConCourt upholds ruling that private use of dagga is legal". 
  188. ^ "The highest court has spoken: You are allowed to smoke - and grow - dagga at home". 
  189. ^ Korea News Review. Korea Herald, Incorporated. 1988. p. 44. 
  190. ^ a b Hudson, Ross (21 April 2017). "The Future of Spain's Cannabis Social Clubs". Marijuana Games. Retrieved 27 August 2018. 
  191. ^ "Somos Policías: Tenencia de drogas: ¿Consumo propio o tráfico ilícito?". Somos-policias.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2016-11-23. 
  192. ^ Mac. "¿El auto cultivo de marihuana se despenaliza en España?". La Marihuana. Retrieved 25 February 2016. 
  193. ^ Mac. "Marihuana y su legalidad en España". La Marihuana. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  194. ^ "España endurece las leyes sobre el cannabis en plena corriente mundial por la despenalización". El Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 July 2015. 
  195. ^ "Catalonia legalises marijuana consumption, cultivation and distribution". The Independent. Retrieved 1 July 2017. 
  196. ^ "of the Constitutional Court: The End of Cannabis Tolerance in Spain". 15 January 2018. 
  197. ^ Marijuana Should be Allowed; Sri Lanka Indigenous Medicine Minister Says :: NIDAHASA News, News.nidahasa.com, 2 July 2009, retrieved 2011-02-17 
  198. ^ Rosemarijn Hoefte (1998). In Place of Slavery: A Social History of British Indian and Javanese Laborers in Suriname. University Press of Florida. pp. 160–. ISBN 978-0-8130-1625-2. 
  199. ^ Swedish drug control FINAL_14feb_merged (PDF), retrieved 2011-02-17 
  200. ^ RättsPM 2009:1 (PDF) (in Swedish), Åklagarmyndighetens Utvecklngscentrum, 2009 [permanent dead link]
  201. ^ "FF 2012 7539" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-11-16. 
  202. ^ Ahmad, Rozh (24 August 2012). "www.rudaw.net/english/news/syria/5123.html". Rudaw. Retrieved 17 December 2012. 
  203. ^ Cannabis legal status vault – Taiwan, Erowid.org, retrieved 2015-11-01 
  204. ^ "พระราชบัญญัติกันชา พุทธศักราช ๒๔๗๗" (PDF). Royal Thai Government Gazette. 52: 339–343. 5 May 1935. Retrieved 6 December 2016. 
  205. ^ Eric Blair (2001), History of Marijuana Use and Anti-Marijuana Laws in Thailand, retrieved 2015-08-27 
  206. ^ Axel Klein; Marcus Day; Anthony Harriott (13 November 2004). Caribbean Drugs: From Criminalization to Harm Reduction. Zed Books. pp. 58–. ISBN 978-1-84277-499-1. 
  207. ^ United Nations. Commission on Narcotic Drugs (1949). Summary of Annual Reports of Governments Relating to Opium and Other Narcotic Drugs. TUNISIA 18. A Decree of 23 April 1953“ (published in the Journal Officiel Tunisien of 28 April 1953) prohibits the cultivation of cannabis and the use of takrouri (cannabis) and specifies the conditions under which ... 
  208. ^ The Rough Guide to Tunisia – Daniel Jacobs, Peter Morris – Google grâmatas. Books.google.com. 2001. ISBN 9781858287485. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  209. ^ "Tunisia accuses 'missing' Maltese of smuggling cannabis". timesofmalta.com. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  210. ^ "قانون عدد 52 لسنة 1992 مؤرخ في 18 ماي 1992 يتعلق بالمخدرات" [Law No. 52 of 1992, dated 18 May 1992 concerning drugs] (in Arabic). Tunisia: DCAF / legislation-securite.tn. Archived from the original on 19 December 2015. 
  211. ^ "Turkey legalises controlled cannabis production in nineteen provinces". Retrieved 16 October 2016. 
  212. ^ "Türkiye'de 19 ilde kenevir yasallaştı" (in Turkish). Retrieved 13 October 2016. 
  213. ^ a b European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (31 January 2012), Country overview: Turkey, Lisbon: European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, OCLC 527925326 
  214. ^ Ответственность за выращивание конопли и хранение марихуаны, zakon-online.com.ua, 12 September 2012, retrieved 2014-07-22 
  215. ^ "UAE Drug Laws". BBC News. 8 February 2008. Retrieved 2011-02-17. 
  216. ^ Osborne, Samuel (26 July 2018). "Medicinal cannabis to be available on prescription in UK after being approved for use by government". The Independent. Retrieved 9 August 2018. 
  217. ^ Paul Manning (11 January 2013). Drugs and Popular Culture. Routledge. pp. 136–. ISBN 978-1-134-01211-4. 
  218. ^ "Drug Laws". United Kingdom Home Office. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  219. ^ "State Medical Marijuana Laws". National Conference of State Legislatures. 27 June 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018. 
  220. ^ the D.O.J. allows indian reservations to grow and sell marijuana, nwherald.com, 12 December 2014, retrieved 2014-12-24 
  221. ^ Cannabis South American laws, Erowid.org, March 1995 
  222. ^ "The experiment: Another blow against prohibition". The Economist. 1 August 2013. 
  223. ^ "Uruguay becomes first country to legalize marijuana trade". Reuters. 10 December 2013. 
  224. ^ "Uruguay marijuana sales delayed until 2015: President - Americas". Retrieved 14 January 2015. 
  225. ^ "Criminal Code of the Republic of Uzbekistan" (in Uzbek). The national database of legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Retrieved 2 August 2013. 
  226. ^ Ley Orgánica de Drogas – Sept.10 (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2012, retrieved 17 February 2011