Legal status of polygamy

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  Polygamy is legal
  Legal status unknown
  Polygamy is only legal for Muslims
  Polygamy is illegal, but practice is not criminalised
  Polygamy is illegal and practice criminalised
  • In Eritrea, India, Philippines, Singapore, and Sri Lanka polygamy is only legal for Muslims.
  • In Nigeria and South Africa, polygamous marriages under customary law and for Muslims are legally recognised.
  • In Mauritius, polygamous unions have no legal recognition. Muslim men may, however, "marry" up to four women, but they do not have the legal status of wives.

Polygamy is legal in 57 out of nearly 200 sovereign states, the vast majority of them being Muslim majority countries situated in Africa and Asia. In most of these states, polygyny is allowed and legally sanctioned. Polyandry is illegal in virtually every state in the world. The rest of the sovereign states do not recognize polygamous marriages.

Countries that recognize polygamous marriages[edit]

Africa[edit]

  • Algeria
  • Burkina Faso: Both Muslims and non-Muslims can join in polygamous unions under Burkina Faso law.
  • Burundi
  • Cabo Verde
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Chad
  • Comoros
  • Congo, Republic of the
  • Djibouti
  • Egypt
  • Eritrea (only for Muslims)
  • Gabon: Both men and women can join in polygamous marriage with the other gender under Gabonese law. In practice, the right to multiple spouses is reserved for men only.[1]
  • Gambia
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Kenya: Polygyny legal under legislation passed in 2014.[2]
  • Libya
  • Malawi
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Morocco
  • Niger
  • Rwanda
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Senegal
  • Somalia
  • South Sudan
  • Sudan
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • Uganda
  • Zambia

Asia[edit]

  • Afghanistan
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Bhutan
  • Brunei
  • Indonesia
  • India (only for Muslims)
  • Iran: Permitted for all Muslim men with consent from the first wife.
  • Iraq
  • Jordan
  • Kuwait
  • Lebanon
  • Malaysia (only for Muslims): Legal for Muslim men who can demonstrate the financial capability, judicial consent from existing wives, up to a maximum of 4 wives. Under section 494 of Chapter XX of Penal Code, non-Muslim offenders shall be punished up to 7 years imprisonment.
  • Maldives: Permitted for all Muslim men with consent from the first wife.
  • Myanmar
  • Oman
  • Pakistan: Permitted for all Muslim men with consent from the first wife.
  • Palestinian territories
  • Philipinnes (only for Muslims): Permitted for Muslim men only. Others face six to twelve years of imprisonment.
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Singapore (only for Muslims): Legal for Muslim men who can demonstrate the financial means to support all potential wives, with consent from existing wives, up to a maximum of 4 wives.
  • Sri Lanka (only for Muslims)
  • Syria
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Qatar
  • Yemen

Countries that don't recognize polygamous marriages[edit]

Africa[edit]

  • Angola
  • Benin (not criminalized)
  • Botswana (not criminalized)
  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the (not criminalized)
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Ethiopia
  • Ghana (not criminalized): Illegal under civil law, but recognized under customary law and Sharia law.
  • Guinea
  • Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Mayotte (French territory) (not criminalized): Considered to be de facto illegal since a referendum sponsored by France in March 2009, forcing the island to comply with the French laws.[3][4] However, pre-existing Muslim marriages are currently still valid.
  • Mozambique (not criminalized)
  • Namibia (not criminalized): Recognized under customary law.
  • Nigeria: Recognized in all northern Sharia states, federal law recognizes polygamous unions under customary law.
  • Liberia (not criminalized)
  • Lesotho (not criminalized)
  • Seychelles
  • Sierra Leone (not criminalized)
  • South Africa (not criminalized): Recognized under customary law, and recognised for civil purposes in terms of the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act.
  • Tunisia
  • Zimbabwe (not criminalized)

America[edit]

All countries in the American continent forbid polygamy.

North America[edit]

  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Belize
  • Canada
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • El Salvador
  • Grenada
  • Guatemala
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Jamaica
  • Mexico
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • St. Kitts and Nevis
  • St. Lucia
  • St. Vincent and The Grenadines
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • United States of America

South America[edit]

  • Argentina
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Chile
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Guyana
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Suriname
  • Uruguay
  • Venezuela

Asia[edit]

  • Armenia
  • Azerbaijan
  • Cambodia
  • China: Polygamy is illegal under Marriage Law passed in 1980. This replaced a similar 1950 prohibition.[5] In Hong Kong, polygamy ended with the passing of the Marriage Act of 1971.
  • Georgia
  • Israel
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Laos
  • Mongolia
  • Nepal: Criminalized with sentence of one to three years and fine up to Rs 25,000. However, the second marriage is not annulled and once the completion of the sentence, the second wife carries equal footing as the first one. Even the government pension provided to the wife of the retired government employee after his death is split by the government.[6]
  • North Korea
  • Russian Federation: Factual polygamy and sexual relationships with several adult partners are not punishable in accordance with current[timeframe?] revisions of Criminal Code of Russia and Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Offenses. But multiple marriage can't be registered and officially recognised by Russian authorities because Family Code of Russia (section 14 and others) prohibits registration of marriage if one of person is in another registered marriage in Russia or another country. Polygamy is tolerated in predominantly Muslim republics such as Chechnya, Ingushetia, and Dagestan.[7][not in citation given]
  • South Korea
  • Taiwan: Polygamy is illegal by the 1930 ROC civil law.[8]
  • Tajikistan
  • Thailand
  • Timor-Leste
  • Turkey: Polygamy was criminalized in 1926 with the adoption of the Turkish Civil Code, part of Atatürk's secularist reforms. Penalties for illegal polygamy are up to 5 years imprisonment.[9] Turkey has long been known for its promotion of secularism,[10][11][12] and has introduced measures establishing stricter bars against polygamy; these were passed by the ruling moderate Islamist AK Parti as well. In March 2009, AK Parti effectively banned polygamists from entering or living in the country.[13]
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Vietnam

Europe[edit]

  • Albania
  • Andorra
  • Austria
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria: Illegal and punishable with up to three years imprisonment.[14]
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland: The official prosecutor is obliged to take all cases to a court where more two persons are married to each other and such relationships cease to exist after the court has decided it.[15] Polygamic marriages performed abroad may be recognized only in narrow occasions, for instance in child custody matters.[16]
  • France: Civil marriage registry illegal.
  • Germany: Illegal, punishable with fine or prison time up to three years.[17]
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Kosovo
  • Latvia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Macedonia
  • Malta
  • Moldova
  • Monaco
  • Montenegro
  • Netherlands: Marriage between more than two individuals prohibited; however, a samenlevingscontract may include more than two partners.
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania: Bigamy, defined as marriage conducted by a person which is already married, is punishable by up to 2 years in prison or fine. Knowingly marrying a married person is punishable by up to 1 year in prison or by fine.[18]
  • Russian Federation
  • San Marino
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden: Sweden recognizes polygamous marriages performed abroad, and all spouses are subsequently registered as spouses in the population register, but other spouses than the first spouse may not always be recognized in all occasions.[19][20][21] Only the first spouse is recognized as a spouse when decisions are made on residence permits and social security.[19] A Swede may have four spouses registered at most.[20]
  • Switzerland: Polygamy is illegal by law. But polygamous marriage conducted in another country may be accepted or rejected on a case-by-case basis.[22]
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom: Foreign polygamous marriages grant some welfare benefits only, but this is being phased out with the introduction of Universal Credit.[23] Polygamy is treated as bigamy if a second marriage (or civil partnership) is contracted in the United Kingdom. No legal recognition is extended to spouses of subsequent marriages after the first marriage is recognised even when subsequent marriages are contracted abroad.
  • Vatican City (Holy See)

Oceania[edit]

Note: All countries in Oceania forbid polygamy.

  • Australia: Polygamous marriages cannot be performed in Australia, but polygamous relationships are still common within some indigenous Australian communities.[24] Polygamous marriages entered into abroad are recognised for limited purposes only.[25]
  • Fiji
  • Kiribati
  • Marshall Islands
  • Micronesia
  • Nauru
  • New Zealand: Polygamous marriages cannot be performed in New Zealand, but are permissible if they are legally performed in a country that permits polygamy.
  • Palau
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Samoa
  • Solomon Islands
  • Tonga
  • Tuvalu
  • Vanuatu

Current legislation[edit]

In most countries, a person who marries a person while still being lawfully married to another commits bigamy. In all such cases, the second marriage is considered legally null and void. Besides the second and subsequent marriages being void, the bigamist is also liable to other penalties, which vary between jurisdictions.

The United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand permit some benefits for spouses of polygamous marriages performed in other countries. Sweden recognizes polygamic marriages performed abroad,[19][20] see § Europe. In the Canadian province of Saskatchewan, which allows simultaneous, additional marital rights and obligations for already married persons, prior to married persons becoming divorced from their existing spouse.[26]

The vast majority of Muslim majority sovereign states recognize polygamous marriages: these states span from West Africa to Southeast Asia. Exceptions to the legality of polygamy in the Middle East occur in Israel, Turkey and Tunisia.[27] The Palestinian territories — consisting of West Bank and Gaza Strip — permit polygamous unions for Muslim citizens of the territories.[28]

Predominantly Christian nations usually do not allow polygamy, with a handful of exceptions such as the Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Zambia. Myanmar (formally known as Burma) is also the only predominately Buddhist nation to allow for civil polygamous marriages.[29]

Almost a dozen countries that do not permit polygamous civil marriages recognize polygamous marriages under customary law. All the northern states in Nigeria governed by Islamic Sharia law recognize polygamous marriages. The autonomous regions of Somaliland and Puntland in northern Somalia also recognize polygamy, as does the country's Transitional Federal Government itself, since the country is governed by Sharia law. The recently independent country of Southern Sudan also recognizes polygamy.

Polyandry is de facto the norm in rural areas of Tibet, although it is illegal under Chinese family law. Polygamy continues in Bhutan[30] in various forms as it has since ancient times. It is also found in parts of Nepal,[31] even despite its formal illegality in the country.[32]

Debates of legalizing polygamous marriages continue in Central Asian countries.[citation needed]

International law[edit]

In 2000, the United Nations Human Rights Committee reported that polygamy violates the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), citing concerns that the lack of "equality of treatment with regard to the right to marry" meant that polygamy, restricted to polygyny in practice, violates the dignity of women and should be outlawed.[33] Specifically, the reports to UN Committees have noted violations of the ICCPR due to these inequalities[34] and reports to the General Assembly of the UN have recommended it be outlawed. [35][36] Many Muslim states are not signatories of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Malaysia, Brunei, Oman, and South Sudan; therefore the UN treaty doesn't apply to these countries.[37] It has been argued by the Department of Justice of Canada that polygyny is a violation of International Human Rights Law.[38]

Europe[edit]

United Kingdom: Foreign polygamous marriages grant some welfare benefits only, but this is being phased out with the introduction of Universal Credit.[23] Polygamy is treated as bigamy if a second marriage (or civil partnership) is contracted in the United Kingdom. No legal recognition is extended to spouses of subsequent marriages after the first marriage is recognised even when subsequent marriages are contracted abroad.

North America[edit]

Bigamy laws throughout the United States
  Misdemeanor
  Felony
  All forms of cohabitation outlawed (but a federal court has challenged this [39])

United States: Polygamy is illegal in all 50 states.[40]
From about 1847 to 1857, in what is now the state of Utah, many Mormons practiced polygamy, which was widely condemned in the rest of the US. The US federal government threatened The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and made polygamy illegal through the enforcement of Acts of Congress such as the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act. The LDS Church formally outlawed the practice in 1890, in a document labeled 'The Manifesto'.[41][42] Small splinter groups from the LDS Church, such as Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and the Apostolic United Brethren still practice polygamy and awareness has been increased through television dramas such as Big Love and reality shows such as Sister Wives.

Among American Muslims, a small minority of around 50,000 to 100,000 people are estimated to live in families with a husband maintaining an illegal polygamous relationship.[40]

Canada: All forms of polygamy, and some informal multiple sexual relationships, are illegal under section 293 of the Criminal Code.[43] Bigamy is banned by section 290.[44] However, for a long time, the law banning polygamy has not been efficient. As of January 2009, no person had been successfully prosecuted, i.e. convicted, in over sixty years.[42] In 2009, two acquittals on polygamy charges, arising out of the town of Bountiful, British Columbia, prompted the government of British Columbia to pose a reference question to the Supreme Court of British Columbia (i.e., the superior trial court). The reference questions asked if criminalisation of polygamy was consistent with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; and, if so, under what circumstances could people be legally punished for polygamy.[45]

In November 2011 the court released its 335 page long decision, which was that the criminal offence of polygamy is indeed constitutional, but that it should not be used to prosecute minors for having taken part of a polygamous marriage.[46] Chief Justice Robert Bauman conceded that there is a conflict between this law and some civil right principles, but stated that there are other and "more important" issues which in this case take precedence. He wrote (as quoted by CBC news[46]):

I have concluded that this case is essentially about harm. More specifically, Parliament's reasoned apprehension of harm arising out of the practice of polygamy. This includes harm to women, to children, to society and to the institution of monogamous marriage.

Bauman argued that there are cases where the "wives" (who may be rather young; sometimes as young as 12 years) are abducted and abused, but because they believe in a faith promoting polygamy, they are not willing to bring complaints to the authorities. He reasons that these offences sometimes may be stopped by applying anti-polygamy legislation.

The decision was welcomed by the Attorney General of British Columbia, and by a representative for the group Stop Polygamy in Canada. Likewise, according to the CBC news,[46] some polyamorous groups in Canada expressed their relief, since Bauman had stated that the law shouldn't apply to them unless they decide to formalize their unions.

Women's rights were central to decision.[46]

See the map and template for more in-depth information.

Status disputed or unclear[edit]

Africa[edit]

Democratic Republic of the Congo – While the nation has been said to have legally recognized polygamous unions in the past, their current legal recognition is unknown.[47]

Equatorial Guinea[citation needed]

Swaziland: There is no legal recognition yet the practice itself is not disallowed. As of 2010, the king had thirteen spouses.[48]

South America[edit]

Brazil – A legally married person or a married couple cohabiting with one or more sexual partner(s) is prohibited by law. Known as bigamy, it is punishable by two to six years of imprisonment,[49] and is valid for every Brazilian citizen, including naturalized ones.

In May 5, 2011 long-term cohabitation between non-married persons, known as união estável ("stable union"), was extended to same-sex couples, recognized as a family entity and granted all 112 rights of married couples – its only legal difference from marriage is that it does not change individual civil status from single to married.

One of such uniões estáveis, in Tupã, São Paulo, was registered as including a man and two women, as reported in August 2012. Doubts were thrown on its legality, as it was unclear whether it is in accordance with Brazilian law.[50] It has not, however, set any precedence, and higher Brazilian courts have not permitted the practice.

A second união estável-bound trio took place in the city of Rio de Janeiro, this time between three women, in October 2015. Unlike in the 2012 case, same-sex marriage in Brazil has been legalized ever since, and the legal situation in Brazil, in respect to the expansion of what is legally considered a family, is reported by the notary herself to be increasingly based on the principles of human dignity, plurality, and legal openness to the continuous development of society and culture, as well as the fact that, in Brazilian civil law, things that are not prohibited by the law can be argued to be allowed. However, doubts were again thrown on the legality of such a union, due to how both the continuous legal and social hegemony of monogamy in Brazil, and its law prohibiting bigamy in marriage, will affect jurisprudence.[51][52]

Notable legislation[edit]

The tables below cover recent pieces of legislation that have been either debated, proposed or voted on; all of which concern a form of polygamous union.

To permit polygamy[edit]

Country Date Polygamous union Upper House Lower House Head of State Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
Iraq Iraq 1963 Polygamous civil marriage (revoke of prohibitions)[53] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
United Kingdom United Kingdom 1987 or earlier Foreign marriages may receive benefits payments, being phased out[23]
Malawi Malawi 1994 Customary law (recognizes polygamous unions)[54] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Libya Libya 1998 Polygamous civil marriage [55] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
South Africa South Africa 1998 Customary marriage (civil recognition)[56] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Namibia Namibia 2003 Customary law (recognizes polygamous unions)[57] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Namibia Namibia 2004 Pension benefits to wives of a deceased president[58] - Failed - No No
Uganda Uganda 2005 Polygamous civil marriage (easing of laws; plus restrictions) Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 2007 Polygamous civil marriage[59] Failed - - - No No
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 2007 Polygamous civil marriage[59] Failed - - - No No
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 2007 Polygamous civil marriage Failed - - - No No
Tajikistan Tajikistan 2007 Polygamous civil marriage Failed - - - No No
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 2007 Polygamous civil marriage Failed - - - No No
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan June 2008 Polygamous civil marriage[60] Failed - - - No No
Iran Iran September 2008 Polygamous civil marriage (easing of laws)[61] Failed - - - No No
Namibia Namibia July 2009 Polygamous civil marriage[62] Proposed - - - -
Russia Russia 2009 Polygamous civil marriage Proposed - - - -
Kenya Kenya March 2014 Polygamous civil marriage Passed[2] - - - Yes Yes

To outlaw polygamy[edit]

Country Date Prohibition type Upper House Lower House Head of State Final
outcome
Yes No Yes No
United States United States July 1862 Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act, which made polygamy a misdemeanor offense in US territories and other areas where the federal government has exclusive jurisdiction. ' ' Signed Yes Yes
United States United States March 1882 Edmunds Act, which reinforced Morrill by making polygamy a felony in the jurisdictions covered by Morrill; also prohibited "bigamous" or "unlawful cohabitation" as a misdemeanor offense, which removed the need to prove that actual marriages had occurred in order to obtain convictions on polygamy related charges. Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of Turkestan ASSR (1919-1921).svg Turkestan ASSR (modern Kyrgyzstan) October 1921 Outlaws polygamy[63] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Thailand Thailand October 1935 Outlaws polygamy; polygamous marriage[64] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Vietnam North Vietnam (modern Vietnam) October 1950 Outlaws polygamy Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Syria Syria 1953 Restrictions on polygamous marriage[53] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
India India 1955 Outlaws polygamy and polygamous marriages for Hindus only[65] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Tunisia Tunisia 1956 Ban on polygamy; polygamous marriages[66] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Iraq Iraq 1959 Ban on polygamy; polygamous marriage[53] Passed Passed Signed No Revoked
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire 1964 New penal code outlaws polygamy; polygamous marriages (upholds existing) Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Hong Kong British Hong Kong (modern Hong Kong) 1971 Outlaws polygamy[67] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Flag of the EPLF.svg Eritrean People's Liberation Front (modern Eritrea) 1977 Outlaws polygamy; polygamous marriage (districts under Sharia exempt)[68] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Egypt Egypt 1979 Restrictions on polygamous marriage; ease of divorce laws[66] Passed; abrogated - - - No No
Egypt Egypt 1985 Restrictions on polygamous marriage (less liberal)[66] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
France France 1993 Outlaws family reunion for polygamist immigrants[69] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Uganda Uganda December 2003 Outlaws polygamy[70] Failed - - No No
Morocco Morocco 2003 Restrictions on polygamous marriage[66] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Benin Benin August 2004 New penal code outlaws polygamy; polygamous marriages (upholds existing)[71] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Morocco Morocco February 2005 Restrictions on polygamous marriage (heavy restrictions)[72] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Uganda Uganda July 2005 Outlaws polygamy[73] Failed - - No No
Indonesia Indonesia 2007 Bans civil servants from living polygamously[74] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Morocco Morocco May 2008 Restrictions on polygamous marriage (heavy restrictions)[citation needed] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Uganda Uganda June 2008 Outlaws polygamy[70] Failed - - No No
Iraqi Kurdistan Iraqi Kurdistan Nov. 2008 Outlaws polygamy except in selective circumstances[75] Passed Passed Signed Yes Yes
Mayotte Mayotte March 2009 Mahoran status referendum, 2009 (passage outlaws polygamy)[76] Territory-wide Referendum Yes Yes
Turkey Turkey May 2009 Disallows polygamists from immigrating into the country[77][not in citation given] Yes Yes
Indonesia Indonesia July 2009 Restrictions on polygamous marriage[78] Pending Pending - -
Namibia Namibia July 2009 Ban on polygamy & polygamous customary marriages Proposed - - - -

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "African Women's Rights Observatory > Country Specific Information - Gabon". 
  2. ^ a b "Kenyan parliament passes polygamy law". Al Jazeera. March 21, 2014. 
  3. ^ Angelique Chrisafis in Paris (March 26, 2009). "Welcome to France: home of sun, sea, sand, polygamy and the Indian Ocean". Guardian. London. Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Muslim island must give up polygamy as price of being part of France". Sydney Morning Herald. March 31, 2009. Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
  5. ^ Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China
  6. ^ http://www.lawcommission.gov.np/site/en/content/muluki-ain-general-code-2020
  7. ^ Osborn, Andrew (2006-01-14). "War-ravaged Chechnya needs polygamy, says its leader". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 2006-01-17. 
  8. ^ 民法-結婚要件之研析
  9. ^ "Polygamy Fosters Culture Clashes (and Regrets) in Turkey", New York Times, 10 July 2006
  10. ^ ""Turkey Between Secularism and Islamism" by Jacob M. Landau". 
  11. ^ "Turkey's secularism 'threatened'", BBC
  12. ^ Alev Çinar, "Modernity, Islam, and Secularism in Turkey"
  13. ^ "Polygamy in Turkey", Polygamy 411, May 2009
  14. ^ "Bulgarian Penal Code, art. 179". Retrieved 8 April 2016. 
  15. ^ http://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1929/en19290234.pdf
  16. ^ http://www.finlex.fi/fi/esitykset/he/2001/20010044
  17. ^ "§172 StGB". 
  18. ^ "Romanian Penal Code, art. 376". Retrieved 5 February 2015. 
  19. ^ a b c Svenska Dagbladet: Månggifte godkänns – ibland (accessed January 15, 2016)
  20. ^ a b c Aftonbladet: Jodå – månggifte ÄR tillåtet i Sverige (accessed January 15, 2016)
  21. ^ http://www.exponerat.net/tillatet-for-man-att-ha-flera-fruar/" (accessed January 16, 2015)
  22. ^ http://www.rwi.uzh.ch/oe/cimels/Eheschliessungen_im_Ausland.pdf
  23. ^ a b c "House of Commons Library Briefing Note: Polygamy" (PDF). House of Commons Library. October 12, 2011. 
  24. ^ http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lrc.nsf/pages/ip26chp09
  25. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/fla1975114/s6.html
  26. ^ "The Problem of "relationship overlap" in Saskatchewan". 5 January 2011. 
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  28. ^ "Palestinian Marriage Laws". Law.emory.edu. Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
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  32. ^ "Multiple Damage of Polygamy by Saktida". Boloji.com. October 31, 2004. Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
  33. ^ "Equality of Rights Between Men and Women". University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. 
  34. ^ "OHCHR report" (PDF). Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 
  35. ^ "Report of the Human Rights Committee" (PDF). United Nations General Assembly. 
  36. ^ "GENERAL COMMENTS ADOPTED BY THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE UNDER ARTICLE 40, PARAGRAPH 4, OF THE INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS". United Nations Human Rights Website. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. 
  37. ^ "United Nations Treaty Collection". 
  38. ^ "POLYGYNY AS A VIOLATION OF INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW". Department of Justice, Government of Canada. 
  39. ^ "Utah Polygamy Law Partially Struck Down By Federal Judge Following 'Sister Wives' Lawsuit". 28 August 2014. 
  40. ^ a b Barbara Bradley Hagerty (May 27, 2008). "Some Muslims in U.S. Quietly Engage in Polygamy". National Public Radio: All Things Considered. Retrieved July 23, 2009. 
  41. ^ Lyman, Edward Leo (1994), "Statehood for Utah", in Powell, Allan Kent, Utah History Encyclopedia, Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, ISBN 0874804256, OCLC 30473917 
  42. ^ a b Lak, Daniel (January 21, 2009). "Polygamy in Canada". CBC News. Retrieved July 23, 2009. 
  43. ^ Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46, s 293.
  44. ^ Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c C-46, s 290.
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  47. ^ DRC Women's Rights: Polygamy
  48. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Swaziland: Laws and customs regarding polygamy in Swaziland". Unhcr.org. Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
  49. ^ "DEL2848compilado". 
  50. ^ "Three-person civil union sparks controversy in Brazil". BBC. 
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  52. ^ "Rio registra primeira união estável realizada entre três mulheres" [Rio registers the first união estável realized by three women] (in Portuguese). O Estado de S. Paulo. 18 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
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  54. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRREGTOPGENDER/Resources/MalawiSCGA.pdf
  55. ^ "Middle East | Gadaffi outrage over polygamy bill". BBC News. February 25, 1999. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  56. ^ "Customary marriages now legal". News24. SAPA. November 15, 2000. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  57. ^ "Microsoft Word – news03.2-customary marriage.doc" (PDF). Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
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