Legality Movement

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Participant in World War II
Coat of arms of the Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939).svg
Coat of arms of the Albanian Kingdom
Active 1941–1945
Ideology Monarchism,
Albanian nationalism
Leaders Abaz Kupi
Headquarters Mat
Area of operations Albania
Allies Allies, Great Britain
Opponents Albanian partisans
Battles and wars Albanian resistance of World War II

The Legaliteti (Albanian: Lëvizja Legalitetit; English: Legality Movement) were an Albanian royalist and pro-monarchy faction founded in 1941. It was led by Abaz Kupi.[1]


Zog of Albania

The Legaliteti sought the return of King Zog, who had fled the country on the eve of the Italian invasion.[2] The Legaliteti consisted of supporters from mostly the northern mountain tribes, particularly the Mati region.[3] The Legaliteti were anti-communist. Despite being nationalistic, the Legaliteti were against the Balli Kombëtar as the Balli Kombëtar were the patriots and pro-republic while the Legaliteti were loyalists and royalists.[4] The Balli Kombëtar believed the cession of the Monastery of Saint Naum to Yugoslavia by King Zog to be a criminal act. The Legaliteti believed in the ideas of King Zog and Essad Pasha, while the Balli Kombëtar believed in the ideology from the likes of Naim Frashëri, Avni Rustemi, Fan S. Noli and Luigj Gurakuqi.[5][6]


The negative action of the Albanian Communists on the Kosovo issue alienated a significant number of its adherents from that border region. Following November 1943, Abaz Kupi, until the Mukje Agreement, was a member of the Central Council of the NLM, withdrew with others to form the Legaliteti.[3] Kupi was a respected Gheg chieftain who had commanded King Zog's troops in Durrës when the Italians invaded Albania. In the early 1940s, three new political factions emerged within Albania after the Italians were defeated: the Albanian Communists, Balli Kombëtar (National Front), and Legaliteti (Legality). The Allied forces originally supported the Legaliteti. Being the smallest faction with no significant influence in Albania, the Allies broke aid with the Legaliteti and aided the Yugoslav Partisans, who in turn backed the Albanian communists.[7] In 1945, the Albanian communists assumed control over Albania at the end of World War II. Most Legaliteti members were executed or had escaped to the west.[7]


The monarchist Legality Movement Party takes its name from the group.


  1. ^ Irene Grünbaum. Escape Through the Balkans: The Autobiography of Irene Grünbaum. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  2. ^ Peter Lucas. OSS in World War Two Albania by Peter Lucas. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Edwin E. Jacques. The Albanians: an ethnic history from prehistoric times to the present. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  4. ^ Hutchings, Raymond (1996). Historical Dictionary of Albania. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 148. ISBN 0-8108-3107-4. LCCN 95-26304. 
  5. ^ British Society for International Understanding. "British survey, Issues 178-213". 
  6. ^ Eugene K. Keefe, American University (Washington, D.C.). Foreign Area Studies. Area handbook for Albania. 1970. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Walter R. Roberts. Tito, Mihailović, and the allies, 1941-1945. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 

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