Map of Albay showing the location of Legazpi
|Region||Bicol (Region V)|
|Cityhood||June 12, 1959|
|• Mayor||Noel Rosal|
|• Total||153.70 km2 (59.34 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Density||1,200/km2 (3,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|Dialing code||+63 (0)52|
|Income class||2nd class; urban|
Legazpi, officially the City of Legazpi (Bikol: Ciudad nin Legazpi; Spanish: Ciudad de Legazpi) and often referred to as Legazpi City, is a component city and capital of the province of Albay in the Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 182,201.
Legazpi City is the administrative center and largest city of the Bicol Region. It is also considered as the center of tourism, education, health services, commerce and transportation in the Bicol Region.
Mayon Volcano, one of the Philippines' most popular icons and tourist destinations, is partly within the city's borders. Legazpi is located on the east or Pacific coast of Albay province, specifically on Albay Gulf. The city comprises two districts: Legazpi Port, and Albay District. Legazpi uses the nickname is the "City of Fun and Adventure".
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Barangays
- 4 Climate
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Places of interest
- 8 Media
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Education
- 11 Health care
- 12 Notable Legazpeños
- 13 Twin towns – Sister cities
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Legazpi was named after Miguel López de Legazpi, the Basque Spanish conquistador who officially annexed the Philippine Islands to the Spanish Empire in 1565, and whose surname came from a town in Gipuzkoa, Spain.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2014)|
Legazpi was originally a fishing settlement called Sawangan that occupied what is now the Legazpi Port, whose inhabitants were mostly fishermen and farmers.
In 1587, Franciscan friars of the Doctrina de Cagsawa began to convert the area's population to Christianity and in 1616, founded a separate parish town a few kilometres inland called Albay. Its first parish priest built a small chapel and established the Misión de San Gregorio Magno de Sawangan. Eventually, Sawangan was absorbed into Albay, which later gave its name to the entire province.
On September 22, 1856, through Royal Decree, the name Legazpi was officially adopted and the settlement was expanded to include the visitas of Lamba, Rawis and Bigaa. The newly expanded and independent town of Legazpi was officially inaugurated on October 23, 1856.
After the eruption of Mayon Volcano on February 1, 1814, Legazpi residents evacuated to Makalaya (now Taysan). At the decree of the Gobierno Superior on October 1, 1829, they were prohibited from establishing another town, leaving them to settle in Taytay (Bagumbayan). In 1818, Sawangan (now called Albay Viejo, 'Old Albay'), was partitioned from Cagsawa and made the capital of Partido de Ibalon (the former name of Albay Province). Some remained in Albay Viejo and established a new settlement around an ermita (hermitage/chapel of ease) dedicated to the Archangel Raphael, whom they adopted as their patron saint after Saint Gregory the Great had been transferred to the new site of Albay.
Legazpi was first declared a city under the Becerra Law of 1892 by Rona Cantuba Mecayer. The new city comprised the municipalities of Legazpi, Albay Nuevo, and Daraga under the Ayuntamiento de Albay.
Battle of Legazpi
The battle of Legazpi started when the Americans landed in Legazpi in January 23, 1900. The Filipinos were led by Gen Ignacio Paua with 245 riflemen, an engineer corps, 200 artillery recruits, and a Bolo Contingent. The Filipino troops were inferior against the well-armed American troops but their patriotism gave the Americans a hard time in taking Legazpi.
The Filipinos were entrenched in strategic positions in Legazpi but the American troops were using naval gunfire support that bombarded the positioned troops. The bloodiest battle took place at the San Rafael Bridge which resulted in hand-to-hand combat.
American Colonial Era
Following their occupation of the city in 1900, the American colonizers cancelled the Legazpi's city status. In 1908 after the war's conclusion, the Americans split Legazpi into two separate towns, Legazpi Port and Albay District, which became the provincial capital of Albay. In 1922, the town of Daraga was further split from the then municipality of Albay.
World War II
After the Japanese invasion of Legazpi, a few days after the start of Attack on Pearl Harbor, on December 12, 1941 Legaspi was occupied by forces of the Imperial Japanese Army, and the airstrip outside town was an important center for Japanese operations. Throughout the Japanese occupation, resistance by Bicolano and local troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army continued in the hills and mountains south of Legazpi. In January 1945, American and Filipino liberation forces supported by Bicolano guerrillas liberated Legazpi. However, the city suffered extensive aerial bombardment from US aircraft and many old buildings were destroyed.
Legazpi became a city for the second time on July 18, 1948, when Daraga and Legazpi were combined to constitute its territory under Republic Act No. 306; at that time, President Elpidio Quirino commissioned Ma. Leonora Mecayer as the first City Mayor. But on June 8, 1954, Republic Act No. 993 was approved, recreating the two towns (Daraga and Legazpi) and the city was dissolved.
Finally, on June 12, 1959, Legazpi became a city for the third time under Republic Act no. 2234. Amendments were introduced under R.A. 5525. Presidential Decree 125 issued on February 23, 1973, declared the town of Daraga as part of the territorial jurisdiction of the city. This decree, however, was not implemented with the onset of the Integrated Reorganization Plan, which involved the restructuring of local governments.
Designation as Administrative Center of Bicol
On September 24, 1972, then President Ferdinand Marcos designated Legazpi as the administrative center of Bicol Region through the Integrated Reorganization Plan of 1972, the implementing framework of Presidential Decree No. 1.
|Bgy. 1||Em's Barrio||Urban||3,817||Adronico D. Geraldino|
|Bgy. 2||Em's Barrio (South)||Urban||1,806||Echedita M. Salcedo|
|Bgy. 3||Em's Barrio (East)||Urban||973||Jose P. Pispis|
|Bgy. 4||Sagpon||Urban||881||Felixberto S. Cordornez, Jr.|
|Bgy. 5||Sagmin||Urban||1,261||Alberto R. Murilla|
|Bgy. 6||Bañadero||Urban||1,353||Alex Locsin|
|Bgy. 7||Baño||Urban||817||Domingo Pasano, Jr.|
|Bgy. 8||Bagumbayan||Urban||3,175||Gil L. Alianza|
|Bgy. 9||Pinaric||Urban||1,415||Roy A. Nanoz|
|Bgy. 10||Cabugao||Urban||587||Victor Lapasaran|
|Bgy. 11||Maoyod||Urban||970||Manuel A. Omnes|
|Bgy. 12||Tula-Tula||Urban||2,686||Miguelito A. Barcoma|
|Bgy. 13||Ilawod West Pob. (Ilawod 1)||Urban||735||Marilou Baltazar|
|Bgy. 14||Ilawod Pob. (Ilawod 2)||Urban||825||Susana M. Contacto|
|Bgy. 15||Ilawod East Pob. (Ilawod 3)||Urban||1,790||Herlim Azotea|
|Bgy. 16||Kawit||Urban||5,130||Jonathan Rodenas|
|Bgy. 17||Rizal St. - Ilawod||Urban||1,832||Lina Chan|
|Bgy. 18||Cabañgan (West)||Urban||2,668||Leoncio Song|
|Bgy. 19||Cabañgan||Urban||1,246||Roger H. Esquivel|
|Bgy. 20||Cabañgan (East)||Urban||560||Nimfa Bolanos|
|Bgy. 21||Binanuahan (West)||Urban||866||Ma. Theresa F. Abiera|
|Bgy. 22||Binanuahan (East)||Urban||1,514||Napoleon Cardel|
|Bgy. 23||Imperial Court||Urban||680||Gina M. Samaupan|
|Bgy. 24||Rizal||Urban||2,104||Ricardo Abunda|
|Bgy. 25||Lapu-Lapu||Urban||1,279||Gemma M. Espiritu|
|Bgy. 26||Dinagaan||Urban||863||Edwin T. Alzaga|
|Bgy. 27||Victory Village (South)||Urban||1,346||Joie Bahoy|
|Bgy. 28||Victory Village (North)||Urban||2,819||Antonio Loveriza|
|Bgy. 29||Sabang||Urban||1,638||Ismael G. Santillan|
|Bgy. 30||Pigcale||Urban||1,589||Fernando Lopez|
|Bgy. 31||Centro Baybay||Urban||1,332||Diosdado Empig|
|Bgy. 32||San Roque||Urban||5,109||Joselito G. Martinez|
|Bgy. 33||Peñaranda PNR Site||Urban||2,905||Beatriz N. Toledo|
|Bgy. 34||Oro Site||Urban||2,440||Joseph Philip L. Lee|
|Bgy. 35||Tinago||Urban||513||Cyril Sayco|
|Bgy. 36||Capantawan||Urban||766||Evelyn B. Brizuela|
|Bgy. 37||Bitano||Urban||7,022||Joel M. Balinis|
|Bgy. 38||Gogon||Urban||5,296||Perfecto Nacion|
|Bgy. 39||Bonot||Urban||3,594||Henry G. Asejo|
|Bgy. 40||Cruzada||Urban||5,198||Edsil L. Llaguno|
|Bgy. 41||Bogtong||Urban||4,291||Armando Toledo|
|Bgy. 42||Rawis||Urban||8,399||Jojo Orosco|
|Bgy. 43||Tamaoyan||Urban||1,592||Sylvia Del Agua|
|Bgy. 44||Pawa||Urban||3,348||Roger M. Nunez|
|Bgy. 45||Dita||Urban||1,652||Alfredo Garbin, Sr.|
|Bgy. 46||San Joaquin||Urban||2,010||Tomas Abaroa|
|Bgy. 47||Arimbay||Urban||3,659||Rosalina O. Gervero|
|Bgy. 48||Bagong Abre||Urban||1,376||Diego E. Obido|
|Bgy. 49||Bigaa||Urban||5,992||Roberto Arienda|
|Bgy. 50||Padang||Urban||680||Manuel P. Alagaban, Sr.|
|Bgy. 51||Buyuan||Urban||3,431||Ernesto Perez|
|Bgy. 52||Matanag||Urban||1,792||Reynaldo B. Poquilla|
|Bgy. 53||Bonga||Urban||3,319||Michael A. Mina|
|Bgy. 54||Mabinit||Urban||1,346||Levy Nunez|
|Bgy. 55||Estanza||Urban||4,159||Roger Alteche|
|Bgy. 56||Taysan||Urban||11,418||Renato Valladolid|
|Bgy. 57||Dap-dap||Urban||2,078||Marites N. Barcelon|
|Bgy. 58||Buraguis||Urban||4,026||Jose Alfonso V. Ariso|
|Bgy. 59||Puro||Urban||4,409||Nicasio Barrios|
|Bgy. 60||Lamba||Urban||1,610||Mario P. Abaluado|
|Bgy. 61||Maslog||Urban||4,116||Nenelita C. Berjuega|
|Bgy. 62||Homapon||Urban||4,233||Benhur Ariola, Jr.|
|Bgy. 63||Mariawa||Urban||1,603||Anabelle A. Teope|
|Bgy. 64||Bagacay||Urban||1,603||Julian A. Ariola|
|Bgy. 65||Imalnod||Urban||2,027||Velentin Llaneta|
|Bgy. 66||Banquerohan||Urban||6,313||Efren F. Obido|
|Bgy. 67||Bariis||Urban||1,952||Geremias B. Leron|
|Bgy. 68||San Francisco||Urban||2,384||Ronald P. Aringo|
|Bgy. 69||Buenavista||Urban||1,167||Ester P. Ardales|
|Bgy. 70||Cagbacong||Urban||2,131||Leon Andes|
Legazpi City features a tropical rainforest climate with copious amount of rainfall throughout the course of the year. Legazpi has noticeable wetter and drier periods of the year. However, the city’s driest month, April, still sees on average, over 150 millimetres (5.9 in) of precipitation per year. Similar to many other cities with this climate, temperatures are relatively constant throughout the course of the year, with a mean annual average of 26.9 °C (80.4 °F). The coolest month is January with a daily mean of 25.3 °C (77.5 °F) and the hottest months are jointly May and June with a daily mean of 28.1 °C (82.6 °F). The all-time record high temperature was 37.7 °C (99.9 °F) on May 27, 1968, and the all-time record low temperature was 13.9 °C (57.0 °F) on February 28, 1971.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
|Climate data for Legazpi|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.7
|Average high °C (°F)||28.6
|Average low °C (°F)||22.4
|Record low °C (°F)||16.7
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||296.9
|Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||19||15||15||15||14||16||17||16||17||20||22||22||208|
|Average relative humidity (%)||79||74||72||68||67||68||78||78||80||81||84||84||70|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||155||168||217||240||279||210||186||186||186||180||157||149||2,313|
|Source #1: PAGASA|
|Source #2: World Climate Guide (sunshine data).|
|Population census of Legazpi|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
The city is the ecclesiastical seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Legazpi.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2014)|
As of June 30, 2014, the volume of bank deposits in the city is at 21.9 Billion Pesos, making it the city with the highest volume of bank deposits in the Bicol Region.
The oldest is LCC which opened in the late 80s. Ayala Land Inc. in partnership with LCC is set to open its first shopping mall to be called Liberty City Center at the site of Legazpi's old public market. Pacific Mall which opened its doors in 2001 is the largest in the city. It is the mall with the most locators with over 200 and has Cebu-based Metro Gaisano as its anchor store. The Embarcadero de Legazpi is a waterfront development in the Legazpi port.
Business Process Outsourcing
The city currently has two IT parks — the Embarcadero de Legazpi and the Legazpi Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Park that are both highly conducive for outsourcing businesses.The two facilities offer about 8,000 call center seats that could provide jobs to some 24,000 agents in three-shifts. Pioneering the business in the city is the Incubation Center of Southern Luzon Technological College Foundation Inc. (SLTCFI) which is an extension of Embarcadero’s P1.8-billion IT Park, the very first IT ecozone in the Bicol region inaugurated in July 2009.
Located on the southern foothills of the scenic Mount Mayon, the city has a booming tourism industry. The province of Albay, whose center of trade and commerce is at the city, experienced a 66% growth rate in tourist arrivals for 2013. In the same year, the city had a total of 263,568 foreign tourist arrivals, the most in the region.
Among the hotels in the city is the Oriental Legazpi. Perched on the hills of Taysan, it offers a view of the city, the Albay Gulf and Mt. Mayon. It was the site of the joint conference meetings of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) from May 14 to 20, 2014.
Another hotel is Hotel St. Ellis, a posh hotel located at the heart of the city's downtown, along Rizal Street. Business establishments, shopping malls, and places of worship are all within walking distance.
In total, the number of hotel rooms in the city is at 1,630.
With a total exports trade of $129,423,764, the port of Legazpi city is the leading port for exports in the entire Bicol Region for 2013. Among the 17 port districts in the country, Legazpi is one of the only five port districts that posted positive collection goals for January to April 2015.
Places of interest
- Ligñon Hill
- The Albay Park and Wildlife, located along Binitayan Road, is a picnic grove and a zoological park combined.
- The Embarcadero is a major waterfront development in Legazpi fronting the main harbor of Legazpi with views towards Mayon Volcano. It consists of retail spaces, restaurants, markets, a major civic space and landmark lighthouse.
- Camp Simeon A. Ola is the seat of the Police Regional Office 5 for the Bicol Region. Named after the General Simeon Ola, a hero during the Philippine Revolution, the camp is open to the public as a culture and a heritage park.
- The Japanese Tunnel is an L-shaped tunnel used as an arsenal by the Japanese Imperial Army during the World War II. It measures 40 metres (130 ft) long and around 7 feet (2.1 m) deep below the ground. The tunnel is located in Brgy. EM's Barrio South in the Albay District.
- Kapuntukan Hill (also known as the Sleeping Lion Hill) is located at the point south of the Port of Legazpi. The Embarcadero, the Legazpi Port District, and Albay Gulf with Mayon Volcano can be viewed from the top of the hill.
- The Legazpi City Museum showcases the heritage and culture of the city and province.
- Liberty Bell is a bronze bell installed in 1945 by the American liberation forces at the Peñaranda Park. It is enclosed with a dome-shaped concrete structure with the inscription, “Whenever oppression knocks at your door, feel free to ring this bell”.
- Rizal Park is located in front of Saint Raphael Church on Peñaranda Street. Its dominating features are the fountain located at the center of the park, and the monument of José Rizal, the country's national hero, sculpted by National Artist Napoleon Abueva in 1966.
- The Legazpi Heroes Memorial Pylon at the intersection of Quezon and Rizal Streets, is a 16-metre (52 ft) high monument built to commemorate the defeat of Filipino fighters by American forces in 1900. The city went through raids by Dutch and Muslim pirates before the arrival of the Spanish and was the sight of a much bloody battle during the Philippine-American War and World War II.
- The General Simeon Ola statue is located at Bicol Heritage Park located inside the police camp named in his honor, Camp Simeon A. Ola.
- The Jose Maria Peñaranda Monument was built as a tribute to the late Governor of Albay who served from 1834-1843. It is located at the Peñaranda Park.
- The Headless Monument was constructed as a dedication to the unknown heroes who died and shed their blood during the Japanese military occupation of Legazpi City in World War II. The memorial is located within the city's Post Office Compound in Barangay Lapu-Lapu.
Philippine Long Distance Telephone Co (PLDT) Bayantel and Digitel has provides wired telephone/ DSL services . Wi-MAX (4G), 3G/HSDPA / 2G mobile facilities are served by Globe, Smart and Sun Cellular. Tripinvision, ESTV and DCTV provides cable TV services in the city.
Legazpi also has a good number of FM and AM stations that operaste in the morning and afternoon. ABS-CBN has their own relay station in the city, along with GMA Network has their relay station in the city, with TV5 This provide the city with good Television, and radio stations.
Colloquially considered as the "Gateway to South Luzon", Legazpi is considered as the center of transportation in the Bicol Region, being strategically located in the middle, between two other major cities in Bicol. It hosts an airport, seaport and bus terminals.
- By air
- The city is served by Legazpi Airport. It is the busiest domestic airport in mainland Southern Luzon, has a runway of 2,280 metres (7,480 ft) and is capable of handling international aircraft. Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific has three flights each daily from Manila.
- By land
- Legazpi can be reached through land transport (by bus) from Manila in about 12 hours. More than 5 bus companies operate daily transport to and from Manila to Legazpi.
- Immaculate Conception College-Albay
- Ago Medical and Educational Center-Bicol Christian College of Medicine
- AMA Computer University
- Aquinas University
- Bicol University - Main, College of Social Sciences and Philosophy, and College of Business, Economics and Management
- Computer Arts Technological College
- Computer Communication Development Institute
- De Vera Institute of Technology
- Divine Word College
- Don Bosco Agro-Mechanical Technology Center
- Forbes College
- Genecom Institute of Science and Technology
- Informatics Computer Institute Legazpi
- Mariner's Polytechnic Colleges Foundation
- Southern Luzon Technological College Foundation
- STI College
- Tanchuling College 
Secondary and primary education
- Bicol University College of Education Integrated Laboratory School
- Ago Medical and Education Center, Science High School
- Aquinas University - Science High School
- Arimbay National High School
- Banquerohan National High School
- CAT College High School
- Christian Heritage Baptist Academy
- Divine World College - High School
- Dynamic Computer Science High School
- Cabangan National High School
- Forbes Academy
- Global Two Wings Foundation School of Legazpi
- Gogon High School
- Holy Child's Amazing Grace Learning Center
- Homapon High School
- Legazpi Adventist Elementary School
- Legazpi City High School
- Legazpi Hope Christian School
- Maslog High School
- Mission Montessori Child Center
- Nazarene Elementary and Kindergarten School
- PRO5 Learning Center
- Rawis Elementary School
- Reyes Computer Oriented High School
- Reyes Laboratory School and Tutorial Center
- Saint Roche Learning Center
- Oro Site National High School
- Pag-asa National High School
- Pawa High School
- Bicol University Pilot Elementary School
- The PEP Center Foundation
- St. Agnes Academy
- St. Peter's and Paul Early Childhood Center
- St. Raphael Academy
- St. There of the Child Jesus Learning of Legazpi City
- SPED Center Regional SPED Center
- Tanchuling Computer Oriented High School
- Taysan Resettlement Integrated School 
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2014)|
Health care institutions in Legazpi providing general care:
- Aquinas University Hospital
- Bicol Regional Training and Teaching Hospital (BRTTH)
- Albay Doctors Hospital
- Legazpi City Hospital ( Under Construction)
- Irene Cortes - former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines / First Female Dean of the UP College of Law
- Merlinda Bobis - contemporary Filipino writer and academic in Australia
- Janelle Quintana - teen actress / Best New Female Artist (19th Aliw Awards) nominee
- Valerie Weigmann - actress / Miss World Philippines 2014 titleholder
Twin towns – Sister cities
- Bacolod, Negros Occidental
- Bacoor, Cavite
- Butuan, Agusan del Norte
- Cagayan de Oro, Misamis Oriental
- Lapu-Lapu City, Cebu
- Puerto Princesa City, Palawan
- Parañaque City, Metro Manila
- Masbate City, Masbate
- Makati City, Metro Manila
- San Juan City, Metro Manila
- Valenzuela City, Metro Manila
- Chōshi, Chiba, Japan
- Legazpi, Spain
- Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
- Taipei City, Taiwan
- Kao Shiung, Taiwan
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- "Province: Albay". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- "Municipality/City: LEGAZPI CITY (Capital)". Philippine Standard Geographic Code Interactive. Retrieved on 2012-05-17.
- "DILG Regional Office No. 5 Directory". Bicol Region Official website; retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "Discover Legazpi". wowlegazpi.com. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "The City Tagline". About Legazpi City. City Government Of Legazpi. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "An Act Creating the City of Legaspi (Charter of the City of Legaspi)". LawPH.com. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- "An Act Recreating the Municipalities of Legaspi and Daraga in the Province of Albay". LawPH.com. Retrieved 2011-04-09.
- Republic Act No. 2234 The LawPhil Project (www.lawphil.net). Retrieved on 2013-08-31.
- Republic Act No. 5525 Chan Robles (www.chanrobles.com). Retrieved on 2013-08-31.
- "About Legazpi City - City History and Profile". Official Website of Legazpi City. Retrieved on 2012-05-16.
- Philippine Presidential Decree No. 125 Chan Robles (www.chanrobles.com). Retrieved on 2013-08-31.
- "Climate Change Scenario for the Philippines". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Forecasters Handbook for the Philippine Islands and Surrounding Waters". The Naval Research Laboratory. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- , World Climate Guide, accessed 11 August 2012.
- "Province of Albay". Municipality Population Data. LWUA Research Division. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- "Tourism and Culture". About Legazpi City. City Government Of Legazpi. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "Embarcadero". wowlegazpi.com. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "PRO 5 History-Camp Simeon A. Ola". Police Regional Office 5 Official Website. Retrieved on 2012-05-17.
- Abella, D. (1954). Bikol Annals: A Collection of Vignettes of Philippine History. Manila.
- Dery, L. C. (1991). From Ibalon to Sorsogon : A Historical Survey of Sorsogon Province to 1905. Quezon City: New Day Publishers.
- Espinas, M. (1996). The Ibalong : The Bikol Folk Epic-fragment. Manila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House.
- Mallari, F. (1990). Ibalon Under Storm and Siege : Essays on Bicol History: 1565-1860. Cagayan de Oro City.
- Owen, N. (1999). The Bikol blend : Bikolanos and Their History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers.
- Prado, M. G. (1981). Ibalon : Ethnohistory of the Bikol Region. Legazpi City: AMS Press.
- Reyes, J. C. (January–February 1979). The Ibalen Epic - A Window to Bicols Pre-history. Boletin Eclesiastico de Filipinas v. 53 nos. 590-591, pp. 61-92.
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||Mayon Volcano||Santo Domingo|
|Pilar, Sorsogon||Castilla, Sorsogon|