Legislative violence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A political cartoon depicting U.S. Democratic congressman Preston Brooks's attack on Republican congressman Charles Sumner, an example of legislative violence.

Legislative violence broadly refers to any violent clashes between members of a legislature, often physically, inside the legislature and triggered by divisive issues and tight votes. Such clashes have occurred in many countries across time, and notable incidents still regularly occur.

Although the sight of brawling politicians is incongruous with a legislature's stately image, its occupants, like in any other workplace, are still prone to stress and anger. The confrontational nature of politics, regardless of their location, and the high stakes involved often add to the simmering tensions.[1]

Galusha A. Grow, no stranger to legislative violence, described the precursors thus:[2]

Crowd some hundreds of men together on a hot afternoon or night; fill them with the fire of partisan ardor; perplex them with doubt as to the personal gain or loss that may follow their vote on the question at issue, and instill them with envy of, and ill-will toward, their fellows, and you have abundant material for a row. All that is needed is an excuse, and that is too often found.



5 July 2011[edit]

Nazifa Zaki and Hamida Ahmadzai fought over rocket attacks into Afghanistan from Pakistan.[3]


30 November 2015[edit]

A tax bill sparked brawls in the parliament of Algeria.[4]

Ancient Rome[edit]

Morte de Césare (Death of Caesar) by Vincenzo Camuccini

Roman general and dictator Julius Caesar was famously assassinated by a group of senators on the Ides of March, 44 BC during a meeting of the Roman Senate. The senators, led by Cassius and Brutus and calling themselves Liberatores, had conspired in secret to kill Caesar and considered various ways to do so. Ultimately, they decided to kill him during a meeting of the senate, since only senators would be allowed in the meeting and Caesar would be alone. The senators drafted a fake petition requesting that Caesar hand over power to senate; Caesar called a meeting of the senate to read it. When Caesar met the senators at the Theatre of Pompey, they stabbed him repeatedly with daggers concealed under their togas, killing him. Caesar's assassination led to a civil war for control of the republic, ending ultimately with the rise of Caesar Augustus and the founding of the Roman Empire.


Legislative violence has happened in Armenia.[5][6][7]


13 February 2019[edit]

Brian Burston and James Ashby have clashed in The Great Hall amid claims of sexual harassment.[8][9][10]


27 October 2007[edit]

In 2007 a fight broke out in the lower chamber of the national legislature of Bolivia, the Chamber of Deputies. The fight erupted during a debate over whether or not to try four judges on corruption charges.[11][12][13]

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

31 July 2019[edit]

Following an intense debate in the Council of the Bosnian-Podrinje Canton in city of Goražde, councilor Daliborka Milović, who was also the president of the Liberal Party, had thrown a plastic water bottle, hitting Edita Velić, a member of Democratic Front in the process, who was at the time, the Chairman of the Council, after a disagreement on drafting a new law. Following the event, Milović was promtly escorted out of the building by the local municipal police.[14]

23 December 2019[edit]

Draško Stanivuković, a prominent member of the PDP, was initially scolded by the Milorad Dodik's right-wing SNSD-dominated club for various provocations aimed to the current government in the National Assembly of the Republic of Srpska. Two days before Christmas, on December 23rd, 2019, Stanivuković was physically assaulted by Dragan Lukač of SNSD, who has been the Minister of Interior of the Republic of Srpska since 2014. Moments before the confrontation, Lukač warned Stanivuković to cease his provocations aimed at the government, warning him in the process that he's going to end up on the floor, just like the flags of NATO-pact which he presented inside of the assembly hall. Following his statement, Lukač had asked Stanivuković, who had by now been walking around the National Assembly hall carrying hand-held flags of the NATO-pact, to approach him. Stanivuković did so, and after brief exchange words, Lukač hit him on the head with his right fist. The event was broadcast live on the Radio Television of the Republic of Srpska. This happened in the wake of events where the Bosnian three-men presidency had unanimously agreed to sign the Reform Program, which is widely speculated to be the ANP agreement under disguise. With the signing of this agreement, the Bosnian Government will be able to pursue its NATO-membership. Following the event, Lukač would go on to apologize to the mass public, but not to Stanivuković in particular. The case is currently under an investigation.[15]


5 December 2012[edit]

New Democratic Party House Leader Nathan Cullen attempted to delay the passing of a Conservative budget bill, leading to a threatening confrontation between Conservative Government House Leader Peter Van Loan and NDP leader Tom Mulcair, described in the media as a "near-brawl".[16]

18 May 2016[edit]

Before a vote in the House of Commons Prime Minister Justin Trudeau "manhandled" Conservative Party Opposition Whip Gord Brown and inadvertently elbowed NDP MP Ruth Ellen Brosseau. The incident went on to be known as "Elbowgate" and officially known in the House of Commons as "the matter of the physical molestation of the Member from Berthier—Maskinongé".[17][18]

Czech Republic[edit]

Czech Health Minister David Rath and his right-wing rival, Miroslav Macek, fought during a meeting of disgruntled dentists in Prague.[19]


28 February 2016[edit]

Kamal Ahmed threw a shoe at Tawfik Okasha for hosting the Israeli ambassador Haim Koren.[20]

14 June 2017[edit]

While Geographer Sayed Al-Husseny was trying to explain that the Gaza Strip is a part of Egypt, parliamentarian Ahmed Tantawi went to the platform and broke Husseny's microphone.[21]


5 February 1929[edit]

During a session of the Riigikogu, the Farmers' Assemblies accused Minister of Education and Welfare Leopold Johanson of Socialist Workers' Party of accepting bribes. Artur Tupits of the Farmers' Assemblies then slapped Johanson in the face twice, until the two were separated. Disturbances continued on the next day. Tupits was then arrested for two months. His name inspired a new expression for a brawl in Estonian (tupitsat tegema, similar to the earlier expression tuupi tegema).[22]

European Parliament[edit]

In 1988 when Pope John Paul II addressed the European Parliament, Ian Paisley, then an MEP, denounced him as the Antichrist and was subjected to booing by fellow MEPs who also threw objects at him;[23] Otto von Habsburg was among those who helped physically eject him from the room.[24]

Mike Hookem punched Steven Woolfe in the face at a UKIP party meeting in 2016.[25]


26 December 2014[edit]

A brawl broke out when an argument over the composition of Georgian delegations in international institutions turned violent.[26]


16 May 2017[edit]

A fight erupted between rival MPs in the Greek Parliament.[27]

Hong Kong[edit]

A pan-democrat lawmaker threw a glass to CY Leung before the Legislative meeting and was charged for common assault.

Two lawmakers who entered the parliament's chamber without being authorized to do so caused a scuffle then the lawmakers tried to read out their oath of office.[28]


Tamil Nadu[edit]

In January 1988, there was a riot in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly over a vote of majority for Janaki Ramachandran, who was serving as Chief Minister following the death in December 1987 of her husband MGR. The ADMK party had split, with most MLAs supporting her and some supporting Jayalalithaa's bid to become Chief Minister instead. The Congress party with its 60 MLAs was able to play "kingmaker".[29] While the Congress-led Central Government in New Delhi ordered them to vote against Janaki, some Congress MLAs chose to resign instead, allowing the Janaki government to survive the majority vote. A riot ensued in the legislature, with members clubbing each other with microphone stands and footwear, which was finally ended by riot police who stormed the legislature and beat up everybody with their batons.[29] The Janaki faction was however dismissed by the Central Government under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution, having survived just 24 days in office. The state was placed under President's rule for a year, until the next scheduled state assembly elections in January 1989.

On 25 March 1989, a riot broke out in the state legislative assembly in Tamil Nadu between members of the ruling DMK party and the now-unified opposition ADMK party over the reading of the state budget.[30] In the melee, Durai Murugan tried to disrobe Jayalalithaa,[31] Muthuvel Karunanidhi had his sunglasses broken,[31] and the budget was torn up by angry rioters.[32]

Uttar Pradesh[edit]

22 October 1997[edit]

Riots broke out in the state legislative assembly in Uttar Pradesh with MLAs picking up microphones, chairs, and other items to throw them at their opponents. Security pulled off the tops of desks as a shield for the Speaker.[33]


10 November 2009[edit]

A member of the legislative assembly has been assaulted on 10 November 2009 in the state assembly. One of the members 'who can't speak Marathi' took the oath in Hindi, one of the official languages of India. This was objected to by a right wing party Maharashtra Navanirmana Samithi, that wants Marathi to be the official language in the state. Four members of the Maharashtra Navaniramana Samithi were immediately suspended for 4 years.[34]


Scuffles broke out in the Islamic Consultative Assembly after the country's economic and finance minister Masoud Karbasian was sacked.[35]


There has been violence in the Council of Representatives of Iraq.[36][37]

Kurdish MPs brawled in the Iraqi Kurdistan Parliament over president Masoud Barzani's term.[38]


Legislative violence has happened in Israel.[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][excessive citations]


A brawl broke out in 2010 over an issue of funding for new youth social centres.[53]


17 September 2015[edit]

A brawl broke out in Japan's parliament on 17 September after the upper house approved legislation for the controversial security bills that would allow the country to send troops to fight abroad for the first time since the Second World War. Members of the opposition tried to grab the microphone and stop Masahisa Sato, acting chairman of the upper house special committee, from carrying out the vote in parliament.[54]


There has been violence during Parliament of Jordan sessions.[55][56][57][58][59]


Kenya's lawmakers come to blows in parliament chamber over proposed security bill - meanwhile police arrest protesters outside the building.[60]


11 March 2016[edit]

Opposition politicians released tear gas in parliament to obstruct a session in Kosovo's parliament.[61]


16 June 2016[edit]

A shoe fight started after Hamdan El-Azmi expressed his opposition to the government presenting an amendment to the distribution of electoral constituencies in the new municipal law.[62]


5 October 2015[edit]

Lawmakers were involved in a brawl over disputes during a meeting of a parliamentary committee.[63][64][65]


1 December 2006[edit]

Hours before the scheduled Oath of Office ceremony for Felipe Calderón in the Legislative Palace, the legislature erupted in a brawl. It was the latest installment of the string of fistfights that rattled the Mexican legislature. The incident was broadcast on live television. In spite of such events the ceremony took place. Calderón entered the Congress chamber through a back door directly onto the podium, and in a quick ceremony took the Oath of Office amid jeers. Then, after singing the national anthem which silenced the opposition for a while, he took a quick exit rather than deliver his inaugural address to Congress (the traditional follow-up to the oath taking).[66][67]


11 October 2014[edit]

Hamid Chabat scuffled with Aziz Lebbar.[68][69][70][71][72][73][74]


A brawl broke out in Nepal's parliament over Nepal's constitution[75]


22 June 2010[edit]

A fight broke out in the National Assembly of Nigeria after a group of members were suspended for accusing the speaker of corruption.[76]

18 September 2013[edit]

Nigerian politicians were involved in a fight after a group from the People's Democratic Party (PDP) tried to address parliament.[77]

North Macedonia[edit]

An ethnic Albanian opposition party announced it was boycotting parliament after a fist fight broke out in the chamber between one of its members and another from a rival party.[78]


6 November 2018[edit]

Pakistani politicians fought over the Asia Bibi blasphemy case.[79]


The Congress of the Republic of Peru has seen many violent acts through the years.

28 June 1988[edit]

When Peru had a bicameral legislature, member of congress Rómulo León (APRA) tried to grab and punch his colleague Fernando Olivera (FIM) because Olivera was accusing him of having secret bank accounts in a Swiss bank. He was suspended 120 days from Congress.

27 August 1998[edit]

After Alberto Fujimori dissolved Congress and approved a unicameral legislature, Congressman Javier Diez Canseco decided to finish a heated discussion with a Fujimorist congressman with a punch in the jaw. He was suspended 120 days from the legislature for the violent act.

26 July 2000[edit]

On the oath day, Congressmen threw coins to their colleague Roger Cáceres because they were accusing him of being a turncoat for moving to the government party Peru 2000. His son Roger Cáceres Pérez (also a Congressman) insulted the coin throwers.

August 2006[edit]

Congresswomen Nancy Obregón and Elsa Malpartida did not approve the Free Trade Agreement with the United States. For that reason, they tried to escape punching and kicking the Congress security. They were suspended 120 days from the legislature for the violent acts.

19 May 2011[edit]

Congressman Víctor Andrés García Belaúnde accused his colleague Luis Wilson of having members of his family working for a national hospital with high salaries. Luis Wilson started to defy García Belaúnde's accusations, then he went to his desk and started insulting and tried to fight with him, but his colleagues prevented it.


In the Philippines, Senator Antonio Trillanes IV, a former military officer who led 2 infamous coup attempts (Oakwood Mutiny and Manila Peninsula siege) during the Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo presidential administration, seen on national television as he turned off the microphone of his fellow Senator (former Partymate) Alan Peter Cayetano during the Senate hearing on the Philippine war on drugs in September 2016,[80] and in January 2017 to Sen. Migz Zubiri in near fistfighting, after the Kilusang Pagbabago Coalition Members rejected the Trillanes resolution for investigation for the Bureau of Immigration Bribery scandal.

South Africa[edit]

17 May 2016[edit]

Members of the Economic Freedom Fighters party became engaged in a brawl with security guards after attempting to prevent President Jacob Zuma from addressing the parliament.[81]

South Korea[edit]

There have been several events of legislative violence in South Korea. However, the politicians who were involved in the violence often don't receive criminal penalties under the civil laws.[82][83]

2 March 1998[edit]

During a vote to approve Kim Jong-pil as Prime Minister, Grand National Party legislators submitted blank ballots to demonstrate their disapproval. A fight broke out after supporters of the ruling coalition of Kim Dae-jung demanded that the vote be declared void.[84]

12 March 2004[edit]

During a National Assembly vote on the motion to impeach President Roh Moo-hyun, supporters of the President openly clashed with opposition MPs for 20 minutes in an effort to stop the vote (which was in favor of impeachment) from being finalized.[85]

22 July 2009[edit]

A brawl broke out as The National Assembly passed three bills that is set to reform the media industry. Opposition MPs blocked the Speaker from entering the room to pass the bills while both sides clashed. The bills were eventually passed by the Deputy Speaker.[86][87]

8 December 2010[edit]

A brawl broke out as the Grand National Party forcefully passed the year 2011 budget bill in advance without the presence of the opposition parties.[88][89]

22 November 2011[edit]

A brawl broke out as The National Assembly ratified the country's Free-Trade Agreement (FTA) with the United States. The Opposition lawmakers used tear gas in the parliament. The ruling Grand National Party (GNP) managed to force it through without the kind of brawl that many were expecting.[90][91]


On 23 February 1981. Lieutenant-Colonel Antonio Tejero led 200 armed Civil Guard officers into the Congress of Deputies during the vote to elect a Prime Minister. The officers held the parliamentarians and ministers hostage for 18 hours, during which time King Juan Carlos I denounced the coup in a televised address, calling for rule of law and the democratic government to continue. Though shots were fired, the hostage-takers surrendered the next morning without killing anyone.

Sri Lanka[edit]

Legislative violence has happened in the Parliament of Sri Lanka.[92][93]


13 December 2007[edit]

The then-chairman of the National Assembly Paul Somohardjo (PL) and representatives Ronnie Brunswijk (ABOP) and Rashid Doekhie (NDP) were involved in a fistfight on the assembly floor, after the latter accused Somohardjo of involvement with alleged corruption at the ministry of Spatial Planning.[94]


The Legislative Yuan of the Republic of China (Taiwan) is probably the most notable modern example of legislative violence. In the history of the Legislative Yuan, numerous violent acts have occurred during parliamentary sessions. It is popularly referred to locally as "Legislator Brawling" (立委群毆). In 1995, the Legislative Yuan was presented with the Ig Nobel Prize Peace Award, for "demonstrating that politicians gain more by punching, kicking and gouging each other than by waging war against other nations". Listed below are the most current brawlings in the Legislative Yuan of Taiwan.

28 March 2001[edit]

Lo Fu-chu scuffled with Diane Lee during a committee meeting.[95][96]

23 March 2004[edit]

A serious scuffle broke out between the ruling and opposition party members after an argument over vote recounts from the presidential election.[97]

7 May 2004[edit]

Legislators Zhu Xingyu [zh] and William Lai got into a brawl over legislative procedures. TV stations showed Zhu grabbing Lai and trying to wrestle him onto a desk. He then tried to headbutt his colleague before jabbing him in the stomach. The brawl resulted in having a traffic policeman called into the chamber to test Zhu's alcohol level, after he was accused of being drunk. The tests showed no sign of alcohol influence.[98]

26 October 2004[edit]

During a debate on a military hardware purchase ordinance, the opposition and ruling party engaged in a food fight after a disagreement broke out.[99]

30 May 2006[edit]

DPP deputy Wang Shu-hui chewing up a proposal to halt voting on direct transport links with Mainland China.

Amid a proposal about creating direct transport links with People's Republic of China, DPP deputy Wang Shu-hui snatched the written proposal and shoved it into her mouth. Opposition members failed to get her to cough it up by pulling her hair. She later spat the proposal out and tore it up. This was the third time that the DPP's actions had stopped a vote over the issue.

During the incident another DPP member, Zhuang Hezi, spat at an opposition member.[100]

8 May 2007[edit]

Two dozen members overwhelmed the Speaker's podium, which became a free-for-all between the ruling (DPP) and opposition (KMT) parties with punches and sprayed water, requiring at least one hospitalization. The fight was over an alleged delay of the annual budget.[101]

25 June 2013[edit]

Angry Taiwan legislators wrestled, splashed water and bit one another in a brawl over a controversial capital gains tax on share trading.[102]

13 to 14 July 2017[edit]

Legislators in parliament brawled on two consecutive days over a controversial $420 billion infrastructure spending plan, which the opposition (headed by the KMT) claims to benefit cities and counties faithful to the current President's ruling party, the DPP. They also claim that the plan has been devised to secure support for the party ahead of next year's regional elections.

On 13 July 2017, the Premier of the Republic of China, Lin Chuan was prevented from delivering his report on the budget after a water balloon was thrown towards him. This resulted in him leaving the chamber and causing the session to come to a halt. On the following day, opposition lawmakers occupied the chamber and raised large padded office chairs above their heads, surrounded the podium and tussled with rival legislators to prevent Mr Lin from presenting the report once more as water balloons were thrown. This resulted in the early suspension of the parliamentary session.[103]


30 May 2012[edit]

There has been legislative violence in the National Assembly of Thailand.[104][105]


16 January 2019[edit]

Violent clashes between members of the Assembly of the Representatives of the People.[106]


There has been legislative violence during TBMM sessions, including:


26 September 2017[edit]

Lawmakers of Parliament of Uganda were brawling during a plenary session after the parliament speaker allowed the constitutional amendment to be presented to MPs. The amendment about the age-limit issue on the re-election of President Yoweri Museveni who is 73 years old and the limit for re-election is capped at 75. A member stood on a table and threw a chair at the flag of the president and was pulled down and punched up. Metal sticks and chairs were used as weapons.[129]


27 April 2010[edit]

A debate on extending Russia's lease of the naval base in the Black Sea in exchange for cheaper oil descended into a mass brawl, involving smoke bombs, eggs and general fighting among members. The Speaker had to be escorted from the chamber, covered by umbrellas.[130]

24 May 2012[edit]

Violent scuffles broke out in the Ukrainian parliament on 24 May 2012 during a debate over a bill which would allow the official use of Russian language in certain parts of the country.[131]

14 August 2014[edit]

Two parliament members, Oleh Lyashko and Oleksandr Shevchenko, got into an argument on the floor. Shevchenko accused Lyashko, who had built an image as a combative opponent of pro-Russian separatists, of never having visited the separatist eastern region. The argument eventually led to Shevchenko punching Lyashko in the face.[132]

14 November 2016[edit]

Yuriy Boyko, of the centre-left Opposition Bloc, punched Oleg Lyashko in the face after the left-wing Radical Party member purportedly accused him of being a “Kremlin agent”.[133]

20 December 2018[edit]

A brawl broke out in Ukrainian parliament after opposition politician Nestor Shufrych tore down a poster of oligarch and politician Viktor Medvedchuk.[134]

Brawls are very common in the Ukrainian parliament due to the high number of insults and extreme actions in the chamber.

United Kingdom[edit]

In the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, the government and the opposition are separated by red lines drawn on the carpet. The red lines in front of the two sets of benches are two sword-lengths apart[135] (or a little more than two sword-lengths apart);[136] a Member is traditionally not allowed to cross the line during debates, supposedly because the Member might then be able to attack an individual on the opposite side. These procedures were made because the Members were allowed to carry weapons into the House in its founding days.[1]

4 April 1938[edit]

During a debate about the Spanish Civil War, Conservative MP Robert Bower told Jewish Labour MP Emanuel Shinwell to "go back to Poland". Shinwell walked across the floor of the House and struck Bower in the face, before turning to the Speaker, apologising and walking out of the chamber. Bower also then apologised to the Speaker, and no disciplinary action was taken against either MP.[137]

31 January 1972[edit]

During a dispute over the conduct of British soldiers on Bloody Sunday on the day before, Independent Socialist MP Bernadette Devlin punched the Conservative Party Home Secretary Reginald Maudling. Her aggression was in response to the comments made by Maudling, who was maintaining that the British Army had fired at Bloody Sunday protesters in self-defence, contrary to the testimonies of civilian eyewitnesses (including Devlin herself). She argued that she was being denied the right to speak. Her actions resulted in her being banned from the House of Commons for six months.

27 May 1976[edit]

In the aftermath of a rancorous debate with Labour MPs over the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Bill, Conservative Michael Heseltine was enraged by a group who began singing The Red Flag. He seized the chamber's ceremonial mace and brandished it over his head, but was restrained by Jim Prior, and after his departure legislative action was suspended for the day.[138]

United States[edit]

February 15th 1798[edit]

Congressional Pugilists, a 1798 political cartoon depicting the fight between Griswold and Lyon.

Federalist Congressman Roger Griswold of Connecticut attacked Vermont Representative Matthew Lyon with a hickory walking stick in the chambers of the United States House of Representatives. Griswold struck Lyon repeatedly about the head, shoulders and arms, while Lyon attempted to shield himself from the blows. Lyon then turned and ran to the fireplace, took up a pair of metal tongs, and having armed himself thus returned to the engagement. Griswold then tripped Lyon and struck him in the face while he lay on the ground, at which point the two were separated. After a break of several minutes, however, Lyon unexpectedly pursued Griswold again with the tongs, and the brawl was re-ignited.

The two men had a prior history of conflict. On January 30 of that year, Griswold had publicly insulted Lyon by calling him a coward, and Lyon had retaliated by spitting in Griswold's face. As a result of Lyon's actions in that case, he became the first Congressman to have charges filed against him with that body's ethics committee, although he escaped censure through a vote in the House.

4 December 1837[edit]

John Wilson, the speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives and president of the Arkansas Real Estate Bank, stabbed Representative J. J. Anthony to death during a legislative dispute on the floor of the chamber.[139] Anthony had suggested that bounties for the killing of wolves be administered by the president of the state bank, a responsibility comically beneath an official of Wilson's stature. Incensed, he drew a bowie knife and attacked Anthony, who was unable to defend himself despite drawing a knife of his own. Although Wilson was expelled from his office, he was later acquitted of murder.[140][141]

22 May 1856[edit]

Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina famously assaulted Charles Sumner of Massachusetts for a speech of his, saying Brooks' cousin Senator Andrew Butler of South Carolina took "a mistress who, though ugly to others, is always lovely to him; though polluted in the sight of the world, is chaste in his sight—I mean, the harlot, Slavery."[142] According to Hoffer (2010), "It is also important to note the sexual imagery that recurred throughout the oration, which was neither accidental nor without precedent. Abolitionists routinely accused slaveholders of maintaining slavery so that they could engage in forcible sexual relations with their slaves."[143] Sumner's own adopted daughter Mary Mildred Williams was a white-appearing girl born into slavery who was the descendant of such a relationship before being freed with the help of Sumner.[144]

Brooks was infuriated and intended to challenge Sumner to a duel . After having consulted with fellow South Carolina Congressman Laurence Keitt on the situation, Brooks and Keitt decided that Sumner had the social status of a "drunkard" and was thus unworthy of the traditional challenge to a duel. Brooks (accompanied by Keitt), approached and confronted Sumner as he sat writing at his desk in the almost empty Senate chamber. As Sumner began to stand up, Brooks began beating Sumner severely on the head with a thick gutta-percha cane with a gold head before he could reach his feet. Sumner was knocked down and trapped under the heavy desk (which was bolted to the floor), but Brooks continued to bash Sumner until he ripped the desk from the floor. By this time, Sumner was blinded by his own blood, and he staggered up the aisle and collapsed, lapsing into unconsciousness. Brooks continued to beat the motionless Sumner until he broke his cane, then quietly left the chamber. Several other senators attempted to help Sumner, but were blocked by Keitt, who had jumped into the aisle, brandishing a pistol and shouting, "Let them be!"[145] Keitt was censured for his actions and resigned in protest, but was overwhelmingly re-elected to his seat by his South Carolina constituency within a month.[146] For several decades following, Senators often carried walking canes and even revolvers in the Senate Chamber, fearing a similar assault.[citation needed]

5 February 1858[edit]

Congressman Laurence M. Keitt of South Carolina was involved in another incident of legislative violence less than two years later, starting a massive brawl on the House floor during a tense late-night debate. Keitt became offended when Pennsylvania Congressman (and later Speaker of the House) Galusha A. Grow stepped over to the Democratic side of the House chamber while delivering an anti-slavery speech. Keitt dismissively interrupted Grow's speech to demand he sit down, calling him a "black Republican puppy". Grow indignantly responded by telling Keitt that “No negro-driver shall crack his whip over me.” Keitt became enraged and went for Grow's throat, shouting that he would "choke him for that". A large brawl involving approximately 50 representatives erupted on the House floor, ending only when a missed punch from Rep. Cadwallader Washburn of Wisconsin upended the hairpiece of Rep. William Barksdale of Mississippi. The embarrassed Barksdale accidentally replaced the wig backwards, causing both sides to erupt in spontaneous laughter.[147][148][149] Keitt would later die of wounds following the Battle of Cold Harbor while fighting for the Confederacy.[146][150]

5 April 1860[edit]

During an anti-slavery speech by Illinois Republican Owen Lovejoy on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives on April 5, 1860, Lovejoy condemned the Democratic Party for its racist views and steadfast support of slavery. As Lovejoy gave his speech condemning the evils of slavery, several of the Democrats present in the audience, such as Roger Atkinson Pryor, grew irate and incensed over Lovejoy's anti-slavery remarks and threatened him with physical harm, brandishing pistols and canes, with several Republicans rushing to Lovejoy's defense.[151]

24 February 1887[edit]

The Indiana General Assembly experienced a massive brawl between Democrats and Republicans in the Indiana Senate and Indiana House of Representatives. The event began as an attempt by Democratic Governor Isaac P. Gray to be elected to the United States Senate and his own party's attempt to thwart him. Gray was a former Republican who had been elected Governor by popular vote but was scorned as a turncoat by his new party, who maneuvered desperately (and unsuccessfully) to try to prevent his eligibility for the Senate seat. When Gray went over the head of the Democrats in arranging a midterm election for a new Lieutenant Governor, Republican Robert S. Robertson was elected with a majority of the popular vote, a situation the Democrats refused to accept despite a ruling from the Indiana Supreme Court. The matter came to a head when Robertson attempted to enter the Senate chamber to be sworn in and take his seat presiding over the session; he was attacked, beaten, and thrown bodily from the chamber by the Democrats, who then locked the chamber door, beginning four hours of intermittent mass brawling that spread throughout the Indiana Statehouse. The fight ended only after Republicans and Democrats began brandishing pistols and threatening to kill each other and the Governor was forced to deploy the Indianapolis Police Department to restore order. Subsequently, the Republican controlled House of Representatives refused to communicate with the Democratic Senate, ending the legislative session and leading to calls for United States Senators to be elected by popular vote.

20 February 1902[edit]

During a debate on a bill dealing with the Philippine Islands, Senator Benjamin Tillman of South Carolina accused Senator John L. McLaurin of South Carolina of "treachery" for siding with the Republicans in support of Philippine annexation, and alleged that McLaurin had been granted control of government patronage in South Carolina. Upon receiving word of this statement, McLaurin entered the Senate Chamber and denounced Tillman, upon which Tillman attacked him. During the fight, other senators were hit by the punches. As a result, the Senate went into closed session to debate the matter. Both senators apologized to the Senate, but almost came to blows immediately thereafter. On February 28, the Senate voted 54 to 12, with 22 abstentions, to Censure both Tillman and McLaurin. McLaurin did not seek reelection, while Tillman served in the Senate until 1918.

4 March 1985[edit]

On the House of Representatives chamber floor, Democrat Thomas Downey of New York confronted Robert Dornan, a California Republican, and Dornan grabbed Downey's tie in response. Downey approached Dornan in response to a speech Dornan had given two days earlier before the Conservative Political Action Conference, in which he called Downey a "draft-dodging wimp" because of Downey's repeated denouncement of US-backed antigovernment Contras rebels in Nicaragua. During the Vietnam War, Downey received a medical deferment from the draft because of a perforated eardrum. Downey had also been active in protesting the war. The Dornan-Downey beef originated two years earlier, when Downey spoke against Dornan's nomination for a position at the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.[152]

The Downey speech was made on Saturday, 2 March. On Monday afternoon, 4 March, Downey confronted Dornan, attracting dozens of viewers. Dornan claims Downey grabbed him by the shoulder and turned him around, asking if he had actually called him a wimp. Dornan answered "I did and you are." The exchange became heated, and at some point Dornan accused Downey of having cost him the job two years earlier. According to Downey, as he began to walk away, Dornan grabbed him by the tie and collar and threatened him with "bodily harm." Dornan claimed he was just straightening Downey's tie knot, saying later, "I like all the members to look elegant on the floor, you know." Dornan, according to himself and other witnesses, then told Downey to "get out of my face." After, Downey went to the Speaker of the House Tip O'Neill to tell him what had happened.[152]

After the incident, Downey released a statement and stated through a spokesman that he would not speak to reporters "until Dornan apologizes." His spokesman also said that Downey was considering filing a complaint with the House Sergeant at Arms. Several witnesses spoke about the incident. Democratic Congressman Mike Lowry said, "Dornan grabbed Downey roughly by the collar, and I mean aggressively. None of this straighten-the-tie baloney. And he told Downey, 'Don't let me catch you off the floor, where you are protected by the sergeant at arms.' I really think Downey restrained himself." Republican Representative Chris Smith of New Jersey, who witnessed the altercation, said, "I found it humorous that Downey had to run up to the Speaker when it was over to tell all. It was like a little classroom act . . . Very childish . . . I think he's made much to-do about nothing."[152]

The day after the incident, House Speaker Tip O'Neill condemned the behavior, and said he told Dornan, "You can settle it on the street, but don't settle it on the House floor." He also told reporters that "discipline" would ensue if "anything like that" happened again. That day, Downey stated again, "Congressman Dornan owes me and the House of Representatives an apology." Dornan responded, "Apologize for what? For calling him a wimp? I am willing to concede that perhaps he just walks, talks and acts like a little arrogant wimp. But maybe it's disinformation. Maybe he really wears a black leather jacket by night that I don't know about."[152]

7 June 2007[edit]

During the final day of the 2007 regular session of the Alabama State Senate Republican Sen. Charles Bishop of Jasper punched Democratic Sen. Lowell Barron of Fyffe in the head after the latter allegedly called the former a "son of a bitch". The two were then pulled apart by bystanders in the room.[153]

15 June 2011[edit]

During a vote of California budget state Assemblymen Warren Furutani and Don Wagner broke out in a fight over a comment Wagner made that Furutani deemed offensive.[154][155]

15 December 2015[edit]

A bloody backroom brawl between the mayor and a council member at a city council meeting in Birmingham, Alabama.[156]

29 May 2017[edit]

During a contentious 2017 Texas House of Representatives session, a minor altercation was observed after State Representative Matt Rinaldi was pushed and received personal death threats. The incident occurred after Rinaldi called U.S Immigration and Customs Enforcement when a large crowd of protesters, in opposition to the sanctuary cities ban, disrupted the legislative proceedings. Representative Poncho Nevárez admitted to laying hands on Rinaldi amid the fierce debates, but no arrests were made by Texas DPS.[157]


10 February 2011[edit]

Deputy Alfonso Marquina protested the presence of a boisterous group of President Chávez supporters in the audience.[158]

30 April 2013[edit]

During a session of the National Assembly pro-government and opposition deputies got into a fight. The origin of the discussion had to do with the rejection by National Assembly president Diosdado Cabello to give members of the opposition a right to speak.[159][160]

5 July 2017[edit]

Colectivos attacking Venezuelan lawmakers

On 5 July 2017, colectivos and supporters of President Nicolás Maduro stormed the Palacio Federal Legislativo on the Independence Day of Venezuela, assaulting many members of the opposition-led National Assembly.[161] At least 12 opposition legislators and their staff were injured as a result of the attack.[162]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "When politicians attack...", BBC News, March 23, 2004.
  2. ^ Galusha A. Grow (1900). "The Last Days of the Duello in Congress". The Saturday Evening Post. 172 (2). p. 1194.
  3. ^ "Boycott after brawl by Afghan MPs". 6 July 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  4. ^ "Video: Tax bill sparks brawls in Algeria's parliament". english.alarabiya.net. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  5. ^ Fight breaks in Armenian parliament
  6. ^ "Arminfo: Another fight occurred in the Armenian parliament: At this time RPA deputy Artashes Geghamyan and oppositionist Nikol Pashinyan met in hand-to-hand fight". www.arminfo.info. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  7. ^ Female Legislator Attacked In Brawl Over Yerevan Sewage Water
  8. ^ Blood on the door: 24 hours of chaos in Australian politics
  9. ^ Police investigate Australia parliament brawl
  10. ^ Police investigate Aussie Parliament brawl
  11. ^ "Fights in Bolivian parliament". BBC News. 28 October 2008.
  12. ^ Fists fly as politicians fight dirty
  13. ^ Bolivia - Parliament fight errupts
  14. ^ https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=bs&tl=en&u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.oslobodjenje.ba%2Fvijesti%2Fbih%2Fvideo-haos-u-skupstini-bpk-a-zastupnica-flasom-pogodila-predsjedavajucu-a-evo-sta-su-poslije-incidenta-porucile-jedna-drugoj-478193
  15. ^ https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=bs&tl=en&u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.oslobodjenje.ba%2Fvijesti%2Fbih%2Fvideo-haos-u-skupstini-bpk-a-zastupnica-flasom-pogodila-predsjedavajucu-a-evo-sta-su-poslije-incidenta-porucile-jedna-drugoj-478193
  16. ^ "Near-brawl erupts in House of Commons". The Chronicle Herald. 5 December 2012.
  17. ^ "Chaos in the House: Trudeau accused of 'manhandling' MP as tempers flare". National Post. 18 May 2016.
  18. ^ "PROC - Question of privilege (physical molestation of the Member from Berthier—Maskinongé)". www.ourcommons.ca. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  19. ^ "Czech politicians exchange blows (pictures :-)))". www.freerepublic.com. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  20. ^ "Egyptian MP hurls shoe at colleague for hosting Israeli envoy". The Times of Israel. 28 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  21. ^ MP sent to disciplinary board over Tiran, Sanafir debates
  22. ^ "Kähmlus Riigikogus" - "XX sajandi kroonika – I osa 1900-1940" (2002), lk. 319.
  23. ^ "Ulster Protestant Interrupts Pope, Yelling 'Antichrist!'". NYTimes. 12 October 1988. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  24. ^ "Paisley opponent dies in Bavaria". Belfast News Letter. 6 July 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  25. ^ Gutteridge, Greg Heffer, Political Reporter and Nick (6 October 2016). "UKIP's Steven Woolfe rushed to hospital after being 'PUNCHED IN THE FACE' at party meeting". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  26. ^ Burke, Myles; Dec 2014, video source APTN 5:34PM GMT 26 (26 December 2014). "Boxing Day brawl breaks out in Georgian parliament". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  27. ^ Nair, Ajay (16 May 2017). "'Can't you see I'm talking?' CHAOS in Greek Parliament as fight erupts between rival MPs". Express.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  28. ^ "Pro-independence lawmakers brawl in Hong Kong parliament - The Nation". The Nation. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  29. ^ a b Bhagat, Rasheeda. "Pepper spray pales against past TN Assembly events". @businessline. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  30. ^ Report
  31. ^ a b "The Hindu : 1989 ugly episode haunts the House". www.thehindu.com. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  32. ^ "ADMK members tearing the budget report to be read by the ruling party" Archived 2014-10-21 at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ "Indian Government Ousts State Leaders". 22 October 1997.
  34. ^ "MNS lawmakers turn into lawbreakers in Assembly". The Times Of India. 10 November 2009.
  35. ^ Brawl breaks out in Iranian parliament after economic and finance minister is sacked
  36. ^ Iraqi MPs fight after stalled Cabinet vote
  37. ^ Op-ed: Iraq constitutional amendments face uphill battle amid parliamentary dissensus
  38. ^ Fight and punches in Iraqi Kurdistan parliament over extending Barzani’s presidency
  39. ^ Discord Between Jewish, Arab Lawmakers Erupts in Verbal Melee in Israeli Knesset : Politics: Widely televised shouting match is unprecedented.
  40. ^ Jan 2012, 11:06PM GMT 09 (9 January 2012). "Israeli politician throws water at colleague in parliament". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  41. ^ "WATCH: Knesset brawl erupts as Arab MK calls IDF soldiers 'murderers' - Israel News - Jerusalem Post". www.jpost.com. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  42. ^ "Israeli Lawmaker Caught on Tape Vandalizing Car of Party Member in Knesset Parking Lot". Haaretz. 24 October 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  43. ^ Newman, Marissa. "MKs have shouting match in Knesset parking lot". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  44. ^ "MK Biran calls MK Hazan a 'pimp,' he implies she's a prostitute". Ynetnews. 11 July 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  45. ^ Israel, David. "'Police Recommendations' Amendment Squeaks By after Stormy 58 Hour Debate". Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  46. ^ Kuper, Richard (3 June 2010). "Knesset in uproar as Arab MK Hanin Zoabi tries to speak". jfjfp.com. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  47. ^ "Cabinet approves ministerial appointments of ex-Labor members". Ynetnews. 19 January 2011. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  48. ^ "Brawl breaks out as Mike Pence speeds up U.S. embassy move to Jerusalem". Metro. 22 January 2018. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  49. ^ (in Hebrew) https://www.makorrishon.co.il/nrg/online/54/ART2/044/296.html
  50. ^ (in Hebrew) https://www.inn.co.il/News/News.aspx/52024
  51. ^ (in Hebrew) https://news.walla.co.il/item/3122767
  52. ^ Knesset shouting match nearly comes to blows
  53. ^ Squires, Nick (8 July 2010). "Brawl breaks out among MPs in Italy's parliament". ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  54. ^ Japan: Brawl erupts in parliament over approval of controversial security bills [Video]
  55. ^ Mar 2013, 6:00PM GMT 07 (7 March 2013). "Scuffle breaks out in Jordanian parliament". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  56. ^ Sep 2013, 11:00AM BST 12 (12 September 2013). "MP fires AK-47 during parliament session in Jordan". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  57. ^ "Fracas in Jordan's parliament leads to 'Sit down' campaign".
  58. ^ "Chaos erupts in Jordan parliament over clashing Morsi aid claims".
  59. ^ (in Arabic) "مشاجرة في مجلس النواب الأردني وضرب بالـ"العقال
  60. ^ Video, Telegraph; Dec 2014, video source APTN 3:10PM GMT 18 (18 December 2014). "Scuffles and fighting breaks out inside Kenyan Parliament". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  61. ^ "Fighting lawmakers". 11 March 2016. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  62. ^ Medhat, Noha (16 June 2016). "Shoe fight in Kuwait's National Assembly goes viral". StepFeed. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  63. ^ Fisticuffs as lawmakers fight at Lebanese parliament
  64. ^ Parliament committee meet cut short after Lebanon lawmakers scuffle
  65. ^ Fight between deputies in lebanese parliament
  66. ^ "Mexican Congress in brawl before inauguration". CNN. 1 December 2006.
  67. ^ "Mexican lawmakers brawl in Congress before Felipe Calderon takes oath of office". USA Today. 1 December 2006.
  68. ^ Unbelievable: Chabat and Lebbar Turn the Moroccan Parliament Into a Boxing Ring
  69. ^ Aziz Lebbar Fired from His Party Following Boxing-Ring-Like Fight with Chabat>
  70. ^ (in French) When the Moroccan parliament becomes a boxing ring
  71. ^ (in French) The Authenticity and Modernity Party excludes Aziz Lebbar (photos)
  72. ^ A violent quarrel between chabat and lebbar took place the day of the return to the parlement
  73. ^ (in French) Exclusive. The complete film of the Chabat-Lebbar fight
  74. ^ (in Arabic) Brawl between Chabat and lebbar in Parliament after the royal speech (Pictures)
  75. ^ Reuters (20 January 2015). "Brawl breaks out over new constitution in Nepal's parliament". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  76. ^ "Corruption row sparks fight in Nigerian parliament". Reuters. 22 June 2010.
  77. ^ "Punches thrown in Nigeria parliament". BBC News. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  78. ^ Ethnic Albanian MPs Brawl in Macedonian Parliament
  79. ^ Politicians caught in FIST FIGHT over Christian woman saved from the death row
  80. ^ http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/819179/cayetano-to-trillanes-anywhere-anytime-i-wont-back-down
  81. ^ "Brawl erupts in South African parliament as opposition party ejected". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  82. ^ `국회는 폭력 특권지대`…일부만 형사처벌 Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine 2010-12-08 Yonhap News
  83. ^ "연합뉴스 : 바른언론 빠른뉴스". www.yonhapnews.co.kr. Retrieved 12 October 2016.
  84. ^ Kim, Y. (2011) The Politics of Coalition in South Korea. Taylor & Francis, p. 55.
  85. ^ "South Korean president impeached", BBC News, March 12, 2004
  86. ^ "S Korean politicians in mass brawl". BBC News. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  87. ^ Evan Ramstad, SungHa Park (22 July 2009). "Media Reform Bills Ignite Brawl in South Korean Parliament". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
  88. ^ GNP rams through W309tr budget 2010-12-08
  89. ^ South Korean parliament descends into mass brawl
  90. ^ Don't shed a tear
  91. ^ S. Korean Lawmaker Tear-Gases Parliament 2011-11-22
  92. ^ Object thrown at prime minister's head during brawl in Sri Lankan parliament
  93. ^ Sri Lanka MPs fight in parliament as political turmoil continues – video
  94. ^ http://www.waterkant.net/suriname/2007/12/14/surinaamse-parlementariers-met-elkaar-op-de-vuist/
  95. ^ Taiwan MP slaps woman in parliament
  96. ^ Taiwan lawmaker scuffles with colleague
  97. ^ "Taiwan leader denies vote-rigging", BBC News, March 23, 2004
  98. ^ "Taiwan politicians brawl over procedure", BBC News, May 7, 2004
  99. ^ "Taiwanese MPs hold a food fight", BBC News, October 26, 2004
  100. ^ "Taiwan deputy halts vote by chomping China proposal" Archived 2005-12-25 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters, May 30, 2006
  101. ^ Taiwanese MPs in parliament brawl, BBC News, May 8, 2007
  102. ^ Jun 2013, 6:57PM BST 25 (25 June 2013). "Punch up over tax in Taiwan parliament". www.telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  103. ^ "Taiwan lawmakers throw water and chairs in more parliament chaos". www.9news.com.au. 15 July 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  104. ^ House erupts in chaos over bills
  105. ^ Chaos in the House
  106. ^ (in Arabic) بالفيديو.. اشتباكات بين نواب البرلمان التونسي
  107. ^ "Turkish MP dies after brawl in parliament".
  108. ^ January 30, 2001: MP dies after brawl in Turkey parliament
  109. ^ "Fight erupts at Turkish Parliament amid talks over cram school bill".
  110. ^ "Turkish politicians bloodied after parliamentary punch up".
  111. ^ Second punch-up in a week between MPs in Turkish parliament
  112. ^ "Fist fight breaks out in parliament as MPs row over using mobile phone in chamber during historic debate".
  113. ^ "Incredible Scenes In The Turkish Parliament".
  114. ^ "Turkey lawmakers brawl in parliament".
  115. ^ "Unchain my vote: Handcuffs and sexism in Parliament".
  116. ^ (in Turkish) Historical fight in Parliament! Female representatives entered each other
  117. ^ Women Fight In Turkish Parliament Over Controversial Bill
  118. ^ (in Turkish) HDP: Pervin Buldan's chest kicked by Gökçen Enç
  119. ^ Three female MPs sent to hospital after violent altercation in Turkish parliament
  120. ^ "Two politicians wounded in Turkish parliament Afrin fight". Ahval. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  121. ^ (in Turkish) Afrin tension between HDP and AKP in parliament
  122. ^ Brawl erupts after vote law passed in Turkish parliament
  123. ^ Turkish Parliament passes controversial law on election alliances amid brawl
  124. ^ Four anti-terror articles passed in parliament amid brawl
  125. ^ Erdoğan lawmaker punches HDP's Assyrian MP at Turkish Parliament
  126. ^ Paylan Says He was Attacked in Parliament for Being Armenian
  127. ^ (in Turkish) Video: Ankara Büyükşehir Belediye Meclisi'nde arbede
  128. ^ (in Turkish) Ankara Büyükşehir Belediye Meclisi’nde arbede
  129. ^ "Uganda MPs brawl during presidential age-limit debate".
  130. ^ "Fighting breaks out in Ukraine's parliament". The Guardian. London. 27 April 2010.
  131. ^ "Brawl erupts in Ukraine parliament over Russian language bill". The Daily Telegraph. London. 24 May 2012.
  132. ^ "WATCH: Ukrainian politician punches out rival during heated argument in parliament". 14 August 2014.
  133. ^ Ukrainian MPs fistfight in parliament...again
  134. ^ Yet again, a fistfight breaks out in Ukraine’s parliament
  135. ^ "Foreign News: Off the Carpet". Time Magazine. 10 June 1935. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  136. ^ "Foreign News: Renovated Bottle". Time Magazine. 6 November 1950. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
  137. ^ "Shinwell Slaps M.P. in Commons for Taunt, "Go Back to Poland"". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 5 April 1938. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  138. ^ "Mace – Commons", BBC News, published December 22, 2005, accessed June 25, 2007.
  139. ^ Lindsey, William D.Religion and Public Life in the Southern Crossroads: Showdown States Rowman Altamira, 2005, pp.11
  140. ^ Williams, Joshua.Washington Arcadia Publishing, 2014, pp.14
  141. ^ "Joseph J. Anthony (1780?–1837) - Encyclopedia of Arkansas". www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  142. ^ Senate Historical Office. "The Caning of Senator Charles Sumner". Historical Minutes. The United States Senate. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  143. ^ Hoffer, Williamjames Hull (2010). The Caning of Charles Sumner: Honor, Idealism, and the Origins of the Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8018-9468-8 – via Google Books.
  144. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1855/03/09/archives/a-white-slave-from-virginia.html
  145. ^ Donald, David Herbert Charles Sumner and the Coming Civil War New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1960, pp.293-96
  146. ^ a b "KEITT, Laurence Massillon - Biographical Information". bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  147. ^ Allan L. Damon (December 1975). "Filibuster". American Heritage Magazine. 27 (1). Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
  148. ^ "Filibuster | AMERICAN HERITAGE". www.americanheritage.com. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  149. ^ Congressional Globe. 35th Cong., 1st sess. 8 February 1858. 603.
  150. ^ Beatings, Brawls, and Lawmaking: Mayhem in Congress
  151. ^ Lovejoy, Owen; Moore, William Frederick; Moore, Jane Ann; Simon, Paul (2004). "Debate on Slavery, Conducted under Hostile Conditions in Congress, April 5, 1860". His Brother's Blood: Speeches and Writings, 1838–64. Illinois: University of Illinois Press. pp. 191–200. ISBN 0-252-02919-4. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  152. ^ a b c d Romano, Lois (6 March 1985). "Duel on the Hill". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 October 2017.
  153. ^ "Republican Punches Democrat in Alabama Senate Chamber". Fox News. 8 June 2007.
  154. ^ "Capitol Alert: Fight breaks out in Assembly during budget debate – sacbee.com". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  155. ^ "Skirmish breaks out on Assembly floor during budget debate [Video]". LA Times Blogs - PolitiCal. 15 June 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  156. ^ Gregory Krieg. "Mayor, councilman brawl at meeting in Birmingham, Alabama - CNNPolitics". CNN. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  157. ^ Tribune, The Texas; Aguilar, Matthew Watkins, Alexa Ura and Julián (29 May 2017). "Republican lawmaker: I called immigration authorities on Capitol protesters". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 2 June 2019.
  158. ^ Parliament punch-up in Venezuela
  159. ^ "Venezuela MPs in punch-up over disputed election". BBC. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  160. ^ "Venezuela Fight: Politicians Brawl In Parliament Over Disputed Election [VIDEO]". Latin Times. 1 May 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  161. ^ "Colectivos irrumpieron y atacaron a diputados en la Asamblea Nacional". El Nacional (in Spanish). 5 July 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
  162. ^ "Colectivos chavistas atacan Asamblea Nacional de Venezuela; al menos 12 heridos". El Nuevo Herald (in Spanish). 5 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.

External links[edit]