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|Legislatures by country|
|Part of the Politics series|
A legislator (also known as a deputy or lawmaker) is a person who writes and passes laws, especially someone who is a member of a legislature. Legislators are often elected by the people of the state. Legislatures may be supra-national (for example, the European Parliament), national (for example, the United States Congress), or local (for example, local authorities).
The political theory of the separation of powers requires legislators to be independent individuals from the members of the executive and the judiciary. Certain political systems adhere to this principle, others do not. In the United Kingdom, for example, the executive is formed almost exclusively from legislators (members of Parliament) although the judiciary is mostly independent (until reforms in 2005, the lord chancellor uniquely was a legislator, a member of the executive - indeed, the Cabinet - and a judge, while until 2009 the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary were both judges and legislators as members of the House of Lords, though by convention they did not vote in the House until retirement).
In continental European jurisprudence and legal discussion, "the legislator" (le législateurcode: fra promoted to code: fr ) is the abstract entity that has produced the laws. When there is room for interpretation, the intent of the legislator will be questioned, and the court is directed to rule in the direction it judges to best fit the legislative intent, which can be difficult in the case of conflicting laws or constitutional provisions.
The local term for a legislator is usually a derivation of the local term for the relevant legislature. Typical examples include
- Parliament: member of parliament
- Assembly: member of the assembly
- Legislature: member of the legislature
- Congress: member of congress
- Senate: senator
- House of Representatives: representative
- The generic term "deputy" may also be used, deriving from the concept that the legislator is "deputising" for the electorate of their electoral district.
This is an incomplete list of terms for a national legislator:
|Algeria||نوابcode: ara promoted to code: ar (Députécode: ara promoted to code: ar )||People's National Assembly|
|Argentina||Diputado Nacionalcode: spa promoted to code: es||Chamber of Deputies|
|Diputado provincialcode: spa promoted to code: es||Several provincial Chambers of Deputies|
|Belarus||Дэпутат (deputatcode: bel promoted to code: be )||House of Representatives|
|Belgium||Provincial executive member: Gedeputeerdecode: nld promoted to code: nl (Dutch) / Députécode: fra promoted to code: fr (French) / Deputiertercode: deu promoted to code: de (German)||Deputation / Provincial College (provincial executive body)|
|In French, députécode: fra promoted to code: fr is sometimes also used to denote a member of parliament.||Chamber of Representatives or a regional parliament|
|Bolivia||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Chamber of Deputies|
|Brazil||Deputado estadualcode: por promoted to code: pt||Legislative Assemblies|
|Deputado federalcode: por promoted to code: pt||Chamber of Deputies|
|Bulgaria||Депутатcode: bul promoted to code: bg (Deputatcode: bul promoted to code: bg )||National Assembly|
|Canada||Senator, Sénateurcode: fra promoted to code: fr||Senate of Canada|
|Member of Parliament (MP) / Députécode: fra promoted to code: fr||House of Commons of Canada|
|Chile||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Chamber of Deputies|
|China||Deputycode: zho promoted to code: zh (人大代表code: zho promoted to code: zh )||National People's Congress|
|Colombia||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Departamental Assemblies|
|Costa Rica||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Legislative Assembly|
|Dominican Republic||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Chamber of Deputies of the Dominican Republic|
|Ecuador||Asambleístacode: spa promoted to code: es (before 2007, diputadocode: spa promoted to code: es )||National Assembly|
|El Salvador||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Legislative Assembly|
|France||Député/Députéecode: fra promoted to code: fr||National Assembly|
|Sénateur/Sénatricecode: fra promoted to code: fr||Senate|
|Guatemala||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Congress of the Republic|
|Guernsey||People's Deputy||States of Guernsey|
|Haiti||Députécode: fra promoted to code: fr ||Chamber of Deputies|
|Honduras||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||National Congress|
|India||Member of Parliament||Lok Sabha|
|Iran||مجلس شورای اسلامیcode: fas promoted to code: fa||Islamic Consultative Assembly|
|Ireland||Senators / Seanadóirícode: gle promoted to code: ga||Seanad Éireann|
|Teachta Dála (TD)||Dáil Éireann|
|Italy||Deputatocode: ita promoted to code: it||Chamber of Deputies|
|Kazakhstan||Депутатcode: kaz promoted to code: kk (deputatcode: kaz promoted to code: kk )||Mäjiliscode: kaz promoted to code: kk|
|Latvia||Deputātscode: lav promoted to code: lv||Saeima|
|Lebanon||Députécode: fra promoted to code: fr /النوابcode: ara promoted to code: ar (Nuwwabcode: ara promoted to code: ar , or deputy)||Parliament|
|Luxembourg||Deputéiertencode: ltz promoted to code: lb / Députécode: fra promoted to code: fr||Chamber of Deputies|
|Mexico||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Chamber of Deputies|
|Netherlands||Gedeputeerdecode: nld promoted to code: nl||Provincial executive (European Netherlands)|
|Eilandgedeputeerdecode: nld promoted to code: nl||Bestuurscollegecode: nld promoted to code: nl (Caribbean Netherlands)|
|Nicaragua||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||National Assembly|
|North Korea||Deputy (대의원; taeŭiwŏn)||Supreme People's Assembly|
|Panama||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||National Assembly|
|Paraguay||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Chamber of Deputies|
|Portugal||Deputadocode: por promoted to code: pt||Assembly of the Republic|
|Romania||Deputatcode: ron promoted to code: ro||Chamber of Deputies|
|Russia||Депутатcode: rus promoted to code: ru (deputatcode: rus promoted to code: ru )||State Duma and regional legislative bodies|
|Spain||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Congress of Deputies|
|Thailand||Senator (วุฒิสมาชิก; ส.ว.code: tha promoted to code: th )||Senate|
|Member of the H.R. (สมาชิกสภาผู้แทนราษฎร; ส.ส.code: tha promoted to code: th )||House of Representatives|
|Ukraine||People's Deputy of Ukraine (Депутатcode: ukr promoted to code: uk )||Verkhovna Radacode: ukr promoted to code: uk|
|United Kingdom||Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal||House of Lords|
|Member of Parliament (M.P.)||House of Commons|
|United States of America||Senator||Senate|
|Representative; Congressperson||House of Representatives|
|Uruguay||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||Chamber of Representatives|
|Venezuela||Diputado/Diputadacode: spa promoted to code: es||National Assembly|
Some legislatures provide each legislator with an official "substitute legislator" who deputises for the legislator in the legislature if the elected representative is unavailable. Venezuela, for example, provides for substitute legislators (diputado suplentecode: spa promoted to code: es ) to be elected under Article 186 of its 1999 constitution. Ecuador, Panama, and the U.S. state of Idaho also have substitute legislators.
- ^ Little, T.H.; Ogle, D.B. (2006). The Legislative Branch of State Government: People, Process, and Politics. ABC-CLIO's about state government. ABC-CLIO. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-85109-761-6. Retrieved June 26, 2019.
- ^ Parliament of Canada: Senate: Senators.
- ^ Parliament of Canada: Guide to the Canadian House of Commons: The Role of a Member of Parliament.
- ^ "Chambre des députés". Le Parlement haitien. Archived from the original on Aug 31, 2018.
- ^ "Socialist Constitution". Chapter IV, Section 1, Article 89. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- ^ 사회주의헌법 (in Korean). 제6장, 제1절, 제89조. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
- ^ "Asamblea Nacional Constituyente". Tribunal Supremo de Justicia. Archived from the original on 2014-04-17. Retrieved 2014-04-12.
- ^ Russell, Betsy (16 March 2014). "Idaho's substitute law unique". Spokesman Review. Retrieved 16 October 2022.
- Media related to Legislators at Wikimedia Commons
- Quotations related to Legislators at Wikiquote