Leiurus

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Leiurus
Deathstalker ST 07.JPG
Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg, 1828)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Scorpiones
Family: Buthidae
Genus: Leiurus
Ehrenberg, 1828
Type species
Androctonus (Leiurus) quinquestriatus
Ehrenberg, 1828
Diversity
About 5 species

Leiurus is a genus of scorpion belonging to the family Buthidae. The most common species, L. quinquestriatus, is also known under the vernacular name Deathstalker. It is distributed widely across North Africa and the Middle East, including the western and southern Arabian Peninsula and southeastern Turkey. At least one species occurs in West Africa (northern Cameroon).

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus was introduced in 1828 by C.G. Ehrenberg (in Hemprich & Ehrenberg 1828),[1] originally as a subgenus of the genus Androctonus. It was finally elevated to genus rank by M. Vachon in 1949.[2] The genus was long considered to be monotypic, containing a single species, L. quinquestriatus, but research since 2002 has shown that there are indeed several species.[3]

Diversity[edit]

Currently five species are recognized within this genus,[4] but their validity is under discussion. F. Kovařík (2007) suspected that L. jordanensis and L. savanicola are possible synonyms of L. quinquestriatus.[5]

General characteristics[edit]

Members of Leiurus are generally moderately sized scorpions that show a typical buthid habitus with gracile pedipalp chelae and a slender metasoma. The vesicle is bulbous and proportionally large in some species. The cephalothorax and mesosoma shows distinct granulation. Characteristically the tergites of the mesosoma bear five distinct, longitudinal carinae (ridges). The base color is generally yellow with brown to blackish areas extending over various parts of the animal, depending on species.[6]

Toxicity[edit]

The venom of L. quinquestriatus is among the most potent scorpion toxins. It severely affects the cardiac and pulmonary systems. Human fatalities, often children, have been confirmed by clinical reports.[7] The median lethal dose of venom (LD50) for this species was measured at 0.16 - 0.50 mg/kgmice.[8]
The toxicity of the other species is also potentially high to life-threatening, but reliable data are currently not available.

Habitat[edit]

Most species live in semi-arid to arid regions, including the Sahara and Arabian deserts. At least one species occurs in savannah environment. Sparsely vegetated and sandy or rocky substrates are preferred. The scorpions live in shallow burrows in sand or beneath rocks.

In captivity[edit]

Members of the genus Leiurus are often bred in captivity and traded. Due to their extreme toxicity, keeping these species is strictly recommendable to very experienced and/or professionally trained people.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hemprich, F.W.; C.G. Ehrenberg (1828). "Zoologica II. Arachnoidea. Plate I: Buthus; Plate II: Androctonus.". In Hemprich, F.W. & C.G. Ehrenberg. Symbolae Physicae seu Icones et Descriptiones Animalium evertebratorum seposites Insectae quae ex itinere per Africam borealem et Asiam occidentalem. Berlin. 
  2. ^ Vachon, M. (1949). "Etude sur les Scorpions. III (suite). Description des Scorpions du Nord de l'Afrique". Archives de l'Institut Pasteur d'Algérie (in French). 27 (2): 134–169. 
  3. ^ Lourenço, W.R., D. Modry & Z. Amr (2002). "Description of a new species of Leiurus Ehrenberg, 1828 (Scorpiones, Buthidae) from the South of Jordan". Revue Suisse de Zoologie. 109 (3): 635–642. 
  4. ^ Rein, J. O. (2010). "Buthidae C. L. Koch, 1837". The Scorpion Files. Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  5. ^ F. Kovařík (2007). "Leiurus nasheri sp. nov. from Yemen (Scorpiones, Buthidae" (PDF). Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 71: 137–141. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  6. ^ Lourenço, W.F., J.-X. Qi & J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson (2006). "The African species of the genus Leiurus Ehrenberg, 1828 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) with the description of a new species" (PDF). Boletín Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa. 39: 97–101. Retrieved June 15, 2010. 
  7. ^ Sofer, S.; M. Gueron (1988). "Respiratory failure in children following envenomation by the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus: hemodynamic and neurological aspects". Toxicon. 26 (10): 931–939. PMID 3201482. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(88)90258-9. 
  8. ^ Chua Kian-Wee (1997–2000). "Relative toxicity of scorpions". Retrieved April 7, 2010.