Leiyang

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Leiyang
耒阳市
County-level city
Skyline of Leiyang
Leiyang is located in Hunan
Leiyang
Leiyang
Location in Hunan
Coordinates: 26°25′19″N 112°51′43″E / 26.4219728706°N 112.8620594238°E / 26.4219728706; 112.8620594238Coordinates: 26°25′19″N 112°51′43″E / 26.4219728706°N 112.8620594238°E / 26.4219728706; 112.8620594238
Country People's Republic of China
Province Hunan
Prefecture-level city Hengyang
Area
 • Total 2,656 km2 (1,025 sq mi)
Population
 • Total 1,300,000
 • Density 490/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Website leiyang.gov.cn

Leiyang (simplified Chinese: 耒阳; traditional Chinese: 耒陽; pinyin: Lěiyáng) is a county-level city and the third most populous county-level division in Hunan Province, China. Leiyang is under the administration of Hengyang prefecture-level City. Located on the south of the province, the city is bordered to the north by Hengnan County, to the west by Changning City, to the south by Guiyang and Yongxing Counties, to the east by Anren County. Leiyang City covers 2,656 km2 (1,025 sq mi) with registered population of 1,413,913 and resident population of 1,150,241 (as of the 2010 census).[1] The city has 6 subdistricts, 19 towns and 5 townships under its jurisdiction, the government seat is Caizichi Subdistrict (蔡子池街道).[2]

History[edit]

Leiyang is the hometown of Cai Lun, the inventor of Papermaking technology, one of the Four Great Inventions. It has more than 2,000 years of history as an ancient city named after the north of Lei River. Archaeological excavation proved that as early as the Neolithic Age, people have been lived in the territory of Leiyang.

Until Leiyang was built as a division, it was a part of Jingzhou, one of the Nine Provinces before the Spring and Autumn Period and a part of Chu State in the Warring States period. In the 26th year of the Qin Shi Huang (221 BC), Lei County (Chinese: 耒县) was formed and took its name after the Lei River, it was part of Changsha Commadery (Chinese: 长沙郡). Dividing Changsha Commadery into Changsha State and Guiyang Commadery (Chinese: 桂阳郡) in 202 BC, Guiyang Commadery was formed from the southern partion of Changsha Commadery, the county of Lei was renamed to Leiyang and part of Guiyang Commadery.

In the three kingdoms period (220–280 AD), Leiyang was the territory of the Wu State. In 257 AD, the county of Leiyang was divided into four counties, that the two counties of Xinping (Chinese: 新平县) and Xinning (Chinese: 新宁县) were located on the western side of Chongling River, and the two counties of Leiyang and Liyang (Chinese: 利阳县) on the eastern side of Chongling River and western bank of Lei River. The three counties of Xinping, Xinning and Liyang were located in Xiangdong Commadery (Chinese: 湘东郡) and the county of Leiyang in Guiyang Commadery.

In 395 AD, the county of Liyang was merged to Leiyang. The county of Leiyang was renamed to Leiyin (Chinese: 耒阴县) in 589 and restored the name of Leiyang in 621. In the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960 AD), Leiyang was the territory of the Machu State. The county of Leiyang was renamed to Laiyang (Chinese: 来阳县) in the Song Dynasty period and restored the name in the Yuan Dynasty period. In November 1986, the county of Leiyang was reorganized as a county-level city.[3]

Geography[edit]

Mashui (Chinese:马水)village is located in northeast Leiyang neighboring Anren (Chinese: 安仁)& Hengnan(Chinese: 衡南)

Pingtian (Chinese:坪田)township was later annexed by Mashui. Mashui brought Pingtian under its fold.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Leiyang (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 27.8
(82)
32.4
(90.3)
35.9
(96.6)
37.0
(98.6)
36.5
(97.7)
38.0
(100.4)
40.3
(104.5)
41.1
(106)
38.1
(100.6)
36.7
(98.1)
34.2
(93.6)
26.4
(79.5)
41.1
(106)
Average high °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
11.8
(53.2)
16.1
(61)
22.9
(73.2)
27.7
(81.9)
30.9
(87.6)
34.4
(93.9)
33.5
(92.3)
29.3
(84.7)
24.1
(75.4)
18.5
(65.3)
12.8
(55)
22.6
(72.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.1
(43)
8.3
(46.9)
12.1
(53.8)
18.3
(64.9)
23.1
(73.6)
26.5
(79.7)
29.4
(84.9)
28.5
(83.3)
24.6
(76.3)
19.4
(66.9)
13.7
(56.7)
8.2
(46.8)
18.2
(64.7)
Average low °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
5.8
(42.4)
9.3
(48.7)
15.1
(59.2)
19.7
(67.5)
23.3
(73.9)
25.7
(78.3)
24.9
(76.8)
21.3
(70.3)
16.0
(60.8)
10.4
(50.7)
5.0
(41)
15
(59)
Record low °C (°F) −4.2
(24.4)
−5.3
(22.5)
−1.1
(30)
3.3
(37.9)
9.9
(49.8)
13.6
(56.5)
18.3
(64.9)
17.9
(64.2)
13.2
(55.8)
3.8
(38.8)
−0.6
(30.9)
−6.5
(20.3)
−6.5
(20.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 77.9
(3.067)
109.8
(4.323)
158.6
(6.244)
172.1
(6.776)
175.2
(6.898)
184.7
(7.272)
112.5
(4.429)
126.2
(4.969)
75.1
(2.957)
71.2
(2.803)
70.2
(2.764)
50.1
(1.972)
1,383.6
(54.474)
Average relative humidity (%) 84 85 85 83 81 81 73 77 80 80 80 80 81
Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center

Culture[edit]

According to the historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Pang Tong was chosen as magistrate of Leiyang by Liu Bei. After three years he had failed to fulfill the duties of his office. Many were upset by his failure and appealed to Liu Bei. Liu Bei sent Zhang Fei, his sworn brother, to Leiyang to investigate. Before Zhang Fei arrived, Pang Tong, who knew that Zhang Fei loved wine, ordered that all wine must be diluted with water. Once Zhang Fei arrived, true to his reputation, he consumed copious amounts of wine, but wondered why he never became drunk. He realized what was going on and became very angry with Pang Tong. In order to appease Zhang Fei, Pang Tong agreed to finish the three years worth of backlogged cases within three days, which he did. For this, Pang Tong was promoted by Liu Bei and to honor the occasion, a special wine was created, now known as Zhang Fei Wine.

In 1928, according to the biography of Mao Zedong by Jung Chang and John Halliday, Leiyang, along with neighboring Chenzhou was razed by troops under the command of Zhu De, who was following directives which originated in Moscow and passed on by higher officials of the Chinese Communist Party. The strategy was to leave large numbers of peasants with no option but to join communist uprisings.

People surnamed Chen(Chinese:陈)migrated from Zhenbian.

Language[edit]

Leiyangers speak a dialect resembling Gan Chinese.

Subdivision[edit]

6 subdistricts
19 towns
5 townships

Economy[edit]

According to preliminary accounting of the statistical authority, the gross domestic product of Leiyang City in 2017 was 47,315 million yuan (7,001 million US dollars), up by 8.1 percent over the previous year. Of this total, the value added of the primary industry was 7,100 million yuan (1,050 million US dollars), up by 3.7 percent, that of the secondary industry was 16,321 million yuan (2,415 million US dollars), up by 3.2 percent and that of the tertiary industry was 23,894 million yuan (3,535 million US dollars), up by 13.3 percent. The value added of the primary industry accounted for 15.01 percent of the GDP; that of the secondary industry accounted for 34.49 percent; and that of the tertiary industry accounted for 50.50 percent. The per capita GDP in 2017 was 40,708 yuan (6,023 US dollars).[4]

Leiyang is a center of paper production. Other raw materials produced in the area today include kaolin, white marble, and "heavy calcium carbonate".[5]

Industry[edit]

Territory of large reserves of kaolin, is a good paper stock. Yipo abundant coal resources, reserves of anthracite forecast close to 10 million tons. Forest fir, pine, South bamboo, tea.

Transportation[edit]

Guangzhou Railway, Leiyang Station, located stove Street neighborhood offices G4 Hong Kong and Macao Expressway, Leiyang territory of New Town, Leiyang, three high-speed intersection fair 107 State Road, north to south S320 Provincial Highway, east-west, east to Chaling, heading for Qiyang Away from Narita Airport, a military airport Leishui shipping Beijing-Guangzhou high-speed rail (Wuhan-Guangzhou passenger dedicated line), Leiyang West Railway Station, located west direction along the three district offices, 2009 started as a four-wire dual platform.

Leisure & Entertainment[edit]

Martyrs Cemetery, Leiyang recreation center is formed spontaneously. Wuyi Square, 90s entertainment places fewer people are in the fitness and entertainment. Especially at night from seven to nine o'clock this time, so many people; build inventor and Dragon Square Plaza, the public will choose the nearest location. Fifty-one cinema, located in the center of Wuyi Road, Leiyang been the most prosperous of the lot. Du Park, located on Lei water Dongzhou, Du Fu in this drunken soldier body, buried in this (later moved to Leiyang one). Square, inventor and Dragon Square, the largest square in Leiyang. Here young people skating, skateboarding; old people doing aerobics, talk. Cai Lun Park, site of the original stage, is one of the public places of leisure and entertainment. Yanhe, countless snacks, snack stalls, karaoke. In recent years, cultural and entertainment Leiyang annual production value of nearly 50 million yuan, profits of more than 34 million yuan, paid taxes more than 1,600 yuan.

References[edit]

  1. ^ about the population of Changning City, according to the Communiqué on 2010 Population Census of Changning City (10-Feb-12): 耒阳市第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报
  2. ^ about the divisions of Leiyang City (November 18, 2015), according to the result on adjustment of township-level administrative divisions of Leiyang City on November 18, 2015: rednet.cn: 《湖南省民政厅关于同意耒阳市乡镇区划调整方案的批复》(湘民行发〔2015〕31号)
  3. ^ History of Leiyang / 耒阳历史沿革 leiyang.gov or leiyang.ccoo
  4. ^ according to the Statistical Communiqué of Leiyang City on the 2017 National Economic and Social Development / 耒阳市2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 see hntj.gov (2018-03-13) or hengyang.gov (2018-04-14)
  5. ^ "Transportation". Archived from the original on 2009-05-26. 

External links[edit]