Lemang

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Lemang
Lemang cooking.jpg
Lemang being cooked in hollow bamboo pieces
Alternative namesLamang
TypeRice dish
Place of originBrunei,[1] Indonesia,[2][3][4] Malaysia[5][6][7] and Singapore
Region or stateMalay archipelago;[8][3][9] especially Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo[1] and Sulawesi
Main ingredientsGlutinous rice, coconut milk
Similar dishesSticky rice in bamboo, Daetong-bap

Lemang (Minangkabau: lamang) is a Malay and Minangkabau traditional food that made from glutinous rice, coconut milk and salt. It is cooked in a hollowed bamboo tube coated with banana leaves in order to prevent the rice from sticking to the bamboo. Apart from the Malay peninsula, Malay also spread throughout Indonesia, especially in Sumatra and Borneo. In terms of food, Malay has greatly influenced Indonesia’s culture.[10] Lemang is commonly found in Maritime Southeast Asian countries, especially in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. The food is also eaten throughout Mainland Southeast Asia (see sticky rice in bamboo).

Lemang is commonly eaten to mark the end of daily fasting during the annual Muslim holidays of Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha.[11]

History[edit]

Sticky rice in bamboo is known as a ubiquitous traditional food in many traditional Southeast Asian communities. Lemang is known as the traditional food of Southeast Asia. The cooking method is still very ancient and depends on the state of nature. Based on the historical evidence for ancient human life in Southeast Asia, lemang originated from the Proto-Malay and Deutero-Malay. Then, these Proto-Malay and Deutero-Malay migrated from Yunnan to the Malay archipelago via Mainland Southeast Asia between 300 and 200 BC.[7]

In Malaysia, lemang has been recorded as a special dish since 1864. It is also a Proto-Malay also known as Orang Asli indigenous food in Kelantan,[12][13] and natives of Brunei.[14] Orang Asli is considered to be the earliest residents in the Malay Archipelago and they are one of the indigenous people in Malaysia. The method of cooking using bamboo is also considered to be the method of indigenous cooking in Malaysia.[15]

Lemang or Lamang in Minangkabau spelling, is a traditional food which consists of lemang and glutinous rice or tapai that are used in various traditional ceremonies of Minangkabau, mainly in West Sumatra, Indonesia. According to Minangkabau tradition, the cooking technique of lemang was first introduced by Sheikh Burhanuddin. However, lemang is also known as the traditional food of other tribes in the Southeast Asian region, and their cooking method is still very ancient and depends on natural materials and ingredients, including bamboo tubes.[3][16]

In early Indonesian literature, lemang was mentioned in Marah Rusli's 1922 novel Siti Nurbaya, in which Nurbaya unwittingly eating a poisonous lemang due to Meringgih's evil scheme.[17]

Distribution and traditions[edit]

In Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia, lemang is associated with Malay tradition.[10] Nevertheless, rice cooking method using bamboo tubes is widely spread thought out the region, including Minangkabau, Minahasa, Dayak and Orang Asli tribes.[10]

In Minangkabau tradition, lemang making is called Malamang. Lemang is incomplete if it is not eaten together with tapai, so they are likened to a man and a woman by Minang people. Lemang itself describes the togetherness of Minang people because its making process is always done together. There are several taboos that must be obeyed in making lemang and tapai. Lemang is also used as gifts when visiting other people’s homes, for example, when visiting in-laws or manjapuik marapulai ceremony.[3] However, there is no symbolic meaning behind the obligatory existence of lemang at traditional ceremonies. On the other hand, lemang and tapai are famous for their unique taste produced by the chemical components in their ingredients. In this article, the origin of lemang and tapai, the philosophy and presentation of lemang in the traditions of the Minangkabau people, and the flavour features of lemang and tapai from a scientific perspective are discussed.[3]

The Minahasan version of this dish is known as Nasi Jaha, which is cooked in the same method.[18]

Iban people usually prepare lemang for celebrations such as the harvest festival of Hari Gawai, lemang is usually eaten with meat dishes such as chicken curry. The cooking process used in making lemang for many different types of meat, also known as pansoh or pansuh by indigenous Dayak communities.[19]

Cooking method[edit]

Burning the lemang bamboo tubes.

The bamboo contains glutinous rice, salt and coconut milk that is placed onto a slanted position beside a small fire with the opening facing upwards. It should be turned regularly in order to ensure the rice inside the bamboo is cooked evenly. The cooking process takes about 4–5 hours. Lemang is often served with rendang or serundeng.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Bahrum Ali; Bandar Seri Begwan (September 8, 2009), "'Lemang' stalls are found everywhere", The Brunei Times, archived from the original on December 10, 2015
  2. ^ "Lemang", Taste Atlas
  3. ^ a b c d e Eda Erwina (2014-05-08). "Lemang, Cerita Tradisi Malamang Dari Sumatera Barat". Merdeka.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-05-21.
  4. ^ Azzahra, Dhiya Awlia (2020-05-20). "5 Fakta Unik Lemang, Makanan Khas Sumatra Saat Puasa dan Lebaran". idntimes.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  5. ^ Vol. 3, pt. 2 comprises a monograph entitled: British Malaya, 1864-1867, by L.A. Mills, with appendix by C. O. Blagden, 1925.
  6. ^ Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Issues 1-6, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Malaysian Branch. 1878 - History
  7. ^ a b Yovani, Tania (December 2019). "Lamang tapai: the ancient Malay food in Minangkabau tradition". Journal of Ethnic Foods. 6 (1): 22. doi:10.1186/s42779-019-0029-z. S2CID 209325826.
  8. ^ "Lemang", Taste Atlas
  9. ^ Azzahra, Dhiya Awlia (2020-05-20). "5 Fakta Unik Lemang, Makanan Khas Sumatra Saat Puasa dan Lebaran". idntimes.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-09-22.
  10. ^ a b c Wahyudi, Bertha Araminta; Octavia, Felicia Agnes; Hadipraja, Marissa; Isnaeniah, Sabrina; Viriani, Vicky (March 2017). "Lemang (Rice bamboo) as a representative of typical Malay food in Indonesia". Journal of Ethnic Foods. 4 (1): 3–7. doi:10.1016/j.jef.2017.02.006.
  11. ^ Cecil Lee (September 22, 2009), "Travel Snapshot – Celebrate Hari Raya Aidilfitri With Lemang", Travel Feeder
  12. ^ Vol. 3, pt. 2 comprises a monograph entitled: British Malaya, 1864-1867, by L.A. Mills, with appendix by C. O. Blagden, 1925.
  13. ^ Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Issues 1-6, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Malaysian Branch. 1878 - History
  14. ^ Bahrum Ali; Bandar Seri Begwan (September 8, 2009), "'Lemang' stalls are found everywhere", The Brunei Times, archived from the original on December 10, 2015
  15. ^ Sarawak: Its Inhabitants and Productions By Hugh Low, James Brooke
  16. ^ Yovani, Tania (December 2019). "Lamang tapai: the ancient Malay food in Minangkabau tradition". Journal of Ethnic Foods. 6 (1): 22. doi:10.1186/s42779-019-0029-z. S2CID 209325826.
  17. ^ Kaya, Indonesia. "Warisan Sastra Indonesia Dalam Lantunan Lagu Dan Tarian Di Drama Musikal 'Siti Nurbaya (Kasih Tak Sampai)' | Liputan Budaya - Situs Budaya Indonesia". IndonesiaKaya (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2020-09-20.
  18. ^ "Jika Sumbar Punya Lamang, Minahasa Punya Nasi Jaha". Republika Online (in Indonesian). 2016-11-19. Retrieved 2020-09-20.
  19. ^ "'Ayam pansuh' — A Sarawak exotic delicacy loved by many", Malay Mail Online, June 28, 2015, retrieved July 14, 2016

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Lemang at Wikimedia Commons