Lenín Moreno

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Lenín Moreno
Lenin Moreno, president of Ecuador.jpg
46th President of Ecuador
Assumed office
24 May 2017
Vice PresidentJorge Glas
María Vicuña
Otto Sonnenholzner
Preceded byRafael Correa
United Nations Special Envoy on Disability and Accessibility
In office
19 December 2013 – 30 September 2016
Secretary GeneralBan Ki-moon
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byMaria Soledad Cisternas Reyes
Vice President of Ecuador
In office
15 January 2007 – 24 May 2013
PresidentRafael Correa
Preceded byAlejandro Serrano
Succeeded byJorge Glas
President of the PAIS Alliance
Assumed office
1 May 2017
Preceded byRafael Correa
Personal details
Born
Lenín Boltaire Moreno Garcés

(1953-03-19) 19 March 1953 (age 65)
Nuevo Rocafuerte, Ecuador
Political partyPAIS Alliance
Spouse(s)
Rocío González (m. 1974)
Children3
ResidenceCarondelet Palace
Alma materCentral University of Ecuador
Signature

Lenín Boltaire Moreno Garcés (Spanish pronunciation: [leˈnim bolˈtai̯ɾe moˈɾeno ɣaɾˈses]; born 19 March 1953) is an Ecuadorian politician who is the President of Ecuador, in office since 2017. He was Vice President from 2007 to 2013, serving under President Rafael Correa.

He was nominated as the candidate for Correa's center-left PAIS Alliance in the 2017 presidential election and won a narrow victory in Ecuador's second round of voting on 2 April 2017.[1]

Moreno was shot in 1998 in a robbery attempt and thereafter has used a wheelchair. For his advocacy for people with disabilities, he was nominated for the 2012 Nobel Peace Prize.[2] When he assumed office on 24 May 2017, Moreno became the world’s only currently serving head of state to use a wheelchair.[3]

Background[edit]

Childhood[edit]

Lenin Moreno was born into a middle-class family in Guyaquil, a small town in the Ecuadorian Amazon, near the Peruvian border. His father, Servio Tulio Moreno, was a teacher who promoted bilingual education and integrated schools for Indigenous children and mestizo children. His parents named him after their favorite authors; his father idolized Vladimir Lenin and his mother liked Voltaire, although an error in the civil registration turned his middle name into Boltaire.[4][5] He moved to Quito with his family when he was 3 years old.[6]

Education[edit]

Moreno studied in Quito at the Instituto Nacional Mejía (Mejia National Institute), the Colegio Nacional Sebastián Benalcázar (Sebastian Benalcazar National School), and the Universidad Central del Ecuador (Central University of Ecuador), where he earned a degree in Public Administration and was honored as the best graduate. He studied psychology.[7]

Career[edit]

Moreno began his career in 1976 as the director of the Continental Professional Training Center. He went on to become Director of OMC Publigerencia Andina, sales manager of Satho and marketing manager of Zitro, all located in Ecuador. Then he moved to the public sector, taking an administrative post with the Minister of Government. He worked extensively in the public tourism industry. He founded the Chamber of Tourism of Pichincha, a province in Ecuador, and was Executive Director of the National Federation of Tourism Chambers and Executive Director of the Chamber of Tourism of Pichincha, between 1997 and 1999.

Politics and awards[edit]

Moreno has earned numerous awards while serving as vice president of Ecuador: the "Fray Jodoco Ricke" Award; the Order of the Sun of Peru in the rank of Grand Cross; and the Order of Merit to the Democracy, presented by the governments of Peru, Guatemala and Colombia, respectively. He was also recognized unanimously by the Council of the Metropolitan District of Quito with the order of Gran Collar Sebastian Benalcazar. He has received various Honoris Causa awards, from the University of the Americas (Ecuador) [es], Universidad Tecnica del Norte del Ecuador (Technical University of Northern Ecuador) and the Universidad San Martin de Colombia (San Martin University of Colombia). He earned a Honoris Causa Masters, from the Business School (ESAE), Spain, on 25 November 2011.

Moreno was appointed as Special Envoy on Disability and Accessibility by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in December 2013.[8]

Eventa Foundation[edit]

After being shot, Moreno created the foundation "Eventa" to promote humor and joy as a way of life based on his personal experiences.

He is the author of numerous books on his theory of humor, including: Filosofía para la vida y el trabajo ("Philosophy for life and work"), Teoría y Práctica del Humor ("Theory and Practice of Comedy"), Ser Feliz es Fácil y Divertido ("Being Happy is Easy and Fun"), Los Mejores Chistes del Mundo ("World's Best Jokes"), Humor de los Famosos ("Humor of the Famous"), Trompabulario, Ríase, no sea enfermo ("Laugh, don’t be sick") and Cuentos no Ecológicos ("Non-Ecological Tales").[9]

Vice Presidency[edit]

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During his first year in the office of Vice President, Moreno investigated the state of disabled people in Ecuador. At the time the government’s entire budget for disabled services was approximately 100,000 U.S. dollars. Moreno increased the budget for disabled people more than fifty-fold. The state currently assists over 600,000 disabled Ecuadorians, and provides housing and income for 15,000 people and prostheses for another 4,000.[5] Through his Ecuador without Borders programme, rights for disabled people were introduced in laws passed in 2007 and 2012, and in the 2008 constitution, that empowered Ecuador's disabled; measures included in 2010 requiring companies with over 25 employees to have at least 4% of their staff people with disabilities.[10]

He also founded the Manuela Espejo Solidarity Mission for the Disabled [es], which offers rehab, technical help, and psychological support to thousands of disabled Ecuadorians. Between 2009 and 2010 the Solidarity Mission sent Ecuadorean and Cuban doctors[10] to over 1.2 million homes around the country and interviewed nearly 300,000 disabled people to find out what needs were most pressing. Many of those people received free medical checkups. And now the Solidarity Mission is spreading to Paraguay, Peru, Guatemala, Chile, El Salvador and Colombia.[11]

Moreno left the vice presidency on 24 May 2013 and was succeeded by Jorge Glas.[12] He was the first vice president to complete his term since 1992.

Nobel nomination[edit]

In 2012 a group of Ecuadorians living in Norway pushed Moreno's nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. Their efforts were backed by Assemblyman Celso Maldonado, Vice President of the People with Disabilities Commission of the National Assembly, who formally nominated Moreno. His advocates praise the “Ecuador sin barreras” (Ecuador without Barriers) projects, the government policies he has promoted in favor of the rights of people with disabilities, the Manuela Espejo Solidarity Mission, the Joaquin Gallegos Lara Stipends and Neonatal Screening, and other helpful work. The prize was expected in October 2012; however, while he had wide international support with 180 countries supporting his nomination to the Nobel Peace Prize,[13][disputed ] that award was given to the European Union.

Presidency of Ecuador[edit]

Moreno speaks at the United Nations in 2017.

On 1 October 2016, Moreno was nominated as a candidate for the 2017 presidential election at the conference of Alianza País. The statement was made by President Rafael Correa.

In the 19 February 2017 election, Moreno won the elections with 39.3% of the vote. However he was short by less than one percentage point of outright victory, as Ecuador requires in its two-round system.[14] On 2 April 2017 second runoff, he defeated Lasso, with a 51.16% of the vote.[15][16]

Switching sides and de-Correization[edit]

Within months of winning the election, Moreno started moving away from his voting platform,[17] thus igniting a feud with ex-president Rafael Correa.

Later that same year, through a referendum,[18] President Moreno reversed several key legislation pieces passed by Correa's administration that targeted wealthy individuals and banks, reversed a previous referendum allowing indefinite re-election (and efficiently blocking Correa's future electoral bids), and established a Council, Consejo de Participación Ciudadana y Control Social [es] (CPCCS-T), with Supra-Constitutional powers[19] to "evaluate control authorities and judges" (with the aim to remove what remains of Correa from the state).

Since the referendum that created the CPCCS-T (a supra constitutional council), it has been Moreno's tool, alleging the removal of the remaining of ex-president Correa's influence, to oust and handpick replacements for all control authorities, provincial judges, judicial council, and the National Electoral Council (CNE).[20][21][22][23][24]

Foreign affairs[edit]

Moreno meets with US Under Secretary for Political Affairs Thomas Shannon in 2018.

In 2018, President Moreno made a statement about Julian Assange who has been given political asylum in Ecuador's London embassy since 2012. Moreno named conditions under which Assange could stay on in the embassy, including bringing down the level of security at the embassy and no Internet access[25](the Internet access was restored half a year later[26]). In an interview to Deutsche Welle, Moreno denied that external pressure from other countries had influenced this decision concerning the status of Assange.[27]

Following a June 2018 visit by U.S. Vice President Mike Pence, who agreed with President Moreno to improve the US-Ecuador relations which were strained under the presidency of Rafael Correa. Ecuador launched a security effort with the United States, including buying weapons, radar sets, six helicopters and other equipment, as well as cooperation with the U.S. will include training and intelligence sharing.[28]

In August 2018, Ecuador withdrew from ALBA, a regional bloc led by Venezuela, in a bid to further distance itself from that country’s socialist government and because Ecuador wants to be “independent” of organizations that are trying to impose “specific views” on Latin America’s social and political issues.[29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ecuador's ruling-party candidate Moreno declared presidential winner". ABC News.
  2. ^ "Secretary-General Appoints Lenín Voltaire Moreno Garces of Ecuador Special Envoy on Disability and Accessibility" (Press release). United Nations. 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2017-02-20.
  3. ^ Londoño, Ernesto (7 April 2017). "Ecuador Elects World's Only Head of State in a Wheelchair". New York Times. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  4. ^ "Elecciones en Ecuador: quién es Lenín Moreno, el rostro conciliador que sucederá a Rafael Correa". Clarín (in Spanish). 3 April 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2018. Nació allí porque sus padres -profesores- decidieron trabajar en Nuevo Rocafuerte, que aún hoy no tiene conexión por carretera. Un error en la inscripción en el Registro Civil hizo que su segundo nombre fuera Boltaire, en vez de Voltaire. "Papá era de ideas socialistas y mamá de ideas liberales. A ellos les gustaba mucho leer; a papá, Lenín; y a mamá, Voltaire", explicó.
  5. ^ a b Watts, Jonathan (2013-02-19). "Ecuador's Lenín Moreno gives revolutionary turn by quitting while on top". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-02-20.
  6. ^ "Lenín Moreno, el heredero de la Revolución Ciudadana". LATERCERA. 3 April 2017.
  7. ^ "Biografía".
  8. ^ "Secretary-General Appoints Lenín Voltaire Moreno Garces of Ecuador Special Envoy on Disability and Accessibility". Press release. United Nations. 19 December 2013.
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ a b Caselli, Irene (20 August 2013). "The law that empowered Ecuador's disabled". Quito: BBC News. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
  11. ^ "Despite limited funds vice president leads the charge to make Ecuador accessible to the handicapped". CuencaHighLife. 2011-03-16. Archived from the original on 2014-10-30. Retrieved 2017-06-02.
  12. ^ "Vicepresidentes en la historia" (PDF). www.vicepresidencia.gob.ec. Retrieved 25 November 2017.
  13. ^ "180 Paises en el Mundo Quieren que Lenin Moreno sea Premio Nobel de la Paz – Quito Ecuador".
  14. ^ In the Ecuadorian system, to avoid a runoff a candidate needs to either win 50 percent of the first-round vote, or take 40 percent of the vote and be at least 10 percent ahead of the runner-up (Guillermo Lasso had obtained 28.09%; so had Moreno gained 40 percent he would have won on the 40-10 rule).
  15. ^ "El Futuro Es Ahora".
  16. ^ "CNE informa "resultados irreversibles": Moreno 51.16% – Lasso 48.84%" (in Spanish). Ecuavisa. 4 April 2017. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  17. ^ "¿Una broma? Presidente Moreno: A los que les estoy agarrando un poco de odio, más bien, es a los que votaron por mí (VIDEO)". Ecuadorinmediato.com. August 30, 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  18. ^ "¿Cuáles son las siete preguntas del referéndum y la consulta popular del 4 de febrero del 2018 en Ecuador?". El Comercio (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  19. ^ FORAJIDO TV (2018-05-08), CESAR TRUJILLO DICE QUE EL CPCCS SI ESTA POR ENCIMA DE LA CONSTITUCION!, retrieved 2018-08-01
  20. ^ "CPC Transitorio resuelve cesar en funciones a Gustavo Jalkh y a miembros del Consejo de la Judicatura". El Universo (in Spanish). 2018-06-04. Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  21. ^ Telégrafo, El (2018-04-05). "Consejo suspende concursos de la Judicatura y cesa a Patricio Rivera". El Telégrafo (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  22. ^ quannt. "CPCCS-T CESÓ DE MANERA DEFINITIVA AL SUPERINTENDENTE DE BANCOS". www.cpccs.gob.ec (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  23. ^ quannt. "PLENO DEL CPCCS-T CESA EN FUNCIONES A SUPERINTENDENTA DE COMPAÑÍAS". www.cpccs.gob.ec (in Spanish). Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  24. ^ "CPC transitorio resuelve destitución del superintendente Carlos Ochoa". El Universo (in Spanish). 2018-03-07. Retrieved 2018-08-01.
  25. ^ Henley, Jon (28 March 2018). "Ecuador cuts off Julian Assange's internet access at London embassy". Retrieved 24 December 2018 – via www.theguardian.com.
  26. ^ "Julian Assange to regain internet access at embassy base – reports". 2018-10-14. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  27. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Lenín Moreno: "Assange puede seguir gozando del asilo, mientras cumpla" - DW - 30.05.2018". DW.COM. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  28. ^ Ecuador says it is launching security effort with US. Fox News. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  29. ^ Ecuador leaves Venezuelan-run regional alliance. 23 August 2018. The Seattle Times. Retrieved 2018-08-24.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Alejandro Serrano
Vice President of Ecuador
2007–2013
Succeeded by
Jorge Glas
Preceded by
Rafael Correa
President of Ecuador
2017–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
New creation
First Vice President of the PAIS Alliance
2006–2017
Succeeded by
Jorge Glas
Preceded by
Rafael Correa
President of the PAIS Alliance
2017–present
Incumbent
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Position established
United Nations Special Envoy on Disability and Accessibility
2013–2016
Succeeded by
Maria Soledad Cisternas Reyes