May 13, 1986 |
New York City, New York, United States
|Alma mater||Oberlin College|
|Occupation||Actress, writer, director, producer|
|Known for||Girls, Tiny Furniture|
|Relatives||Grace Dunham (sister)|
Lena Dunham (/ / LEE-nə DUN-um; born May 13, 1986) is an American actress, writer, producer, and director. She is best known as the creator, writer and star of the HBO series Girls (2012–present), for which she has received numerous Emmy award nominations and two Golden Globe awards. Dunham's work on Girls also led her to become the first woman to win the Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Comedy Series in 2013. That year Dunham was included in the Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. In 2014, Dunham released her first book, Not That Kind of Girl: A Young Woman Tells You What She's "Learned".
Along with close friend and Girls show runner Jennifer Konner, in 2015 Dunham created the publication Lenny Letter, a feminist online newsletter which is supported by Hearst Corporation advertising.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Filmography
- 5 Awards and nominations
- 6 Works and publications
- 7 References
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
Dunham was born in New York City. Her father, Carroll Dunham, is a painter, and her mother, Laurie Simmons, is an artist and photographer, and a member of The Pictures Generation, known for her use of dolls and dollhouse furniture in her photographs of setup interior scenes. Her father is Protestant, and her mother is Jewish; Dunham has described herself as feeling "very culturally Jewish, although that's the biggest cliché for a Jewish woman to say".
Dunham attended Saint Ann's School in Brooklyn, where she met Tiny Furniture actress and future Girls co-star Jemima Kirke. She attended The New School for a year before transferring to Oberlin College, where she graduated in 2008 with a degree in creative writing.
She has a younger sister, Grace, a 2014 graduate of Brown University, who appeared in Dunham's first film, Creative Nonfiction, and starred in her second film, Tiny Furniture. The sisters were raised in Brooklyn and spent summers in Salisbury, Connecticut.
While a student at Oberlin College, Dunham produced several independent short films and uploaded them to YouTube. Many of her early films dealt with themes of sexual enlightenment and were produced in a mumblecore filmmaking style. In 2006, she produced Pressure, in which a girl and two friends talk about experiencing orgasm for the first time, which makes Dunham's character feel pressured to do so as well. "I didn't go to film school", Dunham explains. "Instead I went to liberal arts school and self-imposed a curriculum of creating tiny flawed video sketches, brief meditations on comic conundrums, and slapping them on the Internet."
Another early film, entitled The Fountain, which depicted her in a bikini brushing her teeth in the public fountain at Oberlin College, went viral on YouTube. "Her blithe willingness to disrobe without shame caused an outburst of censure from viewers", observed The New Yorker's Rebecca Mead. Dunham was shocked by the backlash and decided to take the video down:
"There were just pages of YouTube comments about how fat I was, or how not fat I was," Dunham said. "I didn't want you to Google me and the first thing you see is a debate about whether my breasts are misshapen."
In 2007, Dunham starred in a ten-episode web series for Nerve.com entitled Tight Shots, described by The New York Times Magazine's Virginia Heffernan as "a daffy serial about kids trying to make a movie and be artsy and have tons of sex."
In 2009, Dunham created the Index Magazine web series, Delusional Downtown Divas, which satirized the New York City art scene. The production was unpaid, so Dunham and her friends "pooled their money from babysitting and art-assistant gigs and borrowed some camera gear."
Also in 2009, Dunham premiered Creative Nonfiction—a comedy where she plays Ella, a college student struggling to complete a screenplay—at the South by Southwest Festival in Austin, Texas. She was initially rejected by the festival the year before; she re-edited it and successfully resubmitted the film.
Dunham had a career breakthrough with her semiautobiographic 2010 feature film Tiny Furniture; the film won Best Narrative Feature at South by Southwest Music and Media Conference, and subsequently screened at such festivals as Maryland Film Festival. Dunham plays the lead role of Aura. Laurie Simmons (Lena Dunham's real-life mother) plays Aura's mother, and Lena's real-life sister Grace plays Aura's on-screen sister.
The success of Tiny Furniture earned Dunham a blind script deal at HBO. Dunham's star was also raised considerably when she was profiled by David Carr in The New York Times; he later was credited for introducing her to Judd Apatow. The network set Dunham up with veteran show runner Jennifer Konner. Konner told Vulture's Jada Yuan that she got involved with Dunham because she was an obsessive Tiny Furniture fan:
I got a copy of Tiny Furniture from [HBO president] Sue Naegle. Actually, [New Girl creator] Liz Meriwether told me about it and said, 'Oh, there's this great movie. This girl, she's 23, she wrote, directed, and starred in it; she's in her underwear the whole time.' And I was like, 'I really don't want to see that.' And then she was like, 'Oh, trust me, it's great.' So Sue gave it to me just because she had it...I used to, like, give out copies of the movie. But I'd just broken up with my writing partner and couldn't be less interested in the idea of supervising anybody. I really was like, "I'm going to find my voice, and be on my own." And then they called me and they were like, 'Oh, the Tiny Furniture girl is doing a show, do you want to supervise her?' And I was like, 'Yes! One million percent. Sign me up. Totally on board.'
Apatow was surprised Dunham had also written and directed the film. "I emailed her and told her I thought it was great," Apatow told The Hollywood Reporter. "It turned out she was in the middle of negotiating a deal to develop a show for HBO and that her partner was Jenni Konner, whom I had worked with on Undeclared and a bunch of other projects. They asked me if I wanted to be a part of it, and I was thrilled to jump in."
The first season premiered April 15, 2012, and has garnered Dunham four Emmy nominations for her roles in acting, writing, and directing the series and two Golden Globe wins for Best Comedy Series for Girls and for herself in Best Lead Actress in a Comedy or Musical Series.
In February 2013, she became the first woman to win a Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directing – Comedy Series for her work on Girls. In January 2015, Girls was renewed for a fifth season. In September 2015, Dunham stated that season 6 of Girls will most likely be the last season for the show. This was confirmed by HBO on January 6, 2016.
The premiere of the Girls pilot was also met with criticism regarding the all-white main cast in the otherwise culturally diverse setting of New York City (the only black actors in the pilot were a homeless man and a taxi driver, and the only Asian actress had the sole trait of being good at Photoshop). Agreeing that there is a lack of racial diversity on Girls, a comment from The Huffington Post argued that the issue is the industry as a whole.
Lesley Arfin, a writer for the show, responded to the controversy with the tweeted comment: "What really bothered me most about Precious was that there was no representation of ME." Afrin later deleted the comment following uproar on social media claiming her tweet were racist.
Dunham spoke publicly about the issues on several occasions. In an interview with IndieWire, she said:
I am a half-Jew, half-WASP, and I wrote two Jews and two WASPs. Something I wanted to avoid was tokenism in casting. If I had one of the four girls, if, for example, she was African-American, I feel like — not that the experience of an African-American girl and a white girl are drastically different, but there has to be specificity to that experience [that] I wasn't able to speak to. I really wrote the show from a gut-level place, and each character was a piece of me or based on someone close to me. And only later did I realize that it was four white girls. As much as I can say it was an accident, it was only later as the criticism came out, I thought, 'I hear this and I want to respond to it.' And this is a hard issue to speak to because all I want to do is sound sensitive and not say anything that will horrify anyone or make them feel more isolated, but I did write something that was super-specific to my experience, and I always want to avoid rendering an experience I can't speak to accurately.
Donald Glover guest starred as Sandy, a black Republican and Hannah's love interest, in the first two episodes of season two, which was criticized as tokenism in response to the initial backlash from the first season.
Not That Kind of Girl
Dunham signed a $3.5 million deal in 2012 with Random House to publish her first book. Her essay collection, Not That Kind of Girl: A Young Woman Tells You What She's "Learned", was published in September 2014, and reached #2 on the The New York Times Best Seller list on October 19.
In the book, Dunham writes about being sexually assaulted by an Oberlin College classmate, which resulted in controversy over the accuracy of her account and a case of mistaken identity when a former Oberlin College student named Barry (the pseudonym used for Dunham's alleged attacker in her book) sought legal advice to ensure people didn’t associate him with the content. In the book, Dunham describes “Barry” as a guy who wore cowboy boots, sported a mustache, hosted a radio show, worked at a campus library and graduated in 2005. According to the man’s attorney, Aaron Minc, that description warrants enough detail to point a finger at his client. Dunham later apologized for the confusion and Random House reprinted the book with a clarification, releasing a statement saying: "Random House, on our own behalf and on behalf of our author, regrets the confusion."
Other passages in the book recounting interactions of a sexual nature, starting when she was seven years old, with her then one-year-old sister Grace also attracted significant controversy, and prompted numerous think pieces about children's sexuality and personal boundaries.
A Casual Romance Productions
In April 2015, Dunham, Jennifer Konner and Ericka Naegle launched A Casual Romance Productions, a production company which will develop television and film projects. The company has produced Suited, and It's Me Hilary: The Man Who Drew Eloise, with additional projects in development.
On February 20, 2015, it was reported that Dunham had been cast in a then unknown guest role in an episode of the ABC drama series Scandal, which aired March 19, 2015. Dunham will next appear in her mother, Laurie Simmons upcoming film My Art. In June 2016, Dunham announced she would be writing another book.
In 2012, Dunham began dating Jack Antonoff, lead guitarist of the band Fun and the founder of Bleachers. She previously stated that she would not get married until same-sex marriage was legalized; after same-sex marriage was indeed legalized, she and Antonoff stated that the possibility of their getting married is a "definite maybe".
In fall of 2012, Dunham appeared in a video advertisement promoting President Barack Obama's re-election, delivering a monologue, which, according to a blog quoted in The Atlantic, tried to "get the youth vote by comparing voting for the first time to having sex for the first time". Fox News reported criticism from Media Research Center's Lauren Thompson, public relations professional Ronn Torossian, and media trainer Louise Pennell, which labeled the advertisement as tasteless, inappropriate, and a ploy to lure the younger female vote. It included a comment from Steve Hall of Ad Rants saying that "not everyone was so offended." A friend of Dunham said the actress was not paid for her performance on the spot, and Dunham defended the ad by tweeting "The video may be light but the message is serious: vote for women's rights." In The Nation, Ari Melber wrote "the ad's style is vintage Lena: edgy and informed, controversial but achingly self-aware, sexually proud and affirmatively feminist."
Also writer, director
|2007||Una & Jacques||Video short|
|2009||The House of the Devil||911 Operator||Voice|
|2009||Creative Nonfiction||Ella||Also writer, director, editor|
|2009||The Viewer||Voice||Short film|
|2009||Family Tree||Lena||Short film|
|2010||Gabi on the Roof in July||Colby|
|2010||Tiny Furniture||Aura||Also director, writer|
|2012||This Is 40||Cat|
|2016||Neighbors 2: Sorority Rising||Joan of Arc||Uncredited|
|2016||My Art||In post-production|
|2007||Tight Shots||Main role
Also writer, director, editor
|2009||Delusional Downtown Divas||Oona||Main role
Also writer, director, producer
|2012–present||Girls||Hannah Horvath||Main role
Also creator, director, writer, executive producer
|2014–2016||Adventure Time||Betty Grof||"Betty" (Season 5, Episode 48)
"You Forgot Your Floaties" (Season 6, Episode 38)
"Broke His Crown" (Season 7, Episode 27)
|2014||Saturday Night Live||Host||"Lena Dunham/The National" (Season 39, Episode 15)|
|2015||Scandal||Susanne Thomas||"It's Good to Be Kink" (Season 4, Episode 63)|
|2015||7 Days in Hell||Lanny Denver||Television film|
|2015||The Simpsons||Candace/Hannah Horvath (voice)||"Every Man's Dream" (Season 27, Episode 1)|
Awards and nominations
Works and publications
- Dunham, Lena (April 28, 2010). "Funny Girl: Sarah Silverman". Paper.
- Dunham, Lena (June 28, 2012). "Seeing Nora Everywhere". The New Yorker.
- Dunham, Lena (August 13, 2012). "First Love". The New Yorker.
- Dunham, Lena (March 25, 2013). "A Box of Puppies". The New Yorker.
- Dunham, Lena (November 4, 2013). "Deliverance". The New Yorker.
- Dunham, Lena (September 1, 2014). "Difficult Girl". The New Yorker.
- Dunham, Lena (March 30, 2015). "Dog or Jewish Boyfriend? A Quiz". The New Yorker.
- Dunham, Lena (July 10, 2015). "The Bride in Her Head". The New Yorker.
- Dunham, Lena (2014). Not That Kind of Girl: A Young Woman Tells You What She's "Learned". New York, NY: Random House. ISBN 978-0-812-99499-5. OCLC 931726295.
- "Lena Dunham - United States Public Records". FamilySearch. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Gross, Terry (7 December 2010). "Lena Dunham's Big Dreams Rest On 'Tiny Furniture'". Fresh Air. NPR. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- "Lena Dunham - Bio". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences / Emmy Award. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- "Winners & Nominees: Lena Dunham". Hollywood Foreign Press Association / Golden Globe Award. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Gates, Anita (Fall 2013). "The It Girl". Directors Guild of America. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Danes, Claire. "The 2013 TIME 100". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2016-06-26.
- Gross, Terry (29 September 2014). "Lena Dunham On Sex, Oversharing And Writing About Lost 'Girls'". Fresh Air. NPR. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Jagannathan, Meera (29 September 2015). "10 fast facts about Lena Dunham and Jenni Konner's first Lenny Letter". New York Daily News. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Owen, Laura Hazard (4 March 2016). "Lena Dunham's Lenny Letter has grown to 400,000 subscribers with a 65 percent open rate". NiemanLab. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Paybarah, Azi (7 August 2013). "Lena Dunham on not considering Spitzer and not losing the next Patti Smith to Tampa". Politico f/k/a Capital New York. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- "Lena Dunham. Editor, Dead Horse Review". The Argotist Online. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- Walker, Tim (October 6, 2012). "Lena Dunham: Could she be the voice of a generation?". The Independent. London, UK. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Mead, Rebecca (15 November 2010). "Downtown's Daughter". The New Yorker: 38–45. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
- "'Girls' writer lays bare women's insecurities". Jewish Journal. April 25, 2012. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Silverstein, Melissa (November 12, 2010). "Interview with Lena Dunham – Writer/Director of Tiny Furniture". Women & Hollywood. Womenandhollywood.com. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
- Sykes, Plum (January 15, 2014). "Child's Play: Lena Dunham and Jemima Kirke's First Appearance in Vogue". Vogue. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
- Mead, Rebecca (November 15, 2010). "Downtown’s Daughter: Lena Dunham cheerfully exposes her privileged life.". The New Yorker.
- Howard, Caroline (November 12, 2010). "Names You Need to Know in 2011: Lena Dunham", Forbes. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- Browne, Alix (November 4, 2011). "Living Large". Tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved October 7, 2013.
- ""Pressure," an Early Short Film by Lena Dunham". The Absolute Mag. Retrieved March 27, 2015.
- "Everyone". Guggenheim. The Take (blog). July 27, 2010. Archived from the original on August 2, 2010. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
- "Downtown's Daughter". The New Yorker. November 15, 2010. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
- Anderson, LV (April 2, 2012). "The Mini-Completist: Lena Dunham". Slate. Retrieved 2015-03-27.
- Heffernan, Virginia (April 2, 2012). "Tight Spots". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-03-27.
- Yuan, Jada (August 16, 2009). "Almost Famous". New York. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
- "'Girls' creator Lena Dunham recounts her start at SXSW". USA Today. March 10, 2014. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
- "It's Different for 'Girls'". New York. March 25, 2012. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
- Maura, Sophie. "Lena Dunham Profile – Filmmaker", Marieclaire.com. Retrieved February 8, 2011
- "26th Independent Spirit Awards Winners – 'Black Swan' Gets Four!". Firstshowing.net. Retrieved June 29, 2011.
- "The Rise of Lena Dunham: From the NYC Art Scene to Hollywood Lightning Rod". The Hollywood Reporter. January 9, 2013. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
- "How David Carr Became the Daddy of Girls". Gawker. March 18, 2013. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
- "Girls Producer Jenni Konner on the Critics, Judd Apatow, and Loving Lena Dunham". New York. May 14, 2012. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
- "Judd Apatow on 'Girls' Awkward Sex Scenes: 'People Are Way Too Prudish' (Q&A)". The Hollywood Reporter. August 10, 2012. Retrieved 2015-03-28.
- "Lena Dunham's Show 'Girls' Picked Up By HBO". The Huffington Post. January 7, 2011.
- Nussbaum, Emily. "It's Different for 'Girls'", New York, April 1, 2012.
- "Lena Dunham ('Girls') makes DGA history as first female to win Best TV Comedy Director". Goldderby.com. February 3, 2013. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- Girls renewed for fifth season, Variety. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- "Lena Dunham on Girls season 6". Entertainment Weekly's EW.com.
- "HBO: Girls: News". HBO. Retrieved 2016-01-14.
- McKay, Hollie (April 18, 2012). "Criticism of HBO's 'Girls' for being about 'white girls, money, whining' justified?". FoxNews.com. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- Makarechi, Kia (April 16, 2012). "'Girls' Reviews: New HBO Show And Lena Dunham Face Backlash On Racism And More". The Huffington Post. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- Ryan III, Maureen (April 25, 2012). "'HBO's 'Girls' Isn't Racist, Television Is Racist (And Sexist)". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 23, 2015.
- Reeve, Elspeth (April 18, 2012). "'Girls' Writer Responds to Critique of 'Girls' with Horrible Joke". The Atlantic. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
- Read, Max. "A Girls Writer's Ironic Racism And Other 'White People Problems'". Gawker. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- "'Girls' Writer Responds to Critique of 'Girls' with Horrible Joke". The Wire. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- "Girls Writer Has Been 'Lynched' for Her Casual Racism, Says Gavin McInnes". Observer. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- "Lena Dunham Addresses "Girls" Diversity Criticism & Why I Just Don't Care... | Shadow and Act". Blogs.indiewire.com. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Berman, Judy. "'I'm a White Girl': Why 'Girls' Won't Ever Overcome Its Racial Problem". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- Bosman, Julie. "Lena Dunham Signs Book Deal for More Than $3.5 Million", The New York Times, October 8, 2012.
- Daum, Meghan (September 10, 2014). "Lena Dunham Is Not Done Confessing". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
- "COMBINED PRINT & E-BOOK NONFICTION". The New York Times. October 19, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- Heller, Karen. "Lena Dunham and the challenges of memoir". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Volokh, Eugene. "Could 'Barry' sue Lena Dunham over her memoirs?". Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Collman, Ashley; Nathan, Sara; McCormack, David; DeGraff, Mia. "Lena Dunham breaks silence to say she gave her rapist a pseudonym to protect HIM as she apologizes to man falsely identified as her attacker". Daily Mail. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Bond, Paul. "Publisher to Alter Lena Dunham Book After Rape Story Questioned, Attorney Says". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved April 1, 2015.
- Kupfer, Lindsey. "Lena Dunham's book to be reprinted with 'rapist' clarification". Page Six. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- "Publisher to Alter Lena Dunham Book After Rape Story Questioned, Attorney Says". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2016-04-23.
- Alison Flood. "Lena Dunham apologises after critics accuse her of sexually molesting sister". The Guardian.
- McDonald, Soraya Nadia (November 3, 2014). "Lena Dunham responds to sites accusing her of sexually abusing her sister". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
- Clark-Flory, Tracy. "Child therapists: Stop freaking out about Lena Dunham". Salon (November 4, 2014). Retrieved November 7, 2014.
- Oldenburg, Ann (November 6, 2014). "Lena Dunham: Sexual abuse or sexual exploration?". USA Today. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- Seetoodeh, Ramin (April 21, 2015). "How Lena Dunham is Launching an Empire for Comedic Women". Variety. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- "Lena Dunham and Rose Byrne Launch All-Female Production Companies". Indiewire.com. March 23, 2016. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
|last1=in Authors list (help)
- Ng, Philiana (February 25, 2014). "'Girls' Star Lena Dunham to Host 'SNL'", The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved February 9, 2015.
- Weinstein, Shelli. "Lena Dunham To Guest Star on 'Scandal'". Variety. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
- Cascone, Sarah (May 20, 2014). "Laurie Simmons Casts Daughter Lena Dunham in New Film". Artnet.com. Retrieved May 8, 2016.
- V. Nepales, Ruben (June 30, 2016). "Lena Dunham on wrapping up 'Girls,' Kevin Spacey sex dream tweets". Inqurier. Retrieved July 4, 2016.
- "Girls' Lena Dunham Is Dating Fun.'s Jack Antonoff", Us Weekly, September 5, 2012.
- Migdol, Erin (January 14, 2014). "Lena Dunham Boyfriend: 'Girls' Star Won't Marry Until Gay Marriage Is Legal". The Huffington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- "Lena Dunham: Will She Get Married Now That It's Legal for All? : People.com". People. July 10, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- Mizoguchi, Karen (July 10, 2015). "Lena Dunham reveals why she's STILL not ready to marry Jack Antonoff | Daily Mail Online". Daily Mail. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
- Suval, Lauren. "Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in the Media". Psychcentral.com. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
- Daum, Meghan (September 10, 2014). "Lena Dunham Is Not Done Confessing". The New York Times. Retrieved September 10, 2014.
- Franke-Ruta, Garance (October 25, 2015). "Lena Dunham's New Obama Ad—As Controversial As Everything She Does?". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
- "Critics blast Obama campaign for new ad that likens voting for Barack Obama to a young woman losing her virginity". Fox News Channel. October 25, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- , The Nation. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- "Actress Lena Dunham named Winner of Horizon Award 2014". news.biharprabha.com. Indo-Asian News Service. Retrieved February 22, 2014.
- Gettell, Oliver (April 4, 2016). "Lena Dunham's Joan of Arc cameo cut from Neighbors 2". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved April 8, 2016.
- Heti, Sheila; Simonini, Ross (2013). "Judy Blume and Lena Dunham in Conversation". The Believer. San Francisco, Calif: Believer Books, a Division of McSweeney's. OCLC 879574140.
- San Filippo, Maria (Spring 2016). ""Art Porn Provocauteurs": Queer Feminist Performances of Embodiment in the Work of Catherine Breillat and Lena Dunham". The Velvet Light Trap. Madison, WI and Austin, TX: University of Wisconsin at Madison and The University of Texas at Austin. 77 (1): 28–49. ISSN 0149-1830. OCLC 5985111614. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- Lena Dunham at the Internet Movie Database
- Lena Dunham at AllMovie
- Lena Dunham at Rotten Tomatoes
- Lena Dunham at Makers: Women Who Make America
|Saturday Night Live host
March 8, 2014