|Owner||Pinnacle Foods (since 2003)|
|Introduced||1927 in New Haven, Connecticut|
|Previous owners||Kraft (1984–1996); Kellogg (1996–1999); Aurora Food (1999–2003)|
Lender's Bagels is a brand of bagels that pioneered the pre-packaged bagel industry in the United States. Established in 1927 in New Haven, Connecticut by the Lender family, it became a North American leader in the marketing, distribution and sales of bagels. Lender's introduced frozen bagels and sold the first packaged bagels in supermarkets, eventually becoming the world's biggest bagel producer. The company was sold to Kraft Foods in 1984 and has been part of Pinnacle Foods since 2003. Non-frozen room temperature fresh bagels began production in 1994. In 2012, Lender's revenue was about $70 million.
Lender's Bagel Bakery was established by Harry Lender, a Jewish baker originally from Chelm, Poland who had immigrated to the United States from Lublin in August 1927; contrary to the popular Anglophone assumption, influenced by the family's Jewish roots, that the family's surname refers to moneylending, it is in fact a transliteration of the Yiddish word meaning "countryman" or "person living in a rural area" (cf. modern German Länder). After first working in a bagel bakery in Passaic, New Jersey, Lender purchased his own bakery on Oak Street in New Haven, Connecticut for $600, and brought his family to join him in the United States on December 30, 1929. New Haven then had a population of over 162,000, many of them new immigrants, and a Jewish population of 25,000, accounting for almost one sixth of the population. Lender's bagel bakery, called the "New York Bagel Bakery", was one of the first bagel bakeries in the United States to be established outside of New York City. In 2007, the site of the first Lender's bagel bakery was dedicated as a playground and named after one of Harry Lenders sons “Murray Lender Playground”.
In 1934, Lender moved to a large former Italian bakery, in a multiethnic neighborhood of New Haven. Aside from sales to individuals, Lender sold his bagels to other bakeries as well as to delicatessens and restaurants. As the largest sales of bagels came on Sunday morning, Saturday night was the busiest time at the bakery, and people of all ethnicities, even from out of town, began to stop by the bakery on Saturday nights to purchase fresh bagels.
New processes lead to growth
By the mid-1950s, the logistics of producing as many as 6,000 bagels for sale on Sunday morning, in contrast to relatively low activity the rest of the week, began to demand a solution. As a result, in 1954 Lender perfected a method of freezing the bagels, so that the labor could be spread more evenly throughout the week. This was kept secret, but after two years, the bakery accidentally delivered the frozen bagels, and the secret was revealed. Customers were initially angry, but were won over, when they realised that these were the same bagels they had been satisfied with for the previous two years, and the New York Bagel Bakery started to market the frozen bagels, delivering them also outside of New Haven, for instance to resorts in the Catskills.
Further refinements were developed, such as pre-slicing the bagels and packing them in polyethylene bags to keep them fresh after thawing, and the bakery began selling the packaged frozen bagels in supermarkets. To introduce bagels to an unfamiliar public, the Lender family would prepare and distribute them in supermarket aisles. The plastic bagged, frozen six pack of pre-sliced Lender's Frozen Bagels began to gain market share, and by 1959 supermarket sales accounted for half of the sales. New varieties of bagels were invented, and production was switched over to rotary ovens, rather than labor-intensive open, flat ovens.
In 1960, Harry Lender died, and his sons Sam and Murray, who had been running the bakery with him, continued. (Oldest son Hyman had previously left the family business). When youngest son Marvin graduated from college, he became a partner as well, and shortly thereafter Sam retired. The two brothers teamed up to expand operations, with Marvin managing the bakery and Murray in charge of sales.
In 1963 the Lenders leased the very first Thompson Bagel Machine, invented by Daniel T. Thompson. Until then, according to Thompson, “Sam Lender mixed the bagel dough and one man cut it into small slabs and fed it into an Italian breadstick machine. The Italian breadstick machine made bagel dough strips that were then distributed to workstations where six to eight men rolled them by hand into bagels. With this system they averaged 50 dozen bagels per hour per man. The first Thompson machine, with three unskilled workers, was able to do the work of eight skilled workers.”
Large scale expansion
In 1965 the bakery, now renamed "Lender's Bagel Bakery", moved to a 12,000-square-foot (1,100 m2) plant on the Boston Post Road in West Haven, in order to have ample reserve capacity for expansion; business increased so quickly that the bakery was working at full capacity within a year. The Lenders began flash-freezing the bagels and produced softer and sweeter bagels than was traditional. In 1974, Lender’s had bought their major competitor, Abel's Bagels in Buffalo, New York. In 1978 the family opened a bagel restaurant in Orange, Connecticut under the name “H. Lender and Sons”, two years later they opened a second one in Hamden. After Lender's Bagels was sold to Kraft Foods, the name of the restaurant was changed to S. Kinder Restaurants. The name is derived from Yiddish esst, kinder, meaning eat, children.
Under Marvin and Murray Lender, Lender's Bagels eventually grew to a highly automated 25,000-square-foot (2,300 m2) bakery, pioneering the modern automated bagel bakery. The company grew from six employees when it moved to West Haven to 600 in 1984, selling about $60 million worth of bagels from four bagel factories producing more than 750,000,000 bagels a year, becoming the world's biggest bagel producer.
Murray Lender's marketing promotions put bagels into the public consciousness. He was traveling throughout the United States marketing Lender's Frozen Bagels to a country which was disdainful of frozen foods and unfamiliar with bagels. In response to observations that March was the slowest month for sales of frozen foods, Murray Lender led an effort to declare March as Frozen Foods Month, raising sales dramatically. In recognition of his contributions to the industry as a whole, he was elected chairman of the National Frozen Food Association, nominated to the Halls of Fame of the International Deli-Bakery Association, and the Frozen Food Association. In response to the public's growing consciousness of health foods and the drop in popularity of white bread, he began to stress bagels as more natural baked goods, and Lender's Bagels became one of the first products to voluntarily include nutritional information on the package.
In a 1997 New York Times article, Eric Asimov described what he called the "informal border separating the land of fresh bagels from the frontier of the frozen assembly-line product made by Lender's Bagels" as "the Lender's Line." Murray Lender appeared as a guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. He created green bagels for Saint Patrick's Day, oval bagels for President Lyndon B. Johnson to be photographed eating in the Oval Office, and "bagel heads", miniature decorated bagels, in the likeness of the world leaders attending the 9th G7 summit in 1983. When he died at age 81 on March 21, 2012, the Washington Post called him "the most important man in the modern history of bagels," adding "Lender’s bagels may taste like white bread with a hole, but what they lack in authenticity they make up for in meaning."
In the spring of 1984, the Lender family sold Lender's Frozen Bagels to Kraft Foods, with the stipulation that Marvin would remain president and Murray spokesman for the next two years. Murray Lender publicized the sale in characteristic form, by holding "the marriage of the century", with Murray and Marvin escorting a 6-foot-tall (1.8 m) Lender’s Bagel, "Len", down the aisle to meet his new bride, "Phyl", a Kraft Philadelphia brand cream cheese. In 1987, Lender's had three plants in West Haven, a plant in New Haven, one in Buffalo, New York, and one in Mattoon, Illinois; the last is the site of the annual "Bagelfest", and also the only surviving Lender's Bagel plant in operation today. Kraft, which reportedly spent $12 to $15 million annually to advertise Lender's bagels, sold the company to Kellogg Company in 1996 for $455 million. Analysts criticized Kellogg's investment in a frozen product at a time when the popularity of fresh bagels was rising. Kellogs introduced a $20 million television campaign for Lender's in Fall 1997. In October 1999, Kellogs sold the business to San Francisco based Aurora Foods for $275 million, and ceased production at the New Haven factory in March 2000. In 2003, Aurora was bought by Pinnacle Foods, a subsidiary of the Blackstone Group since 2007.
As of 2013, the Lender's Bagels brand is in production with a wide variety of bagels, including a Healthy Grain bagel brand containing more dietary fiber and protein than the company’s other bagels. In 2011, Lender’s revenue was $40.9 million from the sale of 23.4 million six-bagel packages, $12.7 million from the sale of 7.6 million units of frozen bagels, and $28.2 million from the sale of 15.8 million units of refrigerated bagels. According to SymphonyIRI Group, a Chicago-based market research firm, Lender’s is the top selling brand in each segment. In 2012, Lender's Bagels sales increased to more than $70 million.
In May 2012, Consumer Reports magazine rated Lender's Original as one of the best bagels available in the U.S., an assessment criticized by many commentators – especially in New York – who argue that only fresh bagels are real bagels.
- Balinska, Maria (2008), pp.149-150
- "Secret of The Frozen Bagel, Revealed". New Haven Independent. May 29, 2009.
- Aitken, Kate (September 13, 2007). "Playground named for famed bagelmaker". Yale Daily News. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Balinska, Maria (2008), pp.151-154
- Balinska, Maria (2008), p.153
- Thompson, Daniel T. "Thompson Bagel Machine, History and Development". Thompson Bagel Machine. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Marks, Gil (2010). Bagel. In: Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley and Sons. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-470-39130-3.
- Balinska, Maria (2008), p.164
- Bass, Sharon L. (January 4, 1987). "'Bagel Boom' Spurs Lively Competition". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- "Murray Lender. Murray Lender, bagel-promoter, died on March 21st, aged 81". The Economist. April 21, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Asimov, Eric (March 16, 1997). "Is a Bagel Still a Bagel in Maui?". The New York Times. p. 3. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Balinska, Maria (2008), p.172
- Rothman, Lily (March 23, 2012). "Murray Lender, the man who brought bagels to the masses". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Hamilton, Robert A. (September 27, 1987). "The View from Putnem; Bagels Give Town an Economic Boost". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Gregory, Ted (July 25, 2003). "Bagel town feels bite of downturn. Downstate Mattoon is home to the world's largest bagel festival, but the factory that started it all may be in trouble". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Canedy, Dana (December 24, 1996). "Assignments Added For Two Agencies". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- "Metro Business; Kellogg Will Close Lender's Bagel Plant". The New York Times. March 2, 2000. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Kane, Courtney (September 3, 1997). "Kellogg promotes its family of cereals, even the sugary ones, as components of a healthy diet". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- "Business: Diary; An Analyst Speaks Out". The New York Times. October 3, 1999. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- AP (February 13, 2007). "Blackstone Leads Group Buying Food Company". The New York Times. Retrieved November 9, 2011.
- Schroeder, Eric (February 4, 2013). "The bagel chill". Food Business News. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Hevesi, Dennis (March 22, 2012). "Murray Lender, Who Gave All America a Taste of Bagels, Dies at 81". The New York Times. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- "Murray Lender, bagel guru, dies at 81". BakingBusiness.com. March 22, 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- "Who makes the best bagels?". Consumer Reports magazine. May 2012. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Fasick, Kevin; Sanderson, Bill (March 21, 2012). "Consumer Reports rate frozen, chain bagels 'very good'". The New York Post.
"New Yorkers Question Consumer Reports Top Bagel Picks". CBS New York. March 21, 2012.
Locker, Melissa (March 22, 2012). "Food Fight: America's Best Bagel May Not Be from New York". Time magazine.
Burstein, Nathan (March 24, 2012). "Critics see holes in Consumer Reports' bagel rankings". The Times of Israel. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Balinska, Maria (2008). The Bagel: The Surprising History of a Modest Bread, Yale University Press, November 2008, ISBN 0-300-11229-7, ISBN 978-0-300-11229-0.
- Bernstein, Eldon & Carstensen, Fred (1996). Rising to the Occasion: Lender's Bagels and the Frozen Food Revolution, 1927-1985. Business and Economic History 25 (1), pp. 165–175.
- Horowitz, Andy, & Fischer, David S., editor (2009). "Jews In New Haven Volume IX: The Lender Family of New Haven, Connecticut", Greater New Haven Jewish Historical Society (JHS).