Academy of American Poets
The Academy of American Poets is a national, member-supported organization that promotes poets and the art of poetry. The nonprofit organization was incorporated in the state of New York in 1934. It fosters the readership of poetry through outreach activities such as National Poetry Month, its website Poets.org, the syndicated series Poem-a-Day, American Poets magazine, readings and events, and poetry resources for K-12 educators. In addition, it sponsors a portfolio of seven major poetry awards, of which the first was a fellowship created in 1946 to support a poet and honor "distinguished achievement," and more than 200 prizes for student poets.
In 1984, Robert Penn Warren noted that "To have great poets there must be great audiences, Whitman said, to the more or less unheeding ears of American educators. Ambitiously, hopefully, the Academy has undertaken to remedy this plight." In 1998, Dinitia Smith described the Academy of American Poets as "a venerable body at the symbolic center of the American poetry establishment." In 2013, Carolyn Forché described the Academy of American Poets as "the most important organization in our country helping to keep poetry alive and in our culture." 
- 1 History
- 2 Awards given by the Academy of American Poets
- 2.1 Academy of American Poets Fellowship
- 2.2 James Laughlin Award
- 2.3 Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize
- 2.4 Walt Whitman Award
- 2.5 Harold Morton Landon Translation Award
- 2.6 Wallace Stevens Award
- 2.7 Raiziss/de Palchi Translation Awards
- 2.8 Aliki Perroti and Seth Frank Most Promising Young Poet Award
- 2.9 University and college poetry prizes
- 2.10 Past awards
- 3 References
- 4 External links
The Academy of American Poets was created in 1934 in New York City by 23-year-old Marie Bullock  with a mission to "support American poets at all stages of their careers and to foster the appreciation of contemporary poetry." In 1936, the Academy of American Poets was officially incorporated as a nonprofit organization. Marie Bullock was the president of the Academy of American Poets for the next half a century, running the organization out of her apartment for thirty of those years. In 1982, Marie Bullock received a Mayor's Award of Honor for Arts and Culture. She also had received the Gold Medal of the National Institute of Social Sciences, the Award for Distinguished Service to the Arts from the National Institute of Arts and Letters.
Since its earliest days, the Academy of American Poets has been guided by an honorary Board of Chancellors composed of established and award-winning poets who serve as advisors to the organization and judge its largest prizes for poets. Past Chancellors include W. H. Auden, Elizabeth Bishop, Lucille Clifton, Robert Creeley, Marianne Moore, and Mark Strand. Women as well as men were founding poets of the Academy; for example, Florence Hamilton.
As of 2016, the fourteen Chancellors of the Academy of American Poets are: Elizabeth Alexander, Toi Derricotte, Mark Doty, Linda Gregerson, Juan Felipe Herrera, Brenda Hillman, Jane Hirshfield, Khaled Mattawa, Marilyn Nelson, Alicia Ostriker, Claudia Rankine, Alberto Ríos, Arthur Sze and Anne Waldman. 
The Academy of American Poets administers several programs: National Poetry Month; the website Poets.org, which includes a curated collection of poems and essays about poetry, over 800 recordings and videos of poets dating back to the 1960s, and free materials for K-12 teachers, including lesson plans; the syndicated series, Poem-a-Day; and American Poets magazine. The organization also awards seven major prizes for poets, as well as 200 college awards sponsored at schools across the country.
In 1998, Fred Viebahn, husband of African-American poet Rita Dove, drew media attention to the lack of diversity on the Academy's Board of Chancellors; up until then, no poet of color had ever been elected to be a Chancellor, and only very few women. Subsequently two female Chancellors, Maxine Kumin and Carolyn Kizer, resigned in protest. The Academy responded by instituting major changes and designating several new chancellors, including African-American poets Lucille Clifton and Yusef Komunyakaa.
Elizabeth Kray was hired in 1963 as the first executive director of the Academy of American Poets, and she served the organization until 1981. In 2012, poet and nonprofit administrator Jennifer Benka was named executive director of the Academy of American Poets.
Awards given by the Academy of American Poets
Awards are listed in chronological order of their creation.
Academy of American Poets Fellowship
One Academy of American Poets Fellowship is awarded annually for "distinguished poetic achievement": Fellows are awarded a stipend which is presently $25,000. The Fellowship program was created in 1946, and was the first of the organization's current portfolio of awards; the Academy's website Poets.org describes it as "the first of its kind in the United States."
James Laughlin Award
Formerly known as the Lamont Poetry Selection, the Laughlin Award is given in recognition of a poet's second published book, and is considered to be the only major award honoring the publication of a poet's second book.
The award was first established in 1954 by a bequest from the wife of Thomas W. Lamont, who specified that it be used "for the discovery and encouragement of new poetic genius." In 1959, Harvey Shapiro referred to the award as "roughly, a Pulitzer for bardlings." Initially, the Lamont Poetry Selection was awarded to a poet's first published book; copies of the book were purchased from its publisher for distribution to the Academy's members. In 1975, the organization changed to selecting a poet's second volume; in an editorial, Peter Davison welcomed the change, suggesting that publishing a second volume was becoming more difficult than publishing the first.
In 1995, it was endowed by a gift from the Drue Heinz Trust, and it was renamed to honor James Laughlin, who founded the publishing house New Directions in 1936. At present, winners receive a cash prize of $5,000 and the Academy of American Poets purchases about 3000 volumes of the winning book for distribution to its membership; the purchase and distribution essentially guarantee that the book becomes "a bestseller in the tiny poetry market."
... perhaps it is just as well that I didn't succeed in getting a publisher earlier, since, with new poems being added all the time, the manuscript kept getting stronger. But years of rejection took their toll, and when I won the Lamont Award in 1962, I kept repeating "I will not be consoled." But I was. My life changed considerably. For one thing, I could make a living - I gave poetry readings around the country, wrote narrations for a couple of documentary films, translated a book of Eskimo poems, and, yes, even taught poetry workshops for a while.— Edward Field
Several of the Award's recipients have subsequently won the highest honors given to mature poets. Donald Hall was named Poet Laureate of the United States in 2004. Donald Justice, Lisel Mueller, Philip Schultz, and Tracy K. Smith have each won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry.
Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize
The Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize is awarded annually for the best volume of poetry written by a living U.S. citizen and published in the previous year in the United States. The Prize was created in 1975 by the New Hope Foundation of Pennsylvania, which was a philanthropic foundation created by Lenore Marshall and her husband, James Marshall, to "support the arts and the cause of world peace"; Lenore Marshall, a poet, novelist, editor, and peace activist, had died in 1971.
The Prize was initially administered by the Saturday Review magazine. Following the folding of Saturday Review, the Prize was administered by The Nation magazine. In 1995, administration of the Prize became the responsibility of the Academy of American Poets; the Prize has a permanent endowment, and the cash value of the prize is currently $25,000.
The Academy of American Poets currently announces three judges for each year's competition in advance. There has been some criticism of the Academy's procedures for mitigating the judges' conflicts of interest, since the judges are often acquainted with some of the poets whose volumes are nominated.
Walt Whitman Award
Named after poet Walt Whitman, the award is based on a competition of book-length poetry manuscripts by American poets who have not yet published a book. It has been described as "a transformative honor that includes publication and distribution of the book though the Academy, $5,000 in cash and a residency at the Civitella Ranieri Foundation." The Library of Congress includes the Award among distinctions noted for poets, as does The New York Times, which also occasionally publishes articles about new awards.
The award was established in 1975. In a New York Times opinion piece from 1985, the novelist John Barth noted that 1475 manuscripts had been entered into one of the Whitman Award competitions, which exceeded the number of subscribers to some poetry journals. Since 1992, Louisiana State University Press has published each volume as part of its "Walt Whitman Award Series"; the Academy purchases and distributes copies to its members, along with copies of the winning volume for the James Laughlin Award.
Harold Morton Landon Translation Award
Established in 1976, the Landon Translation award is given in recognition for a published translation of poetry that is at least 40 pages in length and ran for more than 500 copies. It was initially awarded biannually until 1987 when it became an annual award. The winner received a $1,000 cash prize.
Wallace Stevens Award
Named for Wallace Stevens, the award was established in 1994 by Dorothea Tanning to "recognize outstanding and proven mastery in the art of poetry". Nominations are not accepted. The winner, who must be an American citizen, is chosen by the AAP Board of Chancellors and receives $100,000.
Raiziss/de Palchi Translation Awards
Established in 1995, the award seeks to recognize American translators for "outstanding translations into English of modern Italian poetry" that have been published through non-self-publication means. The prize alternates annually between a straight $10,000 book price and a fellowship at the American Academy in Rome and $20,000 for use in advancing a "significant work-in-progress", such as through travel or study. The award is administered for the New York Community Trust and funded by a bequest from Sonia Raiziss Giop.
Aliki Perroti and Seth Frank Most Promising Young Poet Award
Established in 2013, the Aliki Perroti and Seth Frank Most Promising Young Poet Award recognizes a student poet twenty-three years old or younger, with an annual cash prize of $1,000. 
University and college poetry prizes
The Academy first began awarding annual $100 prizes to student poets at ten American universities and colleges in 1955. The program has since expanded to include more than 200 schools. According to the Academy, most of these prizes are endowed in perpetuity, though some are funded through other arrangements with the school or through private donors. For a school to become part of the program, a $2,500 endowment contribution is required. Individual schools set the winning criteria for their awards, within the guidelines set by the Academy: winners must be registered students at the school and the school cannot restrict the themes or styles of the entries.
Past awards include the Copernicus Award (from 1974 to 1977), the Edgar Allan Poe Award (from 1974 to 1977), and the Peter I. B. Lavan Younger Poets Award (from 1983 to 1994).
- Warren, Robert Penn (1984). Fifty Years of American Poetry. Harry N. Abrams. p. 18. ISBN 0-8109-2296-7.
- The quotation from Whitman: Walt Whitman (1892). "III. Notes Left Over 3. Ventures, on an Old Theme". Complete Prose Works. Philadelphia: David McKay. p. 324.
- Smith, Dinitia (November 14, 1998). "Two Poets Quit Board Of Academy in Protest". The New York Times.
- Viebahn, Fred (1999). "Unmasking the 'Gods of Poetry'" (PDF). Callaloo 22 (1). Reprinting of Fred Viebahn's essay from International Quarterly, along with editorial commentary by Charles H. Rowell.
- Smith, Dinitia (March 22, 1999). "Criticized as Elitist, Poets' Organization Revamps Its Structure". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- "Academy Fellowship". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Past Awards & Grants". Academy of American Poets. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "James Laughlin Award". Academy of American Poets. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- Henderson, Jeanne J. (1973). Literary and Library Prizes. Bowker. ISBN 978-0-8352-0645-7.
- Shapiro, Harvey (August 9, 1959). "The Timbre of Three New Voices". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- Davison, Peter (April 20, 1975). "The Nurture of Poets: The Guest Word". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- "Literary Awards". Council of Literary Magazines and Presses. Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-05.
- Miller, Judith (December 2, 1996). "As Arts Prizes Multiply, So Do Doubts on Value". The New York Times.
- Field, Edward (1998). A Frieze for a Temple of Love. David R. Godine. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-57423-067-3.
- "Lenore Marshall Poetry Prize". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Lenore Marshall". James A. Michener Art Museum. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
- "Lenore G. Marshall, 72, Dies; Was Poet, Novelist, and Editor". The New York Times. September 25, 1971.
- Miller, Marie-Jeanne A. (2005). "Brown, Sterling Allen". In Serafin; Bendixen, Alfred. The Continuum Encyclopedia of American Literature. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 135. ISBN 978-0-8264-1777-0.
In 1980, the Collected Poems of S. A. B. was published and won deserving accolades and awards, notably the Lenore Marshall/Saturday Review Poetry Prize, given annually to the outstanding book of poems in the U.S..
- Smith, William Ray (October 16, 1982). "John Logan Wins Marshall Prize". The Nation.
- Cordle, Alan (December 9, 2004). "The Lenore Marshall Prize and the Doping of Poets". Foetry.com.
- Sutherland, John (July 4, 2005). "American foetry: Pulitzer prize-winners accused of fraud and competition-fixing - who ever said poetry was boring?". The Guardian (London).
- "Walt Whitman Award". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- Lee, Dallas (May 6, 2009). "Walt Whitman, the sublime and the Bibb County Dump". Like the Dew: A Journal of Southern Culture and Politics. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
- "Authors Jared Carter and Debra Magpie Earling To Read on Dec. 9". The Library of Congress. December 6, 2004.
- Blog, Newoldage. "Walt Whitman Award - NYTimes.com Search". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- Barth, John (June 16, 1985). "Writing: Can It Be Taught?". The New York Times.
- "Series: Walt Whitman Award of the Academy of American Poets". Louisiana State University Press. Retrieved 2009-06-14.
- "Membership". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- "Harold Morton Landon Translation Award". Academy of American Poets. Archived from the original on 15 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Wallace Stevens Award". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Raiziss/de Palchi Translation Awards". Academy of American Poets. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Academy Most Promising". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- "University & College Poetry Prizes". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved 2009-05-04.