Leon Botstein

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Leon Botstein
Leon Botstein conducting.jpg
President of Bard College
Assumed office
1975
Preceded byReamer Kline
Personal details
BornDecember 14, 1946 (1946-12-14) (age 74)
Zürich, Switzerland
Spouse(s)Barbara Haskell
Children3
EducationUniversity of Chicago (BA)
Harvard University (MA, PhD)
OccupationScholar, Conductor, Educator
Websitewww.leonbotstein.com

Leon Botstein (born December 14, 1946 in Zürich, Switzerland) is a Swiss-American conductor, educator, and scholar serving as the President of Bard College.[1][2]

Biography[edit]

1946–1975: Early life, education, and career[edit]

Botstein was born in Zürich, Switzerland in 1946.[3] The son of Polish-Jewish physicians, Botstein immigrated to New York City at the age of two. Interested in music from an early age, he studied violin with Roman Totenberg and, during the summers, studied with faculty from the National Conservatory in Mexico City.[4] At the age of sixteen, Botstein graduated from the High School of Music and Art in Manhattan, and earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago, where he graduated in history and philosophy. While an undergraduate, he was concertmaster and assistant conductor of the University orchestra and founded University of Chicago’s chamber orchestra.[5] His music teachers at University of Chicago included the Pulitzer Prize-winning composer Richard Wernick and the musicologists H. Colin Slim and Howard Mayer Brown. In 1967, after studying at Tanglewood, Botstein then went to Harvard University, where he studied history under David Landes, writing on musical life of Vienna in the 19th and early 20th centuries. At Harvard University, he was the assistant conductor of the Harvard Radcliffe Orchestra, and conductor of the Doctors’ Orchestra of Boston.[6] In 1969, while still a graduate student, Botstein was awarded a Sloan Foundation Fellowship and began work for New York City Mayor John V. Lindsay’s administration as special assistant to the president of the Board of Education of the City of New York.[7][8] In 1970, at the age of 23, Botstein became the youngest college president in history after being appointed the president of Franconia College, where he founded the White Mountain Music Festival, an offshoot of which is still operating today.[9][10]

1975–1990: Developing Bard and Return To Music[edit]

In 1975, Botstein left Franconia to become the president of Bard College, a position he still holds.[11] Botstein oversaw significant curricular changes,[12][13] and, under his leadership, Bard saw record gains in enrollment, campus growth, endowment, institutional reach, and high-profile faculty.[14][15][16] Botstein directed the launch of the Levy Economics Institute, a public-policy research center, as well as graduate programs in the fine arts, decorative arts, environmental policy, and curatorial studies; soon thereafter, he helped acquire Bard College at Simon's Rock and later founded Bard High School Early College, which currently operates in seven cities: Newark, New York City, Cleveland, Washington D.C., Baltimore, New Orleans, and Hudson.[17][18]

Botstein, in the wake of the death of his second child, an 8-year-old daughter, decided to return to the career in music he had begun at University of Chicago.[19] He completed his Ph.D. in music history at Harvard and began retraining as a conductor with Harold Farberman, eventually leading the Hudson Valley Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra.[20][21]

1990–Present: Festivals, International Programs, and Conducting[edit]

Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts

In 1990, Botstein established the Bard Music Festival, whose success led to the development of the critically acclaimed[22][23] Richard B. Fisher Center for the Performing Arts, a multi-functional facility designed by Frank Gehry on the Bard College campus. In 1992, in addition to being named editor of the esteemed The Musical Quarterly, he was appointed the director of the American Symphony Orchestra, a position he still holds. Under Botstein’s directorship, the orchestra has developed a reputation for rescuing lesser-known works from obscurity.[24] In 1999, he helped establish Bard’s acclaimed Prison Initiative, which established college-in-prison programs across the country and is now active in nine states.[25]

In 2003, following the success of the Bard Music Festival, Botstein developed Bard SummerScape, a festival of opera, theater, film, and music, where, since its founding, he has revived thirteen rare operas in full staging.[26] Later that year, Botstein became the music director of the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra.[27][28] His concerts with the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra were broadcast in regular series across the United States and Europe, and he led the orchestra on several tours, including twice across the United States and to Leipzig to open the 2009 Bach Festival with a performance of Felix Mendelssohn’s Elijah in Bach’s Thomaskirche. In 2011, he stepped down from that post and became the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra's Conductor Laureate.[29] In addition to his work with the ASO and JSO, Botstein has performed or recorded with, among many others, the London Philharmonic Orchestra, New York City Opera, Los Angeles Philharmonic, BBC Symphony Orchestra, London Symphony Orchestra, Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, St. Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, Mariinsky Theatre Orchestra, and NDR Symphony Orchestra. In 2005, his recording of Gavriil Popov’s First Symphony with the London Symphony Orchestra was nominated for a Grammy Award.[30]

Botstein and the American Symphony Orchestra after a performance of Intolleranza by Luigi Nono at Carnegie Hall in 2018.

Throughout this period, in collaboration with institutions abroad, Botstein helped launch liberal arts programs to countries in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, South Africa, Central Asia, and the Middle East. Botstein established programs with Al Quds University,[31] American University of Central Asia,[32] and Central European University,[33] as well as helped found Bard College Berlin[34] and Smolny College, Russia's first and foremost liberal arts institution.[35][36]

Botstein also turned his attention to developing Bard's music program. In 2005, Botstein oversaw the development of The Bard College Conservatory of Music, whose dean is currently Tan Dun, and later became director of The Bard Conservatory Orchestra.[37] During this period, he also helped Bard acquire The Longy School of Music, as well as led The Bard Conservatory Orchestra on tours of China, Eastern Europe, and Cuba. In addition to conducting for the Youth Orchestra of Caracas in Venezuela and on tour in Japan, Botstein also helped develop Take a Stand, a national music program in the United States based on principles of El Sistema.[38][39] In 2015, Botstein founded the critically acclaimed[40][41] The Orchestra Now,[42] a pre-professional orchestra and master’s degree program at Bard College; in addition to performing multiple concerts each season at Carnegie Hall and Lincoln Center, The Orchestra Now also performs a regular concert series at Bard's Fisher Center and also takes part in Bard Music Festival concerts.[43]

In 2018, Botstein was appointed artistic director of Campus Grafenegg in Austria, where he collaborated with Thomas Hampson and Dennis Russell Davies. On January 23, 2020, Botstein was named chancellor of the Open Society University Network, of which Bard College and Central European University are founding members.[44][45]

Musicianship[edit]

Botstein is renowned[46][47][48] for reviving and promoting neglected repertoire and composers.[49][50][51] In addition, as director of the American Symphony Orchestra and the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, Botstein emerged as a significant proponent of "thematic programming," which assembles concert programs around common themes grounded in literature, music history, or art.[52] He is also known for a series called "Classics Declassified," in which Botstein lectures, conducts, and takes questions from the audience.[53] Both the Bard Music Festival and Bard SummerScape, where Botstein has revived thirteen rare operas in full staging,[54] continue Botstein's method of reviving neglected works and synthesizing performance and scholarship, as the Wall Street Journal's Barrymore Laurence Scherer observed, "the Bard Music Festival…no longer needs an introduction. Under the provocative guidance of the conductor-scholar Leon Botstein, it has long been one of the most intellectually stimulating of all American summer festivals and frequently is one of the most musically satisfying. Each year, through discussions by major scholars and illustrative concerts often programmed to overflowing, Bard audiences have investigated the oeuvre of a major composer in the context of the society, politics, literature, art and music of his times."[55]

Scholarship and writings[edit]

Botstein's scholarship focuses on the intersection of music, culture, and politics since the early nineteenth century.[56][57] He has written several books including Judentum und Modernitaet and Von Beethoven zu Berg: Das Gedächtnis der Moderne. In addition, Botstein is coeditor of Vienna: Jews and the City of Music, 1870-1938 (Princeton University Press), editor of The Complete Brahms: A Guide to the Musical Works of Johannes (W.W. Norton), and author of the forthcoming The History of Listening: How Music Creates Meaning (Basic Books), an historical inquiry into the function of music. In addition, his essays for The Bard Music Festival are published as a series in the Princeton University Press.[58][59] He is editor of The Musical Quarterly and a frequent contributor to periodicals focusing on music and history.[60] Botstein also writes frequently on primary and secondary education and universities: in addition to the book Jefferson's Children: Education and the Promise of American Culture, he is the author of numerous articles on education in the United States.[61]

Personal life[edit]

Botstein is the brother of biologist David Botstein and pediatric cardiologist Eva Griepp, and husband of art historian Barbara Haskell. Both of Botstein's parents were physicians who, after emigrating to the United States, served on faculty of the Einstein College of Medicine in New York. He has three children, Sarah Botstein, Clara Botstein, and Max Botstein.[62]

Awards[edit]

Books[edit]

  • Botstein, Leon. The History of Listening: How Music Creates Meaning. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  • Botstein, Leon (2013). Von Beethoven zu Berg: Das Gedächtnis der Moderne. Zsolnay.
  • Botstein, Leon (2011). Freud und Wittgenstein Sprache und menschliche Natur. Vienna: Picus Verlag.
  • Botstein, Leon (2004). Vienna: Jews and the City of Music. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1931493277.
  • Botstein, Leon (1999). The Complete Brahms: A Guide to the Musical Works of Johannes. New York, NY.
  • Botstein, Leon (1997). Jefferson's Children: Education and the Promise of American Culture. New York, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-47555-1.
  • Botstein, Leon (1991). Judentum und Modernität : Essays zur Rolle der Juden in der deutschen und österreichischen Kultur, 1848 bis 1938. Vienna: Böhlau. ISBN 3-205-05358-3.

Selected articles, essays, and chapters[edit]

  • (2020) Botstein, Leon (2020). "Traditionalism". In Kristiansen, Morten (ed.). Strauss in Context. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781108379939.
  • (2020) Botstein, Leon (2020). "The Eroica in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries". In November, Nancy (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to the Eroica Symphony. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1108422581.
  • (2020) Botstein, Leon (2020). "The Philosophical Composer: The Influence of Moses Mendelssohn and Friedrich Schleiermacher on Felix Mendelssohn". In Taylor, Benedict (ed.). Rethinking Mendelssohn. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190611781.
  • (2018) Botstein, L. (2018). "Redeeming the Liberal Arts". Liberal Education. 104 (4): 1–5. doi:10.1515/9780691202006-018.
  • (2017) "Hungary's xenophobic attack on Central European University is a threat to freedom everywhere". Washington Post. April 4, 2017.[70]
  • (2017) "American Universities Must Take a Stand". New York Times. February 8, 2017.[71]
  • (2016) "Bard president draws parallels between European anti-Semitism and American racism to explain Trump's win". Washington Post. December 16, 2016.[72]
  • (2016) "The Election Was About Racism Against Barack Obama". TIME. December 13, 2016.[73]
  • (2016) "Why the Next President Should Forgive All Student Loans". TIME. August 12, 2016.[74]
  • (2016) Botstein, Leon (August 9, 2016). "Walther Rathenau (1867-1922): Bildung, Prescription, Prophecy". In Picard, Jacques (ed.). Makers of Jewish Modernity: Thinkers, Artists, Leaders, and the World They Made. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691164236.
  • (2015) "Can Music Speak Truth to Power?". Musical America. August 12, 2015.[75]
  • (2014) "The SAT is Part Hoax, Part Fraud". TIME. 183 (11): 17. March 24, 2014.
  • (2014) "How an Anti-Semitic Composer Created 'Kol Nidre' and 'Moses'". The Jewish Daily Forward. March 24, 2014.[76]
  • (2014) "Book Review: 'Mad Music' by Stephen Budiansky & 'Charles Ives in the Mirror' by David C. Paul". The Wall Street Journal. August 1, 2014.[77]
  • (2013) "Resisting Complacency, Fear, and the Philistine: The University and its Challenges". The Hedgehog Review. June 1, 2013.[78]
  • (2011) Botstein, Leon (September 29, 2011). "The Eye of the Needle: Music as History after the Age of Recording". In Fulcher, Jane (ed.). The Oxford Handbook to the New Cultural History of Music. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 256–304. ISBN 978-0-19-534186-7.
  • (2010) "The High School Sinkhole". New York Times. February 10, 2010.
  • (2010) "Why Mahler?". Wall Street Journal. October 9, 2010.
  • (2009) "For the Love of Learning". The New Republic. March 2, 2009.
  • (2009) "Recovery Depends on School Reform". New York Times. February 2, 2009.
  • (2008) "The Unsung Success of Live Classical Music". Wall Street Journal. October 3, 2008.
  • (2007) "Freud and Wittgenstein: Language and human nature". Psychoanalytic Psychology. 24 (4): 603–622. March 24, 2007.
  • (2006) "Memories of beginnings past". The Jerusalem Post. September 21, 2006.
  • (2006) "Milton Babbitt: Speaking Truth Through Music". The Chronicle of Higher Education. April 14, 2006.
  • (2005) Botstein, Leon (2005). "Music, Femininity, and Jewish Identity: The Tradition and Legacy of the Salon". In Bilski, Emily (ed.). Jewish Women and Their Salons: The Power of Conversation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300103854.
  • (2004) Botstein, Leon (2004). "Being Jewish". In Pearl, Judea and Ruth (ed.). I Am Jewish: Personal Reflections Inspired by the Last Words of Daniel Pearl. Woodstock, VT: Jewish Lights Publishing. ISBN 9781580232593.
  • (2003) Botstein, Leon (2003). "The Future of Conducting". In Bowen, José (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Conducting. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521527910.
  • (2003) "The Merit Myth". The New York Times. January 14, 2003.[79]
  • (2001) Botstein, Leon (2001). "Neoclassicism, Romanticism, and Emancipation: The Origins of Felix Mendelssohn's Aesthetic Outlook". In Seaton, Douglas (ed.). The Mendelssohn Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0313284458.
  • (2001) "We Waste Our Children's Time". The New York Times. January 24, 2001.[80]
  • (2000) "What Local Control?". The New York Times. September 19, 2000.[81]
  • (2000) Botstein, Leon (2000). "Sound and Structure in Beethoven's Orchestral Music". In Glenn, Stanley (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Beethoven. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1139002202.

Selected recordings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Profile: Leon Botstein, Hadassah Magazine, "Botstein is a proud secular Jew not ambivalent or defensive about his identity. In I Am Jewish: Personal Reflections Inspired by the Last Words of Daniel Pearl (Jewish Lights), he writes: "In Judaism, learning is prayer, for it celebrates the human capacity for language and thought." He waxes nostalgic for the days of "exceptional Jewry," arguing that "Jews have entered the indistinguishable middle class…. We are no longer the people of the book; we are a people of ordinary vulgarity. The real tragedy of American Jewry—and Israel—is that we've used privilege to become absolutely ordinary.""
  2. ^ Depalma, Anthony. "The Most Happy College President: Leon Botstein of Bard". Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  3. ^ Abel, Olivia. "Interview with Leon Botstein: 35 Years (and Counting) as President of Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY". Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  4. ^ Abel, Olivia. "Interview with Leon Botstein: 35 Years (and Counting) as President of Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY". Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  5. ^ Elliott, Susan. "Orchestrating a career: College president, conductor, and writer: for Leon Botstein, work is a three-part harmony". University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  6. ^ Gregory, Alice (September 22, 2014). "The Duke of Bard". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved December 25, 2017.
  7. ^ Elliott, Susan. "Orchestrating a career: College president, conductor, and writer: for Leon Botstein, work is a three-part harmony". University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  8. ^ "BIOGRAPHY". LEON BOTSTEIN. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
  9. ^ Aaron, Peter (February 22, 2021). "The Wizard of Bard". Chronogram. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  10. ^ Elliott, Susan. "Orchestrating a career: College president, conductor, and writer: for Leon Botstein, work is a three-part harmony". University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  11. ^ Gregory, Alice (September 22, 2014). "The Duke of Bard". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved December 25, 2017.
  12. ^ Wilson, Robin (October 10, 1997). "In a 22-Year Career, Bard's President Radically Transforms College's Mission". The Chronicle of High Education. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  13. ^ Depalma, Anthony. "The Most Happy College President: Leon Botstein of Bard". Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  14. ^ Depalma, Anthony. "The Most Happy College President: Leon Botstein of Bard". Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  15. ^ Wilson, Robin (1997-10-10). "In a 22-Year Career, Bard's President Radically Transforms College's Mission". The Chronicle of High Education. Retrieved 2021-10-22. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  16. ^ Elliott, Susan. "Orchestrating a career: College president, conductor, and writer: for Leon Botstein, work is a three-part harmony". University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  17. ^ Elliott, Susan. "Orchestrating a career: College president, conductor, and writer: for Leon Botstein, work is a three-part harmony". University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  18. ^ Depalma, Anthony. "The Most Happy College President: Leon Botstein of Bard". Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  19. ^ Gregory, Alice (September 22, 2014). "The Duke of Bard". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved December 25, 2017.
  20. ^ Gregory, Alice (September 22, 2014). "The Duke of Bard". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved December 25, 2017.
  21. ^ Depalma, Anthony. "The Most Happy College President: Leon Botstein of Bard". Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  22. ^ Rozhon, Tracie. "From Gehry, A Bilbao on The Hudson". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  23. ^ Goldberger, Paul (June 2, 2003). "Artistic License Two great new cultural centers open out of town". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 9, 2012.
  24. ^ Baker, Zachary. "Leon Botstein". Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  25. ^ Baker, Zachary. "Leon Botstein". Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  26. ^ Woolfe, Zachary (July 19, 2013). "An Opera Known for Obscurity, Plucked From the Shadows". The New York Times.
  27. ^ Eckert, Thor. "Professor Botstein in the Promised Land". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  28. ^ Brown, Emily Freeman (August 20, 2015). "A Dictionary for the Modern Conductor". Scarecrow Press – via Google Books.
  29. ^ Brown, Emily Freeman (August 20, 2015). "A Dictionary for the Modern Conductor". Scarecrow Press – via Google Books.
  30. ^ "Artist: Leon Botstein". Grammy Award. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  31. ^ Palestinian Campus Looks to East Bank (of Hudson), New York Times, February 14, 2009
  32. ^ Scott Horton Interviews The Other Scott Horton Archived 2011-02-20 at the Wayback Machine, Antiwar Radio (Dec. 11, 2010)
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 5, 2008. Retrieved May 3, 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Bard College: About CEU and Budapest
  34. ^ "History". Bard College Berlin. Bard College Berlin. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
  35. ^ Fischer, Karen. "A Missionary for Liberal Arts". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  36. ^ Redden, Elizabeth. "Open Society University Network Launched With $1 Billion Gift". Inside Higher Eucation. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  37. ^ Baker, Zachary. "Leon Botstein". Stanford University Libraries. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  38. ^ Ng, David. "Los Angeles Philharmonic embarking on new El Sistema initiative". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  39. ^ "NATIONAL TAKE A STAND ORCHESTRA: YOUTH ORCHESTRA OF THE EAST". Fisher Center.
  40. ^ Tommasini, Anthony. "Exhausted by Harmony, Schoenberg Found Atonality". The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  41. ^ Platt, Russell. "The Visual Artists Who Inspired Brahms". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  42. ^ "About The Orchestra Now". bard.edu. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  43. ^ "About The Orchestra Now". bard.edu. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  44. ^ "George Soros Announces Global Initiative to Transform Higher Education".
  45. ^ "Leon Botstein".
  46. ^ Davis, Peter (July 22, 2009). "Wagner's Anxiety of Influence". The New York Times.
  47. ^ Scherer, Barrymore (August 5, 2009). "Undeniable Influence". Wall Street Journal.
  48. ^ Berman, Daphna (December 10, 2004). "The Money-making Music Man". Haartez.
  49. ^ Adler, Margot (January 24, 2009). "Botstein Revives The East German Avant-Garde". NPR.
  50. ^ Tommasini, Anthony (November 16, 2016). "A Symphony With Powerful Champions, but Often Overlooked". The New York Times.
  51. ^ Cooper, Michael (February 16, 2015). "Bard SummerScape to Feature Work of the Composer Carlos Chávez". The New York Times.
  52. ^ "Leon Botstein". Stanford University Libraries. January 21, 2011.
  53. ^ "ASO". Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  54. ^ Woolfe, Zachary (July 19, 2013). "An Opera Known for Obscurity, Plucked From the Shadows". The New York Times.
  55. ^ Scherer, Barrymore (August 5, 2009). "Undeniable Influence". Wall Street Journal.
  56. ^ Gregory, Alice (September 22, 2014). "The Duke of Bard". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved December 25, 2017.
  57. ^ Elliott, Susan. "Orchestrating a career: College president, conductor, and writer: for Leon Botstein, work is a three-part harmony". University of Chicago Magazine. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  58. ^ "Princeton University Press Books in The Bard Music Festival". Press.princeton.edu. April 19, 2012. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  59. ^ Matthews, David (January 27, 2012). "Refuge in the Forest". Times Literary Supplement.
  60. ^ Matthews, David (January 27, 2012). "Refuge in the Forest". Times Literary Supplement.
  61. ^ Appel, Jacob (January 15, 2004). "Leon Botstein: The Maestro of Annandale". Education Update.
  62. ^ Musleah, Rahel (May 2009). "Profile: Leon Botstein". www.hadassahmagazine.org. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
  63. ^ "Watson School 2018 Ph.D.s". Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. April 27, 2018.
  64. ^ "Commencement". Goucher College.
  65. ^ Sewanee: The University of the South. "Top Stories Homepage - Gowns awarded, honorary degrees conferred during Convocation - Sewanee: The University of the South".
  66. ^ "90th Anniversary Gala".
  67. ^ Shannon Thomason. "UAB - UAB News - UAB presents Leon Botstein, 2014 Ireland Distinguished Visiting Scholar, on March 13".
  68. ^ "www.abruckner.com". Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  69. ^ "artsandletters.org". artsandletters.org. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  70. ^ Botstein, Leon. "Hungary's xenophobic attack on Central European University is a threat to freedom everywhere". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
  71. ^ Botstein, Leon. "American Universities Must Take a Stand". nytimes.com. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  72. ^ Ross, Janell. "Bard president draws parallels between European anti-Semitism and American racism to explain Trump's win". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved December 16, 2016.
  73. ^ Botstein, Leon. "The Election Was About Racism Against Barack Obama". time.com. Retrieved December 13, 2016.
  74. ^ Botstein, Leon. "Why the Next President Should Forgive All Student Loans". time.com.
  75. ^ Botstein, Leon. "Can Music Speak Truth to Power?". musicalamerica.com.
  76. ^ Leon Botstein (March 24, 2014). "How an Anti-Semitic Composer Created 'Kol Nidre' and 'Moses'". The Forward.
  77. ^ Leon Botstein (August 1, 2014). "Book Review: 'Mad Music' by Stephen Budiansky & 'Charles Ives in the Mirror' by David C. Paul". The Wall Street Journal.
  78. ^ Leon Botstein (June 1, 2013). "Resisting Complacency, Fear, and the Philistine: The University and its Challenges". The Hedgehog Review.
  79. ^ Leon Botstein (January 14, 2003). "The Merit Myth". The New York Times.
  80. ^ Leon Botstein (January 24, 2001). "We Waste Our Children's Time". The New York Times.
  81. ^ Leon Botstein (September 19, 2000). "What Local Control?". The New York Times.

External links[edit]