Leon Judah Kamin
December 29, 1927
Taunton, Massachusetts, United States
|Died||December 22, 2017(aged 89)|
|Known for||Blocking effect|
Race and intelligence
|Thesis||The effects of the interval between signal and shock on avoidance learning (1954)|
|Academic advisors||Richard Solomon|
Leon J. Kamin (December 29, 1927 – December 22, 2017) was an American psychologist known for his contributions to learning theory and his critique of estimates of the heritability of IQ. He studied under Richard Solomon at Harvard and contributed several important ideas about conditioning, including the "blocking effect".
Early life and education
Born in Taunton, Massachusetts, Kamin studied psychology at Harvard. While a Harvard undergraduate, he had been a member of the Communist Party, but he had dropped out of the party by 1950. Later, while a graduate student, Kamin was subpoenaed by the McCarthy Committee, where he refused to name names. As a result, Kamin was convicted of contempt of the Senate during the McCarthy era and had to find employment in Canada, where he chaired the Psychology Department at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada (1957–58). In 1968 he returned to the U.S. and chaired Princeton University's Department of Psychology and later the Psychology Department at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts.
Kamin's most well-known contribution to learning theory was his discovery and analysis of the "blocking effect" (1969). He showed that conditioning an animal to associate a salient conditioned stimulus (CSb), such as a bright light, with a salient unconditioned stimulus (US), like a shock, is "blocked" when CSb is presented simultaneously with another conditioned stimulus (CSa) that was already conditioned to the US. (Kamin used rats in most of his research, but the effect has been found in many animals). The blocking effect is one of the hallmark effects in the study of associative learning in animals, including humans.[according to whom?] However, subsequent research suggests it is not as robust as previously thought.
In March 1972 an invitation from the Princeton Psychology Department (which Kamin chaired at the time) to Richard Herrnstein (who had a few months earlier published a contentious article about race, gender, class, and intelligence) sparked a major controversy and threats of protest. Herrnstein canceled his visit, saying that "It would be enough for me not to come if they had placards on the wall." Kamin defended the invitation to Herrnstein, opposed the protests, and organized a meeting to discuss the controversy. The resulting debates spurred Kamin to start investigating the work on heritability of intelligence of Cyril Burt, work that Herrnstein was citing to support his views. Kamin concluded that Burt had falsified his data; in 1974 he published his analysis in the book The Science and Politics of IQ.
Kamin co-authored the controversial book Not in Our Genes (1984) with geneticist Richard Lewontin and neurobiologist Steven Rose. This book criticized sociobiology and evolutionary psychology. Kamin was known in some circles for his speculation that the heritability of IQ could be "zero". (Mackintosh, 1998) In 1983, he was named a Guggenheim Fellow in psychology.
In Race Differences in Intelligence (1974), Loehlin, Lindzey & Spuhler wrote (p. 85):
Kamin's more radical assertion of zero heritability, if substantiated, might not render the present book entirely meaningless, but it would certainly require a considerable revision of its language and point of view. In Appendix H we have taken a second look in the light of Kamin's critique at some of the data that provide the main focus for his misgivings, namely the studies of adoptive families and separated identical twins. We do not find these data to be quite as fragile as does Kamin, and we find Kamin's analysis to suffer from a number of statistical and logical problems.
- The Science and Politics of IQ (1974)
- Hans Jürgen Eysenck and Leon J. Kamin (1981). Intelligence: the Battle for the Mind. MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-330-26399-3.
- Richard Lewontin, Steven Rose and Leon J. Kamin (1984). Not in Our Genes.
- In Memoriam: Dr. Leon J. Kamin (1927-2017)
- (Kamin, 2005)
- Maes, Elisa; Boddez, Yannick; Alfei, Joaquín Matías; Krypotos, Angelos-Miltiadis; D'Hooge, Rudi; De Houwer, Jan; Beckers, Tom (September 2016). "The elusive nature of the blocking effect: 15 failures to replicate". Journal of Experimental Psychology. General. 145 (9): e49–71. doi:10.1037/xge0000200. ISSN 1939-2222. PMID 27428670.
- Herrnstein, Richard J. (1971). "IQ". Atlantic Monthly. 228 (3): 43–64.
- Murphy, Sue (March 6, 1972). "Harvard's Herrnstein cancels scheduled speech appearance". Daily Princetonian. 96 (27).
- "Letters to the Princetonian". Daily Princetonian. 96 (28). March 7, 1972.
- Tucker, William H. (2015). Princeton Radicals of the 1960s, Then and Now. McFarland. p. 214. ISBN 978-1476663012.
- Koblitz, Neal (2008). Random Curves: Journeys of a Mathematician. Springer-Verlag. pp. 67–70. ISBN 978-3540740773.
- "Leon J. Kamin". John Simon Guggenheim Foundation. Retrieved 2018-07-23.
- Kamin, L. J. (1969). Predictability, surprise, attention, and conditioning. In B. A. Campbell & R. M . Church (Eds.), Punishment and aversive behavior (pp. 279–296). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
- Kamin, L.J. (2005). Letter to the Editor, New York Review of Books, May 26.
- Mackintosh, N. (1998). IQ and Human Intelligence. Oxford: University Press. pp. 78–79.
- Loehlin, Lindzey & Spuhler (Freeman, 1975). Race Differences in Intelligence (ISBN 0-7167-0754-3)