Leonard Cheshire

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The Lord Cheshire
Leonard Cheshire.2.jpg
Wing Commander Leonard Cheshire in January 1943
Born(1917-09-07)7 September 1917
Chester, Cheshire, England
Died31 July 1992(1992-07-31) (aged 74)
Cavendish, Suffolk, England
BuriedCavendish Cemetery
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Service/branchRoyal Air Force
Years of service1937–1946
RankGroup Captain
Service number72021
UnitNo. 102 Squadron RAF
No. 35 Squadron RAF
Commands heldNo. 617 Squadron RAF (1943–44)
RAF Marston Moor (1943)
No. 76 Squadron RAF (1942–43)
Battles/warsSecond World War
AwardsVictoria Cross
Member of the Order of Merit
Distinguished Service Order & Two Bars
Distinguished Flying Cross
Mentioned in Despatches
Spouse(s)Constance Binney (1941–51)
Sue Ryder (1959–92)
RelationsGeoffrey Chevalier Cheshire (father)
Other workHumanitarian

Geoffrey Leonard Cheshire, Baron Cheshire, VC, OM, DSO & Two Bars, DFC (7 September 1917 – 31 July 1992) was a highly decorated Royal Air Force (RAF) pilot and group captain during the Second World War, and a philanthropist.

Among the honours Cheshire received as a pilot was the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the youngest group captain in the RAF and one of the most highly decorated pilots of the war.

After the war he founded a hospice that grew into the charity Leonard Cheshire Disability. He became known for his work in conflict resolution. In 1991 he was created a life peer in recognition of his charitable work.[1]

Early life[edit]

Cheshire's home in Chester, where a blue plaque marks the house in which he was born.

Leonard Cheshire was the son of Geoffrey Chevalier Cheshire, a barrister, academic and influential writer on English law. He had one brother, Christopher Cheshire, also a wartime pilot. Cheshire was born in Chester, but was brought up at his parents' home near Oxford. Cheshire was educated at the Dragon School, Oxford, Stowe School and Merton College, Oxford.[2] At Stowe he was taught English by the fantasy novelist T. H. White.[3] Whilst at Oxford he became friends with John Niel Randle. On one occasion at Oxford he was bet half a pint of beer that he could not walk to Paris with no more than a few pennies in his pocket; he won his bet.[4] He went to stay in Germany in 1936 with the family of Ludwig von Reuter in Potsdam[5] and whilst there, witnessed an Adolf Hitler rally. Cheshire caused considerable offence by pointedly refusing to give the Nazi salute.[4][6] Cheshire graduated in jurisprudence in 1939.

Military career[edit]

Early training[edit]

At University of Oxford the family expectation was that he would excel. His father was an exceptional jurist and legal scholar. Cheshire progressed through his schooling, but did not achieve a first. He states he did not work hard enough, and may not have had the ability. Cheshire had a strong personality, and had a habit of attracting friends and attention through his good natured manner. He was quite an extrovert, and keen to try different challenges. He was a headstrong but friendly individual whilst at university. He participateed in extracurriculars, ran cross country for the school and played tennis and rugby. During his university years, Cheshire was required to participate in one of the service clubs. He chose the cavalry, but soon found the early hours and physical demands were not to his liking, and he transferred to the Oxford University Air Squadron.[7] There he learned his basic piloting skills, and on 16 November 1937 he received his commission as a pilot officer in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve.[8]

On 7 October 1939 Cheshire received his permanent commission with the RAF.[9] In selecting his preference Cheshire listed 1) Fighter Command 2) Light Bomber Force and 3) Army Cooperation force.[10] To his disappointment, he was assigned to Bomber Command, and sent for training at RAF Hullavington, and then to RAF Abingdon.[11] It was here that his career in the RAF was nearly ended before it even got started. Cheshire made a loud joking remark at a pub about German troops having arrived in England, which was reported. He was called in to the station commander, and was nearly sent to the infantry, but he apologized and was kept in.[10]

102 Squadron[edit]

Hugh "Lofty" Long (center) with pilot officer Cheshire (second row, right) in group photo of 102 Squadron, 1940

On 7 April 1940 Cheshire was promoted to flying officer and in June he was posted to 102 Squadron, flying the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley.[12] 102 Squadron was in 4 Group of Bomber Command, and shared the airfield at RAF Driffield with 77 Squadron.[13] Cheshire remarked that upon arriving at Driffield he was filled with a fear that he would not measure up to what was expected of him, but soon found himself buoyed with the sense of being part of a tradition.[7] He became good friends with a number of pilots there, including Hugh "Lofty" Long and Jimmy Marks.

As a new pilot at Driffield, Cheshire was placed under the tutelage of Long. Long was an athletic, experienced pilot from New Zealand who was blessed with a confident, charming demeanor. He had thick black hair and stood 6'2" tall. Cheshire found Long both demanding and encouraging. From the outset Long tested Cheshire on every aspect of the aircraft. He expected Cheshire to know the aircraft inside and out. His goal was to make flying the aircraft so second nature, that when the point of critical action arrived all of Cheshire's attention could be focused on the problem, as none of his concentration would be diverted by the task of flying. Long made Cheshire spend every spare minute he had learning the machine. "Lofty kept drumming into my head the fundamental lesson of never thinking that you have mastered your job, of applying your whole heart and mind to the task of perfecting as far as is humanly possible the techniques of operational flying. He made me practice and re-practice, study and re-study, experiment and re-experiment. I had to sit in the cockpit blindfold and go through the different drills, sit in the rear turret, in the navigator's and the wireless operator's seat, and try and see life from their point of view."[14]

Long knew every man supporting the aircraft, both in his flight crew and his ground crew, and the concerns and hardships each man faced.[10] Long took Cheshire along when he would speak to his men, and impressed upon Cheshire the importance of the commander being aware of their concerns. Cheshire credited him for making him a good captain.[10][14] Thinking back upon those days, Cheshire noted "I do not think there could have been a single piece of equipment or a single aspect of flying on which he failed to question me... There was the ground crew also, to each of whom Lofty introduced me individually, talking of their problems, and the background from which they came and explaining the importance of building up a personal relationship with them."[14]

Cheshire's first ten missions were flown as second pilot to Long. On those early missions Long placed Cheshire in the pilot's seat early and often, giving him a boot to the backside to take the pilot's seat and giving Cheshire invaluable experience of flying through Flak over a target. By June Cheshire was commanding his own aircraft.[15]

DSO mission[edit]

Cheshire's fire damaged Whitley, November 1940

In the spring of 1940 Bomber Command began its campaign against German industry.[16] On the night of 12/13 November 1940, Cheshire was briefed to attack the synthetic oil plant at Wesseling, near Cologne.[14] While on route Cheshire found the target was obscured by bad weather, so decided to attack the railway yards at Cologne instead. Initially in his bombing run there was little Flak, but suddenly two anti-aircraft rounds exploded near the aircraft. The two anti-aircraft shells had exploded almost simultaneously near the plane, one right above the cockpit, and the other just under the port wing. The flash from the first blinded Cheshire, and the second rent a huge tear in the fuselage, igniting one of the aircraft's flares. The aircraft was falling in a steep dive. Cheshire regained his senses and realized both engines were still working, and pulled the aircraft out at about 5,000 feet. The crew were able to extinguish the fire, though they had to take precautions not to fall out. By the time they did they realized they were flying deeper into Germany. Realizing he still had a functioning aircraft with a bomb load, Cheshire brought the aircraft around and returned to make another bomb run on the target. Arriving over Cologne he now was the sole bomber over the target and faced the concentrated Flak of the city's defenders. Nevertheless he made it to the marshaling yard, dropped his bomb load and managed to get the aircraft and crew safely back to base at Linton-on-Ouse, Yorkshire. For bombing the yard in a badly damaged aircraft and still managing to get it back to England he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order.[17]

Flying Officer Desmond Coutts, who had been second pilot under Cheshire, was given his own crew. A month later, on 3 January 1941, Coutts' aircraft was brought down over the North Sea.[14]

Completing his first tour of operations in January 1941, Cheshire immediately volunteered for a second tour.

35 Squadron[edit]

Cheshire with air crew and ground crew while at 35 Squadron

Cheshire was posted to 35 Squadron in January 1941, where he joined the likes of Jimmy Marks, "Willie" Tait and George Holden. The squadron was converting to the new four engine heavy bomber, the Handley Page Halifax.[18] His time in 35 Squadron included seven trips to Berlin. Cheshire was promoted to acting squadron leader on 1 March 1941, and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC) later that same month.[19] Losses among Bomber Command continued. 4 months after Cheshire completed his DSO mission, "Lofty" Long was killed during a mission on 13 March 1941.[14] It was another close personal loss for Cheshire. "Whatever outward face I may have put on it, his loss affected me very deeply, and the memory of what I owed him and of all that he stood for remained with me throughout the war."

On 7 April 1941 he was promoted to flight lieutenant, and became commander of a flight.[20][21]

Trip to America[edit]

At the start of May 35 Squadron's Halifaxes were stood down to undergo modifications to address design flaws. Not one to while away the time, Cheshire obtained a posting to the Atlantic Ferry Organisation to fly a Liberator across the Atlantic.[22] On 4th May 1941 Cheshire reported aboard a Norwegian steamer to begin his trip across the Atlantic. He had looked forward to the trip as a break in operations. However when word came that the Bismarck had released into the North Atlantic with its consort Prinz Eugen, and that they had sunk the Hood, Cheshire became rather uneasy. The convoy was not intercepted by the German capital ships, but did suffer multiple attacks from German U-boats, and a number of ships were lost. Luck was with Cheshire however, and he came through unscathed.[23]

35 Squadron Halifax crew climbs aboard in preparation for a mission over the continent

Cheshire finally arrived in Canada to find the authorities there did not know who he was or what he was there for. He expected to fly a Liberator or Canadian built Halifax back to England but he was not allowed to, as he did not have experience in navigation. He and his companion RAF officer decided to take a short trip to New York while things were sorted out.[24] While there he met former stage actress Constance Binney. In three weeks time the two were married.[22] Jimmy Marks was to stand up for him at the wedding, but was required to take an aircraft back to England before the wedding came off, so Cheshire and his bride had to use strangers as their witnesses.[24] After a three week wait he was finally allowed to shuttle a Hudson back to England. He was given a newly trained navigator and wireless operator to go along with him. Though such a trip would have been the stuff of newspaper headlines a few years before, they accomplished it without fanfare, arriving within 3 miles of their expected landfall. When he returned he was met be a single crewman, and learned that all the others from his Whitley had been lost on missions over Germany. It was a hard blow to Cheshire.[25]

After his return Cheshire resumed flying the Halifax in missions over Germany. He completed his second tour early in 1942.[26] By the end of his time at 35 Squadron Cheshire had completed 50 sorties.[citation needed]

Flight instructor[edit]

After completing his tour at 35 Squadron Cheshire was posted to a Halifax OCU at Marston Moor.[10] Though in a training unit, he still flew operations from time to time when the training units were called upon to join the main force for full effort missions. The new commander in chief of Bomber Command, Arthur Harris, had taken over in February 1942, and was trying to hold his force together against competing interests from the other services. At the time he assumed command the bomber force was limited to about 400 aircraft, most of these being two engine Whitleys and Wellingtons. To demonstrate what could be accomplished he planned to conduct several thousand plane raids. The first of these was against Cologne on the night of 30/31 May 1942. Scraping together every aircraft he could, including the training units, he was able to get a thousand aircraft in the air. Cheshire was a part of the force. He twice flew on thousand plane raids while serving as an instructor pilot.[10] While completing his time as a pilot trainer, his younger brother Christopher, flying a Halifax for 76 Squadron, was shot down over Berlin on the night of 8/9 August 1942.[27] Cheshire happened to be flying that mission to Berlin as well. When he heard that Christopher's aircraft did not return from Berlin, he feared his brother had been killed.

76 Squadron[edit]

76 Squadron Halifax on the tarmac

In August 1942 Cheshire was promoted to acting wing commander and assigned commanding officer of No. 76 Squadron RAF, stationed at RAF Linton-on-Ouse.[14][28] The squadron was flyimg the Halifax bomber, and was reforming, having suffered heavy losses and low morale.[29] Cheshire and three crews that transferred in from 102 Squadron made up the core of the unit.[29] The crews billeted at Beningbrough Hall.[29]

As commanding officer Cheshire was only to fly operations once a month unless absolutely necessary. Cheshire found it absolutely necessary several times a month. He would always fly on the most dangerous operations, and never took the less dangerous ops to France. As commanding officer Cheshire had no crew of his own. When he would fly along with novice crews he would come along as "second pilot" to give them confidence. With more experienced crews he would take the pilot's seat, and move the crew's regular pilot to the second pilot spot. On one occasion 76 Squadron was ordered to Nuremberg, and were to cross the French coast at 2,000 ft. This was a very dangerous height for light Flak, and Cheshire simply refused. With typical Cheshire obstinacy, he stated they would fly at 200 ft or 20,000 ft.

Cheshire tackled the morale problem by ordering changes to the aircraft to improve the performance. He was amongst the first to notice a that it was very rare for a Halifax to return on three engines. There were reports the Halifax was unstable in a "corkscrew", the manoeuvre used by bomber pilots to escape the attacks of night fighters. Test pilot, Captain Eric Brown, was tasked with determining the cause. He and his flight engineer set to conduct a series of flight tests, when Brown was informed a representative from Bomber Command would fly along.[30] Brown remembers "We couldn't believe it, it was Cheshire! We were astonished to say the least. I asked him not to touch the controls, and to his everlasting credit he never commented at all. He just sat in the second pilot's seat and raised his eyebrows at what we were doing!"

A part of the problem was that the Halifax could not fly as high as the Lancaster, and so was subject to greater attention from Flak and night fighters. To lighten the aircraft, Cheshire had the exhaust covers and part of the mid-upper and nose gun turrets removed. This allowed the bombers to fly higher and faster. Losses soon fell, and morale rose accordingly.[31]

During his time as the commanding officer of 76 Squadron Cheshire took the trouble to recognize and learn the names of every single man on the base.[32] This was a reflection on Long, the pilot whom he had first trained under at 102 Squadron. Cheshire was determined to increase the efficiency of his squadron and improve the chances of survival of its crews. To this end, he frequently lectured the crews during preflight briefings on the skills needed to stay alive. With a new crew he would fly with them and demonstrate how it was done himself. Speaking of those days, Flight Sergeant Tom Gallantry, DFC, offered the following: "He could do anything, and did. We all knew he wasn't supposed to go on so many operational trips, but he did. He took new crews and gave him the benefit of his experience. He taught them what predicted flak was, he taught them what a box barrage was, by flying through it. That's certainly more than I would have done."[29] With the ground crews he formed "The Plumbers Club" where they could come together and work out problems they were facing. Their motto was "You bend ‘em, we mend 'em."[31]

Marston-Moor[edit]

With the completion of his third tour Cheshire was officially ineligible for further operational flying.[10] Air Vice Marshal Roderick Carr, Cheshire's former Group Commander when he was at No. 102 Squadron, put much effort into securing Cheshire a promotion to acting group captain, which the Air Ministry finally approved in March. The promotion made Cheshire, at 25, the youngest group captain in the history of the RAF.[14][33] On 1 April Cheshire returned to Marston Moor, now as the station commander.[34] The airfield was used by the 165 Heavy Conversion Unit (HCU) to convert pilots from the two engine Whitley and Wellington bombers to the four-engined Handley Page Halifax bomber.[35] Cheshire was in charge of 30 to 40 aircraft and 1,800 to 2,000 men.[10]

The RAF's Charles Pickard, William Blessing and Leonard Cheshire at their investment ceremony at Buckingham Palace, 28 July 1943. Of the three, only Cheshire would survive the war

Cheshire's posting to Marston-Moor was not to his liking. He had been an operational pilot his whole career, and he had limited experience in RAF administrative processes.[34] He found himself frustrated at Marston Moor, not least of all by his adjutant, Bob Dales. Said Cheshire "I found myself promoted very rapidly to a position which I had not been trained to fulfill. To begin with, I had great trouble with the station's warrant officer, because he knew King's Regulations backwards and forwards, and he was perpetually quoting it at me, and I had no idea if they were right or wrong, and I just felt out of my depth."[10] Dales countered "Group Captain Leonard Cheshire was the most frustrated senior officer I ever knew. Almost every day he pressed for a return to an operational tour. I believe his father was a barrister, and through his hatch he would try to defeat me on some point of Air Force law, but I was well versed in King's Regulations and Air Ministry Orders."[36]

Cheshire did what he could to convey to the men being trained how what was being taught at the OCU would translate to saving lives once they began flying in earnest. In April he was awarded a bar to his DSO.[37] And yet the time was a personal crisis for Cheshire. He longed to get back to operational flying but could not, as he could not ask Air Vice Marshall Carr to reverse his promotion to Group Captain, and with such a rank no flying position was available.[38] A possible 'out' arose when the AOC of the PFF, Don Bennett, arrived at his airfield to tour his station. Cheshire approached Bennett and asked permission to transfer to the Pathfinder Force. Bennett was not receptive. He replied that at present no jobs were available. Regardless, he was not sure if Cheshire would be suitable and a trial would be necessary.[10][39] Cheshire was not pleased, and said so. It is not known why Bennett did not want Cheshire in the Pathfinder Force. It was not the first time Bennett had passed on Cheshire. Bennett's primary recruiting officer, Hamish Mahaddie, found it a mystery. Said Mahaddie "Chesh was the only person I selected for training with the Pathfinder Force that Bennett vetoed. I was never able to establish why."[40] In the end Cheshire viewed the refusal as a blessing in disguise. "He did me a good turn, because I got something better."[10]

In 1943, Cheshire published an account of his first tour of operations in his book, Bomber Pilot which tells of his posting to RAF Driffield and the story of flying his badly damaged bomber ("N for Nuts") back to base. It became a national best seller.[11]

617 Squadron[edit]

No. 5 Group Commander Ralph Cochrane provided the avenue for Cheshire's escape. Cochrane's elite unit, 617 Squadron, was in difficulty. Guy Gibson had been withdrawn from flying and taken on a publicity tour. He was succeeded by Wing Commander George Holden. Soon thereafter the squadron attempted the disastrous raid against the Dortmund Ems Canal, which resulted in the loss of 5 of the 8 Lancasters sent, including that of the new squadron commander, Holden.[41] Temporary command of the squadron had been passed to H. B. "Mick" Martin, one of the squadron's flight commanders. Of the original 19 pilots that had flown the mission against the Möhne and Edersee Dams in Operation Chastise, only five still remained alive.[42] In September Cochrane asked Cheshire if he would be willing to take the job. Returning to squadron commander would require Cheshire giving up his rank of group captain and taking the step down to wing commander. Cheshire agreed without hesitation.[43] Cochrane instructed Cheshire that first off he needed to complete a 3 week conversion course on Lancasters at RAF Warboys.

Australian "Mick" Martin

Cheshire knew the new post would be a challenge for him. Arriving at 617 Squadron he was regarded as an outsider.[10] Though an experienced bomber pilot from the command's campaign against Germany, these missions were flown at high altitude and in solo. Hundreds of aircraft were on each raid, but in the dark of night they rarely saw each other. Each plane was in isolation from the others, and flew in strict radio silence. 617 Squadron had become Bomber Command's masters of low flying. Low altitude got them under German radar, allowing them to approach their targets unsuspected. For months they had been flying together at low level, at night, in formation, and below tree level. They had learned to avoid obstructions, and to tuck their wings inside the leader's, a move that decreased turbulence but was very unnerving to attempt.[10] It was very dangerous flying that no other squadron could perform.[10] Here Cheshire benefited from a friendship that he formed with Martin. Cheshire later said "Everything I know about low level flying I learned from Mick Martin."[44] He had been warned that Cochrane was strict, and that they would not get along. He found Cochrane to be very bright, and though strict, it was strictness in the best possible way. As an experienced pilot on the Halifax, Cheshire felt the training flying he had to do at Warboys was somewhat demeaning, but after his second day there he realized Cochrane had been quite right.[10]

It was at 617 Squadron where Cheshire came to real distinction as a remarkable air officer. It was here that his ability to lead, accept risk and think unconventionally resulted in the development of the most successful techniques the RAF developed to deliver extremely large bombs with remarkably deadly accuracy.[14]

V3 mission[edit]

The mission Cochrane had recruited Cheshire for was the destruction of German V3 long-range guns. As their third and potentially most destructive vengeance weapon, the Germans had constructed a pair of extremely large guns and positioned them in northern France. They were buried deep in underground bunkers near Mimoyecques in the Pas-de-Calais region. Once operational these powerful guns would be able to fire a 500 lb (230 kg) shell into London every minute, and buried in the earth and protected by 50 feet of reinforced concrete, they were impervious to bombing attack. Such a target was far different than a marshaling yard. Area bombing the region where the guns were located would have no impact upon them.

British scientist and inventor Barnes Wallis had been asked to produce a bomb that could destroy these bunkers. He created a design that would do so. The bomb would weigh 12,000 pounds, and if dropped from 20,000 feet would penetrate the earth and cause a small scale earthquake, destroying the target. He called this bomb, the Tallboy. To be effective the bombs had to be dropped very accurately. He stated for accuracy requirements 1 bomb out of 15 dropped from 20,000 feet needed to land within 12 meters of the target.[7] This was an accuracy unheard of in daytime aerial bombing, let alone bombing in the dark of night. Cheshire suggested this was going to be a problem, but got no sympathy from Wallis, who replied "Well, if you're going to scatter my bombs all over northern France what's the point of my building them?"[7]

In January the need for a new marking technique became clear to Cheshire when 617 Squadron made an attack against a V-1 site in the Pas de Calais region. A Pathfinder aircraft working at the same altitude dropped a marker flare upon the target. 617 then proceeded to drop all their bombs within 94 yards of the marker, a remarkable feet of accuracy. The problem was the marker was 350 yards from the target, and the mission was a failure.[45]

In February 1944 Harris called a meeting at High Wycomb to discuss the destruction of the V3 site. The meeting included the AOC of Bomber Command Arthur Harris, the AOC of the Pathfinder Force, Air Vice Marshall Bennett and 5 Group AOC Cochrane, who brought along with him Cheshire. It was chaired by deputy air officer commanding-in-chief Robert Saundby.[10] Bennett was informed of the accuracy needed to mark the target. He dismissed the idea, stating that it could not be done. Cheshire offered that it could be achieved if attempted with a low level marker aircraft. Bennett rejected this as well, stating that a low level flight against a well defended target would not be survivable. The problem was withdrawn from the Pathfinders, but was given to 5 Group to see if they could work out a solution. They were pleased to have the opportunity, as it was what they were hoping for. There would be a delay in the operation, as the large bomb that Barnes Wallis proposed to destroy the target at Mimoyecques was still under development. This allowed Cheshire and Martin time to develop a technique by which they could accurately mark and hit within yards of the target.

Cheshire set about working out a solution. Job one was marking the target.[7] The Pathfinder technique was to drop a group of markers. Cheshire chose to drop a single, very accurate marker, and have the rest of the force bomb that. However, Cochrane insisted that for air crew safety they could release their markers at no less than 5,000 feet.

Efforts to mark the target from 5,000 feet on the bombing ranges proved frustratingly difficult. Even when the marker was dropped dead on upon the target, the angular momentum of the marker caused it to slide or skip a hundred yards before coming to a rest. At 5,000 feet they never could get closer than 150 to 300 yards from target. Martin tried using a dive bomb technique, approaching at 5,000 feet and then dropping into a 30 degree dive, releasing the marker at 100 feet before pulling the big Lancaster up. Though the Lancaster was a cumbersome aircraft to attempt it in, the result was absolutely accurate.[46]

Cheshire could now mark the target using a method that was not permitted. Next he thought about what else he would need to accomplish the mission. To light the target area, an illumination flare would need to be dropped by parachute at 5,000 feet. With the target marked with one accurate flare the main force would come in and aim at the flare, destroying the target.

Limoges raid[edit]

Cheshire drops his marker on the roof of the Gnome et Rhône aero-engine factory

Cheshire and Martin discussed their proposed method with Cochrane, who agreed to allow them to try it. The target would be the Gnome et Rhône aero-engine factory in Limoges. In France the air defenses would be lighter, but there were two problems with this target. The first was that the factory was surrounded by the homes of the factory's French workers. Secondly, the plant was running around the clock, so French workers would be in the factory when it was attacked at night. As it was a target in France the proposal to bomb it had to be sent to the War Cabinet for approval. The raid was approved, but with the condition that they were forbidden from taking any civilian lives.[10] It would be their one chance to prove low level marking in combat.

On the night of 8/9 February 1944 the Lancasters of 617 Squadron approached Limoges at 16,000 feet. Below, a Lancaster at 5,000 feet dropped shielded flares over the target. Cheshire and Martin came in at 2,000 feet, and could see as light as day. He identified the roof top of the Gnome-Rhone factory, and proceeded to make a series of low level passes at 20 feet, hoping the workers inside would take the hint. The 500 workers ran out of the building. Cheshire then dropped a marker flare right on the roof top. Approaching at 16,000 feet, the rest of 617 came in one at a time, each aircraft dropping its bomb load directly on the marker. The factory was devastated, and the only civilian casualty was a worker who was injured when she left and then came back to the factory to try and get her bicycle. It was Cheshire's first big success with 617.[47]

Anthéor railway viaduct[edit]

The Anthéor railway viaduct just outside Saint-Raphaël

The Anthéor railway viaduct was a rail link in southern France along the coast between Saint-Raphaël and Nice. The viaduct carried a double rail line that was being used to move supplies to German forces blocking the advance of the Allies in Italy. Though the rail line had been attacked and cut in a number of places before, each time the Germans repaired the tracks rather quickly. The viaduct was 185 feet in the air and spanned a brook that flowed between two coastal hills. If destroyed the line would be disrupted permanently. Attempts on the viaduct had been made twice earlier, but destroying it required a direct hit, and the previous attacks had been unsuccessful.[48]

On the night of 12/13 February 1944, 10 Lancasters from 617 Squadron flew across France to the viaduct. Cheshire and Martin approached to make a low level marking of the line, but it was soon discovered that since the last attempt the Germans had placed a large number of Flak guns on the hills overlooking the viaduct. Cheshire made several attempts to mark it, but could not get close enough to drop his marker on the line. Martin followed, but just as his aircraft was releasing his marker it was hit, badly. Two of the Lancaster's engines were knocked out, the bomb aimer had been killed, and several others, including Martin, were wounded. A return trip to England was out of the question, and he limped his aircraft south to an airfield on Sardinia.[N 1] Cheshire made 5 more attempts on the viaduct, but was unable to get close enough to leave his marker on the rail line. The squadron was called in and dropped their bombs off the nearest marker, but no direct hit was made and the viaduct was not destroyed.[50][51] Cheshire returned in failure with a badly holed Lancaster. Despite his multiple runs at the target and the damage his aircraft sustained, it was the one mission of his career where he felt he had failed to press home his attack as he should have.[44]

Cheshire's low level technique came together in his mind following his failure at the Anthéor viaduct.[44] He established that for the force to be effective they had to wait upon good weather. There would need to be good night time visibility at the target. Coming over the target area, a marker aircraft would drop a hooded parachute flair at 5,000 feet, illuminating the target area. Next, a low level target marking aircraft would come in at 4,000 feet, identify the target building and make a 30 degree dive attack on it, releasing the marker flare at 100 feet directly upon the roof of the target. Though he had been doing this with the Lancaster, the heavy bomber was really not well suited to the job. Cheshire believed the low marker aircraft should be fast and more maneuverable. The Mosquito seemed an ideal choice. With the target marked, the main bombing force of Lancasters would come in, one by one, dropping their bombs on the marker. This meant communication between the leader and his bombing aircraft. This sort of ongoing radio communication over enemy territory was a big break from Bomber Command method, which operated over the continent in strict radio silence. Cheshire noted that things change in the course of military operations, and the attacking force had to be able to adapt to the conditions faced.[10]

Following this failure 617 made a series of attacks with astonishing accuracy, destroying an aircraft factory at Albert 2 March, a needle bearing factory at St. Étienne 4 March, the Michelin plant at Clermont-Ferrand 16 March,[52] the Tuilieres power station at Bergerac 18 March, and then another power station at Lyon 25 March.[53] A version of Cheshire's low level marking technique was put to use in a series of devastating raids against Toulouse 5 April 1944, Saint-Cyr-l'École (fr) 10 April 1944, and Juvisy marshalling yards on 18/19 April.

Second meeting with Harris[edit]

AOC Bomber Command Arthur Harris

With the string of successes in low level marking Cochrane took Cheshire to see Harris to discuss their marking technique, request the use of Mosquito aircraft, and ask that 5 Group be allowed to mark for themselves against targets in Germany. Harris heard what they had to say, and though Cheshire's squadron had a good track record against lightly defended targets in France, it was likely going to be another story if they were to attempt such a technique against one of the heavily defended targets in Germany. There was a target in Germany that Harris felt he had yet to hit adequately – Munich. Said Harris "Mark me Munich and I will give you the Mosquitos. Miss Munich and you will lose the Mosquitos."[7] They would be allowed four Mosquito aircraft on loan from PFF. Using these four and the rest of 617 in Lancasters as back up, they were to mark the rail yard at Munich for 5 Group, who were tasked with the yards destruction. [54]

Munich raid[edit]

Though delighted with the opportunity, Harris had selected about the most difficult target for Cheshire to reach. It was a great distance to fly, and would be at the limit of the Mosquito's range. Their course had to be direct, with no flying around well defended targets. Even so they would be cutting it pretty thin. With the fuel range limit of the Mosquito they would have 3 minutes time over the target, and 15 minutes of fuel left when they got back.[10] After he explained the mission to the four navigators who would be in the Mosquitos, there was general disbelief. If they were lucky enough to survive the mission they would most likely be spending the rest of the war in a Luftwaffe prison camp.[55] Nevertheless, it had to be done, and to their credit, they went. The Mosquitos moved forward to RAF Manston, the nearest airfield for the mission. On the night of 24/25 April, four Mosquitos of 617 set out to mark the Munich rail yard for 5 Group.[54]

The Lancasters left 2 hours ahead, and the Mosquitos followed. Along the long flight to Munich Cheshire broke radio silence to query Shannon, but instead received a response from another Australian. "Is that you, sir?" he heard. "Is that you, Mick? Where on earth are you?" "Oh, around" Martin replied. "What the hell are you doing" asked Cheshire. "Sticking my neck out for you types." replied Martin. With 100 Squadron now, Mick Martin was flying suppressor missions in a serrate Mosquito. Cheshire grinned broadly.[56] Cheshire and the three other Mosquitos caught up and got ahead of the Main Force heavies, arriving right on time at Zero minus 5 minutes. Pathfinder Force Lancasters were already above the rail yard, dropping their illumination flares over the target. The target area was well lit, though there was intense flak over the target. Not pausing, he dove straight for his target building near the rail yard, dropping his marker at rooftop height. He then circled about to observe the bombing.[57][58] The heavies came in and the target area was destroyed. Their raid against Munich was successful, and all four Mosquitos made it back.[10] True to his word, Harris allowed Cheshire to keep them.[59]

Mailly-le-Camp[edit]

A low flying Lancaster is seen through the glare of a burning Mailly-le-Camp

As part of the preparatory effort against the German defenses in northern France, the panzer training camp northeast of Paris at Mailly-le-Camp was targeted for destruction. The camp was French built for their armoured formations, but since the fall of France the Germans had been using it to train replacement crews for units refitting from losses suffered in the east. 617 Squadron was tasked with marking the target, and 346 Lancasters from 1 Group and 5 Group were tasked with destroying it. On the night of 3/4 May 617 Squadron approached the target for a typical low marking technique raid, with Cheshire and Shannon in Mosquitos, and the rest of 617 in Lancasters flying as back up marker aircraft. An assembly point marker was dropped 15 miles away from the target, and the aircraft of the two groups of heavy bombers were ordered to orbit it at stacked altitudes of 100 feet separation while awaiting instructions to attack. Unbeknownst to Cheshire, that night the US Armed Services Radio was broadcasting big band swing music on the same frequency Cheshire was using for his raid. Arriving over the target, an illumination flair provided excellent visibility and Cheshire swept in and marked it, but when he went to call in the waiting Lancasters no one could hear him. Meanwhile Luftwaffe night fighters began to arrive. It was a clear night with a full moon, and soon the night fighters got in amongst the circling bombers.[60] The air combat over France that night was short, but intense. Crews reported seeing four or five Lancasters falling from the sky at a time. 5 Group lost 14 bombers, while 1 Group making up the second wave lost 28. After a delay of some 45 minutes the Deputy 'Main Force Controller' took over and ordered the bombers in. The training base at Mailly-le-Camp was hit heavily. 114 barrack buildings, 47 transport sheds, 65 vehicles and 37 tanks were all destroyed in the attack, while 218 soldiers were killed and 156 more were wounded. However Bomber Command suffered the loss of 42 Lancasters and their crews, with another Lancaster written off after it made it back to base. The training base was destroyed, but Bomber Command suffered a loss rate of 11.6%.[61]

D-day deception[edit]

To support the D-day landings, 617 Squadron was given an unusual mission. It was tasked with pulling off a "spoof" raid. The squadron was to make a series of low level approaches to the Pas de Calais, dropping window with each pass. If delivered sequentially the window might simulate the approach of an invasion fleet and confuse the enemy about the real D-day landings in Normandy.[52] 617 was disappointed, and felt they should be used in a more conventional manner to destroy real targets, but they did as they were told. In fact, they were the only unit that could pull it off. On the night of 5/6 June 1944 617 Squadron used precision flying to drop window over the channel at low level in succession, generating the radar appearance of large numbers of approaching ships.[62] This "spoof" raid simulated the approach for an amphibious landing in the Pas de Calais, and was brilliantly executed. In retrospect Cheshire felt they may have saved more lives with this mission than in any of the others they did.[10]

V weapon storage sites[edit]

617 Squadron storage area for their Tallboy bombs

Following the invasion 617 went back to attacking the buried reinforced concrete V-1 and V-2 storage sites.[52] It flew against and destroyed the sites at Wizernes, and followed with Watten.[63]

On 14 June 1944 617 squadron made a daylight attack upon the E boat pens at Le Harve. The pens protected 15 E boats, which posed a threat to the invasion fleet. Attacking the pens with Tallboys, the roof was caved in, and all but one of the E boats were damaged beyond use. In addition, 617 attacked the German ships in Le Harve by dropping Tallboys into the waters of the harbor. The explosions were so strong that ten ships were blown straight out of the water and onto the quayside.[64] Commented Cheshire "Barnes Wallis had a big bomb."

On 25 June Cheshire was tasked with a daylight raid against the Siracourt, a V-1 storage bunker made of reinforced concrete buried in the earth. Cheshire had lost his Mosquitos, as another squadron asserted a prior claim on them.[10] Desiring a maneuverable replacement aircraft to mark the target, he thought a Mustang ideal, but he knew he would never get the Royal Air Force to go along with giving him one. The Americans, however, were a different story. He flew over to a nearby base and made his request. They knew Cheshire, and were happy to oblige. The aircraft arrived boxed up in its packaging crate the day of the evening he was to fly the mission.[65] Flying the Mustang posed a number of problems for him, as he had not flown a single seat aircraft since his training days. His major problem, however, was working out a course to the target. He had never flown without a navigator, and now he found himself in the position of having to ask for help. He swallowed his pride and asked for the squadron's navigators to help him work out a course, while his ground crew put together the Mustang. His ground crew finished the job up by late afternoon, some two hours after the Lancasters had taken off. With no time for a test flight, off he went to chase down the Lancasters. The machine worked beautifully, with Cheshire arriving over the target just as the high illumination flares were ready to be dropped. He marked the target, and the Lancasters landed three Tallboys on it, destroying it utterly. It was a dramatic success.[66]

Raid on the V3 site at Mimoyecques[edit]

Concrete slab at the bomb-cratered German secret weapon site at Mimoyecques

On 6 July 1944 the Mimoyecques V-3 site finally was attacked.[67] This was the mission he had been waiting for. In a daylight attack, Cheshire marked the target for the 617 Squadron heavies, which each carried a Tallboy. The caves collapsed, bringing the V3 threat to an end.

On the night of 7/8 July 617 Squadron with Cheshire in his Mustang flew against the limestone cave at St. Leu d’Esserent being used to store V-1s and V-2s.[64] It was his 100th mission, and would be his last with Bomber Command.[10] 617 Tallboys caused a partial collapse of the cave, and the tunnels were blocked off. The following day Cochrane took Cheshire off ops. At the same time he sat down Shannon, Munro and McCarthy, the surviving 617 Dams raids pilots.[68]

After the completion of his fourth tour of duty in July 1944 Cheshire was awarded the Victoria Cross. The Victoria Cross is usually bestowed for a particularly marked event of bravery. In Cheshire's case, the award was given for his behavior over the course of his entire operational career. At the investiture ceremony at Buckingham Palace, both Cheshire and warrant officer Norman Jackson were to receive the VC from King George VI on that day. Despite the disparity in rank, Cheshire insisted they approach the King together. Upon reaching the King, Jackson recalled Cheshire offering "This chap stuck his neck out more than I did – he should get his VC first." The King kept to protocol and awarded the Group Captain first, but Jackson noted he would "never forget what Cheshire said."[69]

End of the war[edit]

Cheshire and William Penney were official British observers of the nuclear bombing of Nagasaki.[2][70] His vantage point was in the support B-29 Big Stink. He did not witness the event as close up as anticipated due to aircraft commander James Hopkins' failure to link up with the other B-29s. Hopkins was meant to join with the others over Yakushima but he circled at 39,000 ft (12,000 m) instead of the agreed height of 30,000 ft (9,100 m). He tried to justify this by the need to keep the VIP passengers out of danger but Cheshire thought that Hopkins was "overwrought".

Cheshire's adoption of the Catholic faith had nothing to do with the bombing of Nagasaki.[10] "Many assumed that it was Nagasaki which emptied him; as Cheshire kept pointing out, however, it was the war as a whole. Like Britain herself, he had been fighting or training for fighting since 1939".[71]

On 22 January 1946 Cheshire relinquished his commission in the RAF due to disability.

Cheshire as officer[edit]

A portrait of Cheshire in 1945

Cheshire was not a naturally talented pilot, and felt he had to keep flying to keep his skills up. All the same he was a good captain, had a flair, and most importantly he was lucky. It was commonly known among crews that he was lucky, and that is one reason he felt they liked to fly with him.[72] By the end of his operative flying almost all the pilots he had started out with in training were gone.[10] It was his good luck, he believed, that had kept him alive when so many other, better pilots had been killed.[73]

His method for dealing with dangerous situations was to go straight for them early. He saw no sense waiting to go in. He felt worrying about the dangers would only exhaust one's mind. Instead, he relied on the natural instinct for self-preservation to help him get out of tight spots.[74] To this was added his ability to close his mind completely to the dangers he was facing.[75] Though a very imaginative thinker, Cheshire possessed the ability to block out of his mind any thought to the risks. He approached each mission with an easy manner.[76]

Cheshire was a good leader of men. Unlike Gibson, he was approachable, and made it a point to know the name and speak with every man on base, including his ground crews.[77] He would speak with the men over technical matters about the aircraft, and would share a cigarette over their personal concerns.[78] He knew all his men, and made them feel he knew them and liked them. He knew it was critical to the effectiveness of his squadron. He invoked great loyalty, as it was clear he was devoted to their needs and was willing to take practical steps to improve the safety and success of their missions. He always made a personal example of what was required, and relied on his example and the crews' determination not to let him down to lead them through some of the war's most difficult raids.[79]

Cheshire was resolute when dealing with any pilot or crew member in his squadron who would not fly missions. Lack of Moral Fibre might show up as a member feigning illness, frequent early returns with technical problems, or flying over the North Sea and dropping bombs into the ocean, then flying about till the time of return was about right. Though a brilliant and sympathetic leader, he later wrote "I was ruthless with LMF. I had to be. We were airmen, not psychiatrists. Of course we had concern for any individual whose internal tensions meant that he could no longer go on, but there was a worry that one really frightened man could affect others around him." Cheshire would take a crew member with confidence problems aboard his own aircraft till they sorted things out, but pilots he transferred out immediately.[10][80]

Cheshire was soft spoken, very considerate, thoughtful, unconventional in his thinking, unorthodox, independent minded and no great respecter of authority. On one mission near the end of his tour with 35 Squadron he looked at the route map to the target and noted there would be a great deal of flak over the chosen flight path. Said Cheshire wryly "We took a different route."[81] He was both the youngest group captain in the service and the most decorated.[82] Offered historian Max Hastings: "Cheshire was a legend in Bomber Command, a remarkable man with an almost mystical air about him, as if he somehow inhabited a different planet from those about him, but without affectation or pretension." Said Flight Sergeant Tom Gallantry, DFC, who served under Cheshire in 76 Squadron: "I felt at the time, and I have always felt, that it was an honor to be a member of his squadron. Everyone felt the same way about him. Air crew... ground crew. He was a terrific character."[29]

Post-war[edit]

Following the end of the war, Cheshire retired from the RAF on medical grounds on 22 January 1946, retaining his final rank of group captain.[83] Cheshire had been brought up a Christian in the Church of England, but had lapsed. In 1945, in the Vanity Fair club in Mayfair, he joined a conversation about religion. "It was absurd," he said, "to imagine that God existed, except as a convenient figure of speech. Man had invented God to explain the voice of conscience, but it was doubtful whether right or wrong existed outside the human mind. They were words affixed like labels to customs and laws which man had also invented to keep social order." To Cheshire's surprise, as he sat back, "pleased with his worldly wisdom," he was roundly rebuked for "talking such rot" by a woman friend who "was one of the last persons on earth he would have credited with" religious convictions.[84] After the war, Joan Botting (widow of Dambusters pilot Norman Botting) lived with Cheshire at the "VIP (for Vade in Pacem – Go in Peace) Colony" he established for veterans and war widows at Gumley Hall, Leicestershire – one of several new ventures he started after leaving the RAF in 1946. Joan followed him to Le Court, near Petersfield, Hampshire (a mansion which Cheshire had bought from his aunt) where, with three children of her own, Joan took charge of the nursery (Joan is not mentioned by name in The Face of Victory).[85] Cheshire and Joan Botting subsequently investigated many religions, from Seventh-day Adventist to Methodist to "High Anglo-Catholic" – but none of them provided the answers they were looking for.[86]

Cheshire's aim in establishing the VIP Colony was to provide an opportunity for ex-servicemen and women and their families to live together, each contributing to the community what they could, to help their transition back into civilian life. He hoped that training, prosperity and fulfilment would result from united effort and mutual support. He saw the community as one way of continuing to work towards world peace. The community, however, did not prosper and the project came to an end in 1947.[87]

At the beginning of 1948, Cheshire heard about the case of Arthur Dykes, who had been one of Cheshire's original "VIP" community at Le Court, and was suffering from cancer. Dykes asked Cheshire to give him some land to park a caravan until he recovered, but Cheshire discovered that Dykes was terminally ill and that this diagnosis was concealed from him. He told Dykes the real position and invited him to stay at Le Court. Cheshire learned nursing skills and was soon approached to take in a second patient, the 94-year-old bedridden wife of a man who had just been taken off to hospital after suffering a stroke. She was followed by others, some coming to stay and others to help. Although Le Court had no financial support, and his situation was financially perilous most of the time, money somehow always seemed to arrive in the nick of time to stave off disaster. Dykes died in August 1948. After completing the arrangements for his funeral, Cheshire idly picked up a book a friend had sent him. It was One Lord, One Faith by Vernon Johnson, a former High Anglican clergyman who had converted to Roman Catholicism because, as he put it, "I could not resist the claim of the Catholic Church to be the one true Church founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ to guard and teach the truth ... She alone possesses the authority and unity necessary for such a Divine vocation."[88] In the meantime, Joan Botting had converted to Jehovah's Witnesses.[89]

On Christmas Eve, 1948, Cheshire was received into the Catholic Church.

Charitable life[edit]

In 1948, Cheshire founded the charity now named Leonard Cheshire Disability, which provides support to disabled people throughout the world. At the beginning of 1949, eight patients were staying at Le Court.[90] Six months later, there were 28.[91] Cheshire dedicated the rest of his life to supporting disabled people, combining this with lecturing on conflict resolution.[92]

Other organisations set up by Leonard Cheshire are:

  • The Ryder-Cheshire Foundation,[93] set up by Leonard Cheshire and his wife Sue Ryder at the time of their marriage in 1959. It now mainly operates in two fields: the rehabilitation of disabled people, through ENRYCH[94] and the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis, through Target Tuberculosis.[95]

In 1953, Cheshire founded the Raphael Pilgrimage to enable sick and disabled people to travel to Lourdes.[96]

In 1990, Cheshire founded the UK charity the Memorial Fund for Disaster Relief. Cheshire is acknowledged on the album The Wall – Live in Berlin by former Pink Floyd member Roger Waters. The concert launched and benefited the charity.[97][98] Cheshire opened this concert by blowing a Second World War whistle.

Cheshire was also concerned about future remembrance and was influential in the concept of the National Memorial Arboretum, founded by David Childs. The amphitheatre at the Arboretum is dedicated to the memory of Leonard Cheshire.

Return to Nagasaki[edit]

In 1985, Cheshire featured in a documentary, Nagasaki – Return Journey.[99][100]

Private life[edit]

On 15 July 1941, Cheshire married the American actress Constance Binney (21 years his senior), but the marriage was short-lived and childless. Their divorce was ratified in January 1951.[101]

On 5 April 1959, in Bombay's Roman Catholic Cathedral, he married Sue Ryder, also a Roman Catholic convert and humanitarian. He and Baroness Ryder were one of the few couples to both hold titles in their own right. They had two children, Jeromy and Elizabeth Cheshire, and lived in Cavendish, Suffolk.

Cheshire was a lifelong tennis fan, a member of the All England Club, and a formidable amateur player well into his seventies.

Death[edit]

Cheshire died of motor neurone disease aged 74 on 31 July 1992.

Memorial to Leonard Cheshire and Sue Ryder in St Mary's Church, Cavendish

Honours and tributes[edit]

Cheshire's medal group on display at the Imperial War Museum.
UK Victoria Cross ribbon bar.svg Victoria Cross (VC) 8 September 1944
Order of Merit (Commonwealth realms) ribbon.png Member of the Order of Merit (OM) 13 February 1981[103]
DSO with 2Bars.png Companion of the Distinguished Service Order and Two Bars 6 December 1940
United Kingdom Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon.svg Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC)
39-45 Star BAR.svg 1939–45 Star
Air Crew Europe BAR.svg Air Crew Europe Star With 1 clasp Atlantic
Burma Star BAR.svg Burma Star
Defence Medal BAR.svg Defence Medal
War Medal 39-45 BAR MID.png War Medal 1939–1945 with Palm for Mentioned in Despatches
UK Queen EII Coronation Medal ribbon.svg Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal (1953)
Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon.png Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal (1977)

Cause for sainthood[edit]

It was announced in 2017 that the Roman Catholic Diocese of East Anglia will promote Leonard Cheshire's cause for canonisation as a saint.[104]

Publications by Leonard Cheshire[edit]

  • Bomber Pilot. London: Hutchinson & Co, 1943; St. Albans, Herts, UK: Mayflower, 1975. ISBN 0-583-12541-7; London: Goodall Publications ISBN 0-907579-10-8
  • The Holy Face: An Account of the Oldest Photograph in the World (16-page pamphlet). Newport, Monmouthshire, UK: R. H. Johns, 1954.
  • Pilgrimage to the Shroud. London: Hutchinson & Co, 1956.
  • The Story of the Holy Shroud. Associated Television Ltd: ATV Library, 1957. Text of broadcast.
  • The Face of Victory. London: Hutchinson & Co, 1961.
  • Death (22-page pamphlet). London: Catholic Truth Society, 1978.
  • The Hidden World: An Autobiography and Reflections by the Founder of the Leonard Cheshire Homes. London: Collins, 1981. ISBN 0-00-626479-4.
  • The Light of Many Suns: The Meaning of the Bomb. London: Methuen, 1985. ISBN 0-413-59240-5
  • Where Is God in All This? (Interview by Alenka Lawrence). Slough, Berks, UK: St Paul Publications, 1991. ISBN 0-85439-380-3
  • Crossing the Finishing Line: Last Thoughts of Leonard Cheshire VC (Edited by Reginald C. Fuller). London: St. Pauls, 1998. ISBN 0-85439-527-X.

Awards[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Martin was at the end of his tour with 617 Squadron, and would not return. After he got back to England and recovered from his injuries he was transferred to 100 Group Headquarters.[49]
  2. ^ Citation reads: In recognition of gallantry displayed in flying operations against the enemy, for bringing home a holed and burning Armstrong Whitworth Whitley.[105]
  3. ^ Citation reads: Since the award of the DFC on March 7th, 1941, Wing Commander Cheshire has completed further operational sorties. Throughout his long and exceptionally distinguished flying career most of the credit for his squadron's outstanding efficiency and success has been due to his example. His magnificent achievements have been amply proved by photographic evidence.
    Note: The second DSO awarded as a bar on the ribbon of the first DSO. [105]
  4. ^ Citation reads: This officer has commanded the squadron with notable success. Within recent months he has participated in many attacks on targets of vital importance to the enemy and the successes obtained are an excellent tribute to his outstanding tactical ability, great courage and iron determination. He is a splendid leader, whose personal example and untiring efforts have contributed in a large measure to the high standard of efficiency and fine fighting qualities of the squadron he commands."
    Note: The third DSO awarded as a second bar to the ribbon of the first DSO. [105]
  5. ^ Citation reads: This officer began his operational career in June 1940. Against strongly-defended targets he soon displayed the courage and determination of an exceptional leader. He was always ready to accept extra risks to ensure success. Defying the formidable Ruhr defences, he frequently released his bombs from below 2,000 feet. Over Cologne in November 1940, a shell burst inside his aircraft, blowing out one side and starting a fire. Undeterred, he went on to bomb his target. About this time he carried out a number of convoy patrols, in addition to his bombing missions. At the end of his first tour of operational duty in January 1941 he immediately volunteered for a second tour. Again, he pressed home his attacks with the utmost gallantry. Berlin, Bremen, Cologne, Duisberg, Essen and Kiel were among the heavily defended targets which he attacked. When he was posted for instructional duties in January 1942 he undertook four more operational missions. He started a third operational tour in August 1942, when he was given command of a squadron. He led the squadron with outstanding skill on a number of missions before being appointed in March 1943 as a station commander. In October 1943 he undertook a fourth operational tour, relinquishing the rank of group captain at his own request so that he could again take part in operations. He immediately set to work as the pioneer of a new method of marking enemy targets involving very low flying. In June 1944, when marking a target in the harbour at Le Havre in broad daylight and without cloud cover, he dived well below the range of the light batteries before releasing his markerbombs, and he came very near to being destroyed by the strong barrage which concentrated on him. During his fourth tour which ended in July 1944, Wing Commander Cheshire led his squadron personally on every occasion, always undertaking the most dangerous and difficult task of marking the target alone from a low level in the face of strong defences. Wing Commander Cheshire's cold and calculated acceptance of risks is exemplified by his conduct in an attack on Munich in April 1944. This was an experimental attack to test out the new method of target marking at low level against a heavily-defended target situated deep in Reich territory. Munich was selected, at Wing Commander Cheshire's request, because of the formidable nature of its light anti-aircraft and searchlight defences. He was obliged to follow, in bad weather, a direct route which took him over the defences of Augsburg and thereafter he was continuously under fire. As he reached the target, flares were being released by our high-flying aircraft. He was illuminated from above and below. All guns within range opened fire on him. Diving to 700 feet, he dropped his markers with great precision and began to climb away. So blinding were the searchlights that he almost lost control. He then flew over the city at 1,000 feet to assess the accuracy of his work and direct other aircraft. His own was badly hit by shell fragments, but he continued to fly over the target area until he was satisfied that he had done all in his power to ensure success. Eventually when he set course for base the task of disengaging himself from the defences proved even more hazardous than the approach. For a full twelve minutes after leaving the target area he was under withering fire, but he came safely through. Wing Commander Cheshire has now completed a total of 100 missions. In four years of fighting against 'the bitterest opposition' he has maintained a record of outstanding personal achievement, placing himself invariably in the forefront of the battle. What he did in the Munich operation was typical of the careful planning, brilliant execution and contempt for danger which has established for Wing Commander Cheshire a reputation second to none in Bomber Command.[105]
  6. ^ Awarded for humanitarian work in providing residential services for patients with complex needs, illnesses and impairments. [106]
Citations
  1. ^ "No. 52563". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 June 1991. p. 1.
  2. ^ a b Levens, R.G.C., ed. (1964). Merton College Register 1900–1964. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 273.
  3. ^ Garnett 1968 p.152
  4. ^ a b Iveson and Milton 2009, p. 30.
  5. ^ Braddon 1954, pp. 32–6.
  6. ^ Braddon 1954, pp. 35–6.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Cheshire, Leonard (Oral history)". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  8. ^ "No. 34455". The London Gazette. 16 November 1937. p. 7189.
  9. ^ "No. 34713". The London Gazette. 20 October 1939. p. 7039.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "RAF Interview: Group Captain Leonard Cheshire". Royal Air Force Centre for Air Power Studies. February 1978. Retrieved 23 December 2017.
  11. ^ a b Foxley-Norris, C. N. (1 August 1992). "Obituary: Lord Cheshire VC". The Independent. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  12. ^ "No. 35005". The London Gazette. 3 December 1940. p. 6862.
  13. ^ Ashworth 1995, p. 210.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i Simkin, John. "Leonard Cheshire". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
  15. ^ Ward 2007, p. 124.
  16. ^ Hastings 2012.
  17. ^ "No. 35009". The London Gazette. 6 December 1940. p. 6937.
  18. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 71.
  19. ^ "No. 35791". The London Gazette (Supplement). 17 November 1942. p. 5034.
  20. ^ "No. 35097". The London Gazette. 7 March 1941. p. 1370.
  21. ^ "No. 35196". The London Gazette. 20 June 1941. p. 3517.
  22. ^ a b Ward 2007, p. 190.
  23. ^ Braddon 1957, p. 75.
  24. ^ a b Braddon 1954, p. 75.
  25. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 77.
  26. ^ "No. 35503". The London Gazette. 27 March 1942. p. 1387.
  27. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 82.
  28. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 88.
  29. ^ a b c d e "Gallantry, Tom (Oral history)". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  30. ^ Iveson and Milton 2009, p. 219.
  31. ^ a b Braddon 1954, p. 92.
  32. ^ Ward 2007, p. 125.
  33. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 96.
  34. ^ a b Braddon 1954, pp. 97–98.
  35. ^ "RAF Marston Moor". Control Towers. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  36. ^ Mason, David (23 August 2014). "Life with a Bomber Squadron at Marston Moor". RAF Church Fenton. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  37. ^ "No. 35983". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 April 1943. p. 1798.
  38. ^ Ward 2007, p. 107.
  39. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 101.
  40. ^ Mahaddie 1989, p. 69.
  41. ^ "Dortmund Ems Canal". The Dambusters. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  42. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 103.
  43. ^ Ward 2007, p. 105.
  44. ^ a b c Braddon 1954, p. 111.
  45. ^ Braddon 1954, pp. 105–106.
  46. ^ Braddon 1954, pp. 106–108.
  47. ^ Braddon 1954, pp. 108–109.
  48. ^ "Antheor". The Dambusters. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  49. ^ Braddon 1954.
  50. ^ Braddon 1954, pp. 109–111.
  51. ^ Ashworth 1995, p. 91.
  52. ^ a b c "Squadron Leader Larry Curtis". The Telegraph. 29 June 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  53. ^ Braddon 1954, pp. 111–112.
  54. ^ a b Braddon 1954, p. 112.
  55. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 113.
  56. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 115.
  57. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 117.
  58. ^ Ward 2012.
  59. ^ Braddon 1954, pp. 112–118.
  60. ^ Ashworth 1995, p. 94.
  61. ^ Bowman 2016, pp. 70–72.
  62. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 122.
  63. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 125.
  64. ^ a b Ashworth 1995, p. 97.
  65. ^ Ashworth 1995, p. 98.
  66. ^ Otter 1996, p. 298.
  67. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 129.
  68. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 130.
  69. ^ Iveson and Milton 2009, p. 230.
  70. ^ a b "Lord Cheshire, World War II Hero Who Founded Homes for Sick, 74," The New York Times. 2 August 1992.
  71. ^ Morris 2000, p. 225.
  72. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 86.
  73. ^ Braddon 1954, pp. 87–88.
  74. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 63.
  75. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 99.
  76. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 114.
  77. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 60.
  78. ^ Ward 2007, p. 126.
  79. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 98.
  80. ^ Iveson and Milton 2009, p. 143.
  81. ^ Braddon 1954, p. 80.
  82. ^ Lawrence, Alenka. "Introduction" to Cheshire 1991, pp. 10–11.
  83. ^ "No. 37447". The London Gazette (Supplement). 25 January 1946. p. 712.
  84. ^ Boyle, Andrew. No Passing Glory. London: The Reprint Society, 1957, pp. 274–275.
  85. ^ Leonard Cheshire, The Face of Victory (London: Hutchinson, 1961), p. 69
  86. ^ The Face of Victory pp. 47, 55–57, 69, 102–107
  87. ^ Cheshire 1981, p. 16.
  88. ^ Quoted in Cheshire 1961, p. 136.
  89. ^ Gary Botting, "Preface", Gary and Heather Botting, The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984), pp. ix–xii
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  91. ^ Cheshire 1961, p. 158.
  92. ^ Richard Morris, Cheshire: The Biography of Leonard Cheshire, VC, OM (London: Viking, 2000), pp. 408–432
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External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Harold Martin
Officer Commanding No. 617 Squadron
November 1943 – July 1944
Succeeded by
James Tait