|Leonard Duncan Albert Hussey|
6 May 1894|
Leytonstone, London, England
|Died||25 February 1964
King's College Hospital, London, England
|Education||University of London|
|Occupation||Explorer, meteorologist, doctor|
|Spouse(s)||Grace Muriel Hellstrom|
|Service/branch|| British Army
Royal Air Force
|Years of service||1912-1919
|Battles/wars||First World War
Russian Civil War
Second World War
|Awards||Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)
Leonard Duncan Albert Hussey OBE, MRCS, LRCP (6 June 1891 – 25 February 1964) was an English meteorologist, archaeologist, explorer, medical doctor and member of Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic and Shackleton–Rowett Expeditions. During the latter, he was with Shackleton at his death, and transported the body part-way back to England.
Hussey was also a member of the armed forces during World War I, serving in France and with Shackleton in Russia. After returning to private practice, Hussey rejoined the war effort in 1940 and became a decorated medical officer with the Royal Air Force during the Second World War. Returning once again to civilian practice in 1946, he was a member of the Royal College of Physicians, a lecturer, author, and Boy Scouts leader prior to retirement. Many of the items he collected during his career were donated to a number of museums.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Career
- 3 Published works and decorations
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Hussey was born to James and Eliza Hussey (née Aitken) in Norman House, Norman Road in Leytonestone, in London. He was the sixth child of the family, and the only son to his father, a machine ruler at the local stationery printing factory. By 1900, the family resided at 342 Kingsland Road in Leytonestone with three further children, leaving Hussey one of nine children; the eldest of four boys – the others being James, William and Percy – alongside five daughters, Maude, Beatrice, May, Blanche and Daisy.
Hussey attended Strand School and Hackney P.T. Centre. On 6 October 1909, Hussey entered the University of London, taking as course in psychology and gaining a bachelor of science second class at King's College London, as well as degrees in meteorology and anthropology.
Sudan and Shackleton
From 1913, Hussey had undertaken employment as an anthropologist and archaeologist at a dig in Jebel Moya, Sudan as part of Henry Wellcome's Expedition. Alongside O. G. S. Crawford, Hussey worked on a monthly pay of £8. While in the Sudan, he read in "an old newspaper" that he found of Shackleton's intention to embark on an Antarctic Expedition, and wrote to him expressing his interest in joining the project. Shackleton met with Hussey, and agreed to select him for the expedition, later telling him that he did so because he "looked funny".Eq
Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914–17
Hussey joined the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914–1917's Weddell Sea party as a meteorologist, keeping a leather-bound diary of the entire expedition. He was a popular member of the group due to his humour and perpetual playing of his five-string banjo, in company with Dr. James McIlroy's imitations of the trombone and bagpipes. Frank Worsley stated "Hussey was a brilliant wit, and his keen repartee was one of the few joys left to us. Often we would combine to provoke him just for the pleasure of hearing his clever retorts and invariably he would emerge the victor, no matter how many of us tried to best him." On 22 June 1915, Hussey and the crew staged a four-hour "smoking concert" and costume party, during which Hussey dressed as a black minstrel. Roland Huntford recorded in Shackleton of Hussey's tendency to be "determinedly cheery to the point of egregiousness".
The instrument, weighing twelve pounds, was rescued from the wreck of the Endurance as "vital mental medicine" by Shackleton, who made an exception of his "2 lb per person" instructions so that it could be saved. On 24 April 1916, while Shackleton took five other men from camp on South Georgia on the James Caird to find help, Hussey was one of the 22 men left behind on Elephant Island to await rescue, and continued to use his banjo to improve morale.
World War I
Hussey initially joined the London University contingent of the Officers' Training Corps, and was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the cadets on 13 November 1912. Hussey progressed to the full armed forces in the later years of the First World War, and was commissioned as a temporary second lieutenant in the Royal Garrison Artillery on 19 January 1917, serving in France, as well as operating with Shackleton on operations at Murmansk in northern Russia as part of the Polar Bear Expedition. He was promoted to temporary lieutenant on 19 July 1918, and to the temporary rank of captain on 8 October. Hussey was demobilised on 14 May 1919, retaining the rank of captain.
Shackleton–Rowett Antarctic Expedition 1921–22
Hussey was asked by Frank Wild, following Shackleton's death in harbour in South Georgia, to escort the body to England while Wild himself assumed command of the Quest. Hussey arrived in South America and cabled England with news of the explorer's passing. Shackleton's widow responded that the explorer should be buried at Grytviken, and Hussey carried out these instructions.
Medical career in London
Following his return to England, Hussey practised medicine in London until 1940. He had become a member of the Royal College of Surgeons and a Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, while residing at 328 Clapham Road, in London.
World War II
Hussey joined the RAF as a medical officer during the Second World War, with the rank of flight lieutenant and the serial number 87314. He served in Iceland as First Senior Medical Officer in the temporary rank of squadron leader, to which he was promoted on 1 July 1943 and then at RAF Benson in Oxfordshire. He was Mentioned in Despatches on two occasions in 1945, on 1 January and 14 May. Appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 1946 New Year Honours, Hussey retained his links to the RAF for a time after the end of the war, serving in the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve as a squadron leader, until his retirement on 10 February 1954.
Following the end of the war, Hussey resumed his medical practice, operating as a GP in Hertfordshire up until 1957. He was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 1946 New Year Honours for his war service, and in 1949 he served on the SS Clan Macauley as a ship's surgeon, sailing from England to South Africa and Australia. He also published his account of the Trans-Antarctic expedition entitled South with Endurance. By 1957, having retired from his practice, Hussey became President of the Antarctic Club. A Shackleton-Hussey trophy was created and awarded by Hussey to several scout movements from the 1960s, including the Chorleywood Scout pack, of which Hussey was the at one time the President of as part of his growing involvement in the scout movement following his retirement.
In 1960, Hussey retired to Worthing, and was forced to curtail his lecturing career due to poor health. His notes and lantern slides were donated to Ralph Gullett, a local scout leader and friend, who took over his lecturing. His banjo, which he took along with him on expeditions and later had on display at his practice, was signed by all the members of Endurance, and donated to the National Maritime Museum and was valued in 2004 at over £150,000. Hussey died in London in 1964 at the age of 72, and was survived by his wife, who died in 1980. The couple had no children, and his estate was passed to his housekeeper, Margaret Mock, until her own death in 1999.
Published works and decorations
- South with Endurance – Hussey's account of the 1914–1916 expedition.
- Scurvy in Polar Regions – in The Lancet
He was also the recipient of a number of decorations for his work in both world wars and as a member of Shackleton's expeditions.
- A Military OBE
- British War Medal
- Mercantile Marine War Medal
- Victory Medal
- Defence Medal
- War Medal 1939–1945 with Oak leaves for Mention in Despatches, 1 January and 14 May 1945.
- Silver Polar Medal with the Antarctic 1914–16 bar.
- "Leonard Duncan Albert Hussey (1891–1964) – Biographical notes". Cool Antarctica. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- "Leonard Duncan Albert hussey – Biography". Endurance Project. Archived from the original on 5 February 2008. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
- J. F. Mann. "The Endurance Obituaries – Leonard Duncan Albert Hussey". Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Huntford, p. 402.
- "Leonard Hussey – Meteorologist". PBS. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- Stonehouse, p. 136.
- Kimmel, p. 33.
- "Leonard Hussey's banjo". National Maritime Museum Cornwall. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
- Perkins, Holtman, Kessler and McCarthy, p. 119.
- "90th anniversary of Shackleton's rescue bid celebrated with installation of famous banjo". National Maritime Museum Cornwall. Retrieved 15 April 2009.
- "No. 28662". The London Gazette. 12 November 1912. p. 8288.
- "No. 29908". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 January 1917. p. 733.
- Huntford, p. 661.
- "No. 30851". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 August 1918. p. 9678.
- "No. 30956". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 October 1918. p. 12222.
- "No. 32266". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 March 1921. p. 2371.
- Johnson, p. 102.
- "No. 34996". The London Gazette (Supplement). 19 November 1940. p. 6642.
- "No. 36092". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 July 1943. p. 3211.
- "No. 37407". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 December 1945. p. 38.
- Ingersoll, p . 22.
- "No. 40226". The London Gazette (Supplement). 6 July 1954. p. 4018.
- "No. 37407". The London Gazette. 28 December 1945. p. 38.
- Whitehead, p. 545.
- Huntford, Roland. Shackleton. ISBN 0-689-11429-X.
- Ingersoll, Ernest (1943). Explorers Journal. Explorers Club.
- Johnson, Rebecca L. (2003). Ernest Shackleton: Gripped by the Antarctic. ISBN 0-87614-920-4.
- Lansing, Alfred (2001). Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-82919-X.
- McKernan, Victoria (2001). Shackleton's Stowaway. London: Laurel Leaf. ISBN 0-440-41984-0.
- Perkins, Dennies; Margaret Holtman; Paul R. Kessler; Catherine McCarthy (2000). Leading at the edge. ISBN 0-8144-0543-6.
- Stonehouse, Bernard. Encyclopedia of Antarctica and the Southern Oceans. ISBN 0-471-98665-8.
- Tamiko, Rex, ed. (2001). South with Endurance: Shackleton's Antarctic Expedition 1914–17. New York: BCL Press. ISBN 0747557195.
- Whitehead, Edgar (1964). "Chapter II – Sudan". East Africa and Rhodesia. Michigan: University of Michigan.
- Worsley, Frank A. (1998). Shcakleton's Boat Journey. London: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-7126-6574-9.
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