|Domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris)|
The Leonberger is a giant dog breed. The breed's name derives from the city of Leonberg in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. According to legend, the Leonberger was ostensibly bred as a 'symbolic dog' that would mimic the lion in the town crest. It is in the Working Group for dog shows such as Crufts, but not at the World Dog Show.
This Mountain dog comes with a generous double coat; the Leonberger is a large, muscular, and elegant dog with balanced body type, medium temperament, and dramatic presence. The head is adorned with a striking black mask, and projects the breed's distinct expression of intelligence, pride, and kindliness. Remaining true to their early roots as a capable family and working dog and search and rescue dog (particularly water), the surprisingly agile Leonberger is sound and coordinated, with both strength in bearing and elegance in movement. A dimorphic breed, the Leonberger possesses either a strongly masculine or elegantly feminine form, making gender immediately discernible.:5
Size, proportion, and substance
Height at withers:
- Male: 71–80 cm (28–31 in) — average 75 cm (30 in) :18
- Female: 65–75 cm (26–30 in) — average 70 cm (28 in) :18
- Males: 120–170 lb (54–77 kg) — average 140–150 lb (64–68 kg)
- Females: 100–135 lb (45–61 kg) — average 115 lb (52 kg)
For a mature Leonberger, the height at the withers is ideally the median of the breed's range— 71 to 80 centimetres (28 to 31 in) for males and 65 to 75 centimetres (26 to 30 in) for females. Capable of demanding work, the Leonberger is a dog of ample substance. Its frame is supported with well-muscled, medium to heavy bone in direct proportion to its size. A roomy chest is sufficiently broad and deep for the purpose of work. Seen in profile, the chest curves inward from the pro-sternum, tangently joins the elbow to its underline at fifty percent of the withers' height and then continues slightly upward toward the stifle.
The head is well balanced in proportion to the size of the dog and is deeper than broad with the length of muzzle and the length of skull approximately equal. With close fitting eyelids, the eyes are set into the skull upon a slight oblique; the eyes are medium-sized, almond shaped, and colored dark brown. The ears are fleshy, moderately sized, and pendant shaped, with sufficient substance to hang close to the skull and drop the tip of the ears level with the inside corners of the mouth. The Leonberger's ears rise from halfway between the eye and the top of his skull to level with the top of his skull. Though level bites and slight anomalies not affecting the robustness of the lower jaw are common, the ideal Leonberger capably possesses a strong scissor bite with full dentition.
Both a necessity for work and a defining attribute of the breed, the Leonberger has a water-resistant double coat on his body that is complemented by the shorter, fine hair on his muzzle and limbs. The long, profuse, outer coat is durable, relatively straight, lies flat, and fits close. Mature, masculine Leonbergers exhibit a pronounced mane. Similarly, his tail is very well furnished from the tip to the base where it blends harmoniously with the breech's furnishings. Climate permitting, his undercoat is soft and dense. Apart from a neatening of the feet, the Leonberger is presented untrimmed.
A variety of coat colors are acceptable, including all combinations of lion-yellow, red, red-brown, and sand. Nose leather, foot pads and lips should always be black. Faulty colors include brown with brown nose leather, black and tan, black, white or silver and eyes without any brown. A small patch of white on the chest or toes is permitted.
First and foremost a family dog, the Leonberger's temperament is one of its most important and distinguishing characteristics. Well socialized and trained, the Leonberger is self-assured, insensitive to noise, submissive to family members, friendly toward children, well composed with passersby, and self-disciplined when obliging its family or property with protection. Robust, loyal, intelligent, playful, and kindly, they can thus be taken anywhere without difficulty and adjust easily to a variety of circumstances, including the introduction of other dogs.
Leonbergers are strong, generally healthy dogs. Hip dysplasia, which devastates many large breeds, is largely controlled because of the effort of many breeders who actively screen their Leonbergers using x-rays evaluated by the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals and leave dysplastic specimens out of the gene pool, thereby reducing the risk of bone/joint problems. For over twenty years, breeders belonging to the Leonberger Club of America, which issued pedigrees for the Leonberger breed in America, adhered to many aspects of the German breeding program whereby member kennels may only choose to breed dogs that were certified as three generation free of hip dysplasia. As a likely result, the incidence of hip dysplasia in the breed was reduced to almost 10% and the occurrence of OFA rated "Excellent" hips increased by over 60% in just twenty years. Current incidence rates of hip dysplasia in Leonbergers are likely around 13%. After 2010, when the Leonberger Club of America joined the American Kennel Club, the formerly strict breeding rules are no longer mandatory for all Leonbergers.
Though not common, Leonbergers do inherit and/or develop a number of diseases that range in their impact from mild to devastating. In addition to hip dysplasia, Leonbergers can inherit and/or develop heart problems, Inherited Leonberger Paralysis/Polyneuropathy (ILPN), osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, Osteochondrosis Dissecans, allergies, digestive disorders, cataracts, entropion/ectropion eyelids, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), perianal fistulas, and thyroid disorders. Though rumors persist of Leonbergers being more sensitive to anesthesia than other breeds of dog, they are largely untrue. Leonbergers, like other large breed dogs, require less dosage per pound of sedative than smaller breeds to yield the same effect. The Leonberger Health Foundation, a private nonprofit foundation whose sole mission is to support major researchers who are seeking to identify genetic markers for serious diseases which affect the breed, is currently focusing on osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, and Leonberger Polyneuropathy.
Leonbergers in UK and USA/Canada surveys had a median lifespan of about 7 years, which is about 4 years less than the average purebred dog, but typical of similarly sized breeds. About 20% of Leonbergers in the surveys lived to 10 years or more. The oldest dogs in both surveys died at about 13. In France, the breed has a median lifespan of 8.75 years.
Serious diseases can affect the Leonberger—certain types of cancers are very common in the breed. Gastric Dilatation Volvulus, commonly called bloat, is another serious condition that affects many of the large and giant breed dogs, particularly those with deep chests. It causes the stomach to twist and can be fatal quite quickly. Adult Leonbergers should always be fed twice a day rather than one large meal in order to reduce the likelihood of bloat. Leonbergers are not alone in inheriting serious diseases and according to the University of Sydney's LIDA taskforce, Leonbergers have relatively few health issues compared to other dog breeds.
In a 2004 UK Kennel Club survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (45%), cardiac (11%), and "unknown" (8.5%). In a 2000 USA/Canada Leonberger Club of America survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (37%), old age (12%), cardiac (9%), and "sudden death" (8%).
Studies have indicated problems with inherited polyneuropathy in certain populations of Leonbergers and cataracts in dogs in the United Kingdom. A study of "Leonberger polyneuropathy" was published in 2014. Genetic testing is to be done through a protocol administered in North America by the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. or Institute of Genetics, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland
In the 1830s, Heinrich Essig, a dog breeder and seller and mayor of the town of Leonberg near Stuttgart in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, claimed to have created the Leonberger by crossing a female Landseer Newfoundland with a "barry" male from the Great St. Bernard Hospice and Monastery (which would later create the Saint Bernard breed). Later, according to Essig, a Pyrenean Mountain Dog was added, resulting in very large dogs with the long white coats that were the fashion for the time, and pleasant temperament. The first dogs registered as Leonbergers were born in 1846 and had many of the prized qualities of the breeds from which they were derived.:4 The popular legend is that it was bred to resemble the coat-of-arms animal of Leonberg, the lion. The Leonberger dog became popular with several European royal households, including Napoleon II, Empress Elizabeth of Austria-Hungary, the Prince of Wales[clarification needed], Otto Von Bismarck, Emperor Napoleon III and Umberto I of Italy. Essig's claim of breeding the dog as described is disputed. At least as early as 1585, the royal household of Austrian Prince Franz Metternich, of Wolfberg, father of Prince Metternich, owned dogs of the same description. Either way, there is no doubt that Essig named and registered the breed first. A black and white engraving of the Leonberger was included in "The Illustrated Book of the Dog" by Vero Shaw (at p. 488) in 1881. At the time, Essig's Leonbergers were denounced as an indifferent knockoff of a St. Bernard — not a stable and recognized breed — and a product of a popular fad or fashion for large and strong dogs, fomented in part by Essig's prodigious marketing skills (he gave dogs to the rich and famous).
The modern look of the Leonberger, with darker coats and a black masks, was developed during the latter part of the 20th century by re-introducing other breeds, such as the Newfoundland. This was necessary because breeding stocks of the leonberger were seriously affected by the two world wars. During World War I most Leonbergers were left to fend for themselves as breeders fled or were killed. Reportedly, only five Leonbergers survived World War I and were bred until World War II when, again, almost all Leonbergers were lost. During the two world wars, Leonbergers were used to pull the ammunition carts, a service to the breed's country that resulted in the Leonbergers' near-destruction. Leonbergers today can have their ancestry traced to the eight dogs that survived World War II.
Traditionally, Leonbergers were kept as farm dogs and were much praised for their abilities in watch and draft work. They were frequently seen pulling carts around the villages of Bavaria and surrounding districts.:4 Around the beginning of the 20th Century, Leonbergers were imported by the Government of Canada for use as water rescue/lifesaving dogs. The breed continues in that role today, along with the Newfoundland, Labrador Retriever and Golden Retriever dogs; they are used at the Italian School of Canine Lifeguard.
The Leonberger received American Kennel Club recognition as a member of the Working Group on January 1, 2010, alongside the Icelandic Sheepdog and the Cane Corso. It was the 167th breed to be recognized by the AKC.
Three Leonberger dogs (one was a female, and two males) played the main character Buck in The Call of the Wild: Dog of the Yukon (1997), a Canadian rendition of Jack London's Call of the Wild which stars Rutger Hauer as John Thornton and is narrated by Richard Dreyfuss. The breed chosen in this movie was not the one identified as Buck in the novel.
The breed has been featured on stamps from many countries.
The Lifetime MADE-FOR-TV movie Grumpy Cat's Worst Christmas Ever features a Leonberger who becomes a victim of a kidnapping.
- "The Leonberger: A special supplement". The New Zealand Kennel Gazette. 36 (3). April 1996.
- Gustafson-Eskner, Margareta; Rogert, Ulrika (1996). Leonbergerboken (in Swedish).
- Kuntová, Daniela (1994). Leonberger (in Czech). 37. Komenshého, Czech Republic: Dona Press. p. 370. ISBN 80-900080-2-X.
- Lusby, Madeline; Trafford, Michael (Photographer) (2005). Leonberger (Comprehensive Owners Guide (Hardcover). City: Kennel Club Books. ISBN 1-59378-314-0. EAN 9781593783143.
- Muller, Ton (1994). Het houden van een Leonberger, een praktijkboek (in Dutch). The Netherlands.
- Perosino, Guido (1993). The Leonberger. Milano: Giovanni De Vecchi.
- Pfaumer, Sharon. (July 1996) "The Leonberger, the golden-hearted lion dog." in Dog World (USA), pp. 14–22.
- Rahmer, Larry. The History of the Leonberger in Great Britain.
- Schmitt, Hannelie; Zerl, Gerhard (1996). Der Leonberger (in German) (revised ed.). Veriagsgesellschaft: Rudolf Muller, Koln-Braunsfeld.
- Shaw, Vero (1881). Leonberg Dog. The Illustrated Book of The Dog. London, Paris, New York: Cassel, Petter, Galpin & Company. pp. 479–480, 488–494. Retrieved March 31, 2014. at Internet Archive
- Stramer, Metha. The Dog of Leonberg, The History of a Dog Breed Multilingual (English, German, French, Dutch) trilogy on the history of the Leonberger dog (1846-1948) (Independent Leo Gazette) ISBN 978-90-813426-1-2.
- White, Angela (12 Feb 1998). The Leonberger. The World of Dogs ((Hardcover). Kingdom Books, Havant. pp. 208 pages. ISBN 1-85279-064-4. ISBN 978-1-85279-064-6.
- Junehall, Petra Breed Standard: Leonberger, 08-tryck, 2005.
- "AKC meet the Breeds: Leonberger". American Kennel Club. 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- UK Kennel Club. "Leonberger Breed Standard".
- Zieher, Waltraut (2002). "Summary of the 2000 Health Survey Findings". Leo Watch. Slaton, TX. 2 (1): 3.
- "Breed Average Hip Scores". British Veterinary Association. 1 January 2003. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- Townsend, Matthew di Sforzando (2006). "Hurray for OFA!". The LeoLetter. Seattle, WA: Allegra Print and Imaging. 22 (3): 85.
- Zieher, Waltraut (2002). "Summary of the 2000 Health Survey Findings". Leo Watch. Slaton, TX. 2 (1): 5.
- Zieher, Waltraut (2003). "Summary of the 2000 Health Survey Findings". Leo Watch. Slaton, TX. 3 (1): 2–11.
- Zieher, Waltraut (2003). "2000 Health Survey Findings". Leo Watch. Slaton, TX. 3 (1): 2.
- Isberg, Caroline (2009). "The Leonberger Health Foundation: Who Are These People? Why Should I Care?". The LeoLetter. Seattle, WA: Allegra Print and Imaging. 25 (4): 69.
- Cassidy, Dr. Kelly M. (February 1, 2008). "Breed Longevity Data". Dog Longevity. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- Cassidy, Dr. Kelly M. (1 February 2008). "Breed Weight and Lifespan". Dog Longevity. Retrieved September 18, 2012.
- "Purebred Dog Health Survey Results". Kennel Club/British Small Animal Veterinary Association Scientific Committee. 2004.
- Summary of the 2000 Health Mortality and Morbidity Survey Findings. Leonberger Club of America. LEO Watch Volume 2, Spring 2002. Archived from the original
- Leroy, G. G.; Phocas, F.; Hedan, B.; Verrier, E.; Rognon, X. (2015). "Inbreeding impact on litter size and survival in selected canine breeds". The Veterinary Journal. 203: 74–8. doi:10.1016/j.tvjl.2014.11.008. PMID 25475165. mean=8.18 ± 3.1 median=8.75
- Health at LeonbergerClubofAmerica.com
- McGreevy, Dr. Paul. "LIDA". University of Sydney. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
- Williams, John,. "Polyneuropathy in Leonberger Dogs". Facebook.
- Barnett, Keith C.; Featherstone, Heidi J.; Heinrich, Christine L.; Lakhani, Ken H. "Cataract in the UK Leonberger population". Veterinary Ophthalmology. Blackwell Publishing Inc. 9 (5): 350–356. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- Ekenstedt, Kari J.; Becker, Doreen; Minor, Katie M.; Shelton, G. Diane; Patterson, Edward E.; Bley, Tim; Oevermann, Anna; Bilzer, Thomas; Leeb, Tosso; Drögemüller, Cord; Mickelson, James R. (October 2, 2014). "An ARHGEF10 Deletion Is Highly Associated with a Juvenile-Onset Inherited Polyneuropathy in Leonberger and Saint Bernard Dogs". PLOS Genetics. PLOS. 10: e1004635. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004635. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- Bulanda, Susan (August 18, 2010). "Important research for Leonberger dogs, inherited polyneuropathy (IPN)". American Kennel Club Canine Health Foundation. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
- Drögemüller, Cord (7 January 2014). "Genetic Testing for Inherited Polyneuropathies in Leonbergers 2.0" (PDF). Bern, Switzerland: Bern University. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- Isberg, Caroline Bliss. "Leonberger Breed". Leonberger-Hunde.org.
- Lusby, M (2005). The Leonberger. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59378-314-3.
- Shaw, Vero (1881). Leonberg Dog. The Illustrated Book of The Dog. Cassel, Petter, Galpin & Company. pp. 479–480, 488–494. Retrieved March 31, 2014. at Internet Archive
- "Leonberger Dogs". PetInsurance.com. Veterinary Pet Insurance Company. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
- Lusby, Madeline (2005). Leonberger. Allenhurst, NJ, USA: Kennel Club Books. p. 14. ISBN 1-59378-314-0.
- "Leonbergers At Work – Herding Training". Leonberger Club of Ontario. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "Leonberger". Canada's Guide to Dogs. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- "Leonberger". Retrieved May 17, 2014.
- Landry, Jean-Marc (August 1999). "The use of guard dogs in the Swiss Alps: A first analysis" (PDF). KORA Bericht (2): 19. ISSN 1422-5123. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- "AKC proposed group realignment" (PDF). American Kennel Club. December 2011. Retrieved May 15, 2014.
- Pfaumer, Sharon (July 1996). "The Leonberger, the golden-hearted lion dog". Dog World. USA: 14–22.
- "Bonewatch: The doggy lifeguards that leap from helicopters to save stranded swimmers". Daily Mail. August 27, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2011.
- Manetti, Francesco (August 23, 2010). "Italian school teaches dogs to become lifeguards". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. Retrieved October 15, 2011.
- "AKC Working Group". American Kennel Club. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
- "AKC Welcomes the Cane Corso, Icelandic Sheepdog and Leonberger". June 10, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
- Call of the Wild - Dog of the Yukon at the Internet Movie Database
- "Leonberger Facts". AKC.org. American Kennel Club. Archived from the original on 23 January 2009.
- "Leonberger". animalstamps.com. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- Ton Muller Archived February 3, 2002, at the Wayback Machine.
- "LeoWorld: Resources".
- Stramer, Metha. "The dog of Leonberg".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leonberger.|