||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (June 2015)|
|Leonid Ivanovych Plyushch|
|Native name||Леонід Іванович Плющ (Леонид Иванович Плющ)|
26 April 1938|
Naryn, Kirghiz SSR
|Died||4 June 2015
|Citizenship||Soviet Union, France|
|Alma mater||Odessa University, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv|
|Known for||human rights activism with participation in the Ukrainian Helsinki Group|
|Movement||dissident movement in the Soviet Union|
|Spouse(s)||Tatyana Ilinichna Zhitnikova|
Antonovych prize (1987)
Leonid Ivanovych Plyushch (Ukrainian: Леоні́д Іва́нович Плющ, Russian: Леони́д Ива́нович Плющ, 26 April 1938, Naryn, Kirghiz SSR – 4 June 2015, Bessèges, France) was a Ukrainian mathematician and Soviet dissident.
Early life and career
Leonid Plyushch was born into a Ukrainian working-class family in 1938 in Naryn, Kirghizia. His father worked as railway foreman, and died on the front in 1941. Leonid's childhood was marked by tuberculosis of the bone, which he contracted at the age of 8.
Plyushch graduated from Kiev University in 1962 with a degree in mathematics. In his last year of studies he became interested in the mathematical modeling of biological systems, in particular mental illness, which he sought to model with the help of a computer. This proved too difficult a task, but Plyushch published papers on modeling and regulating simpler biological systems like the blood sugar level. He was eventually hired by the Institute of Cybernetics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, which was often tasked with solving various problems for the Soviet space program.
Plyushch became a dissident by taking a public stance on political hot topics of the time. In 1968 he protested against the misconduct of the Galanskov–Ginzburg trial by sending a letter to Komsomolskaya Pravda, which was not published. When Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia in 1968, Plyushch jointly signed with 16 other Soviet dissident a declaration of solidarity with the democratic movement in Czechoslovakia. In the same year he joined the Initiative Group for the Defense of Human Rights in the USSR, which sent a letter to the UN Human Rights Commission asking it to investigate the violations by the USSR of the right to hold independent beliefs and to propagate them by legal means. Plyushch was one of the fifteen signatories to An Appeal to The UN Committee for Human Rights. Due to blowback from his political stances, he was dismissed from the Cybernetics Institute in 1968, and the KGB confiscated a number of his manuscripts and interrogated him several times.
Trial and imprisonment
He was arrested in January 1972 on charges of anti-Soviet activity, and was jailed for a year before his trial began. During his trial, the court sat in camera and in the absence of the accused. Although no expert witnesses of any kind were called, Plyushch was declared insane, and was ordered to be "sent for treatment in a special type of hospital." He was locked up in a ward for severely psychotic patients in the Dnipropetrovsk Special Psychiatric Hospital where high doses of haloperidol, insulin and other drugs were administered, which temporarily made him incapable of reading and writing. Three commissions that examined him after a year of detention, one of which was chaired by Andrei Snezhnevsky, found him suffering from "reformist delusions" with "Messianic elements" and "sluggish schizophrenia." On 28 November 1976, Plyushch said, Moscow has taken advantage of the Helsinki security pact to improve its economy while increasing the suppression of political dissenters.
While he was imprisoned, he corresponded with Tatiana Khodorovich. Plyushch's letters to her later formed the basis of the book The Case of Leonid Plyushch, first published in Russian in 1974 by an Amsterdam publisher, and translated into English two years later, which received attention in medical ethics journals. His imprisonment triggered international protests, including a letter by 650 American mathematicians addressed to the Soviet embassy. Henri Cartan brought the case to the attention of the participants to the 1974 International Congress of Mathematicians, which was held in Vancouver.:788 Amnesty International sponsored an International Day for Plyushch in April 1975, and Andrei Sakharov also pleaded on his behalf.
Freedom and later life
Eventually he was allowed to leave the Soviet Union together with his family in 1976. His arrival in the West increased the friction between Western and Soviet psychiatrists leading eventually to a condemnation of Soviet practices by the World Psychiatric Association at the Sixth World Congress of Psychiatry. At a press conference in Paris, Plyushch gave a memorable account of the effects of his detention and medications:
|“||I noted with horror the daily progression of my degradation. I lost interest in politics, then in scientific problems, finally in my wife and children. My speech became blurred; my memory worsened. In the beginning, I reacted strongly to the sufferings of other patients. Eventually I became indifferent. My only thoughts were of toilets, tobacco and the bribes to the male nurses to let me go to the toilet one more time. Then I began to experience a new thought: 'I must remember everything I see here, I told myself, so that I can tell about it afterwards.'||”|
In 1979, with the contribution of his wife, Plyushch published his book History's Carnival: A Dissident's Autobiography in which he described how he and other dissidents were committed to psychiatric hospitals. At the same year, the book was translated into English. In 1980, Andrei Snezhnevsky, who was a Corresponding Fellow of the Royal College of Psychiatry, was invited by his British colleagues to answer criticism relating to Plyushch and other dissidents. He refused to do so, and instead resigned his Fellowship.
- "Lettre ouverte de Tatiana Pliouchtch". Blog Mediapart. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2015.
- Plyushch L., (1979) pp. 3-4
- Sakwa, Richard (1999). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. Routledge. p. 403. ISBN 0-415-12290-2.
- Plyushch L., (1979) pp. 31–37
- Khodorovich T. (1976), p. xv
- Yakobson, Anatoly; Yakir, Pyotr; Khodorovich, Tatyana; Podyapolskiy, Gregory; Maltsev, Yuri; et al. (21 August 1969). "An Appeal to The UN Committee for Human Rights". The New York Review of Books.
- The "Madness" of Leonid Plyushch, Radio Free Europe Research material, 1973-1-31
- Khodorovich T. (1976), p. 5
- Campbell, AV (December 1976). "The case of Leonid Plyushch". Journal of Medical Ethics 2 (4): 211. PMC 1154526.
- Bers, Lipman (30 August 1974). "Imprisoned Soviet mathematician". Science 185 (4153): 735–736. Bibcode:1974Sci...185..735B. doi:10.1126/science.185.4153.735-c. JSTOR 1738468.
- Whitaker, Leighton (1992). Schizophrenic disorders: sense and nonsense in conceptualization, assessment, and treatment. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 25. ISBN 0-306-44156-X.
- "Helsinki pact said abused". The Spokesman-Review. 28 November 1976. p. A11.
- Boobbyer, Philip (2004). Conscience, dissent and reform in Soviet Russia. Routledge. pp. 117–118. ISBN 0-415-33186-2.
- Bloch, Sidney (September 1978). "Psychiatry as ideology in the USSR". Journal of Medical Ethics 4 (3): 126–131. PMC 1154661. PMID 691016.
- "Interview with Henri Cartan" (PDF). Notices of the American Mathematical Society 46 (7): 782–788. August 1999.
- "Sakharov in appeal on detained Russian". The New York Times. 20 February 1974.
- "Behavior: censuring the Soviets". Time. 12 September 1977.
- Reich, Walter (1 January 1978). "Soviet psychiatry on trial". Commentary 65 (1): 40–48. PMID 11661550.
- "Soviet Union: the psukhushka horror". Time. 16 February 1976.
- "Украинский диссидент Леонид Плющ умер сегодня во Франции" (in Russian). RBC Ukraine. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- "Plyushch visits Ukrainians in Australia, addresses Parliament" (PDF). The Ukrainian Weekly. LXXXV (165). 23 July 1978. p. 4.
- Плющ, Леонид (1979). На карнавале истории (in Russian). London: Overseas Publications Interchange.
- Plyushch, Leonid (1979). History's carnival: a dissident's autobiography. Collins and Harvill Press. ISBN 0-00-262116-9.
- Levine, Sidney (1 May 1981). "The Special Committee on the Political Abuse of Psychiatry". Psychiatric Bulletin 5 (5): 94–95. doi:10.1192/pb.5.5.94.
- Milosz, Czeslaw; Sontag, Susan; Domenach, Jean-Marie; Barańczak, Stanisław; Arrabal, Fernando; et al. (13 May 1982). "Help Save "Que Me"". The New York Review of Books.
- "Помер правозахисник, дисидент Леонід Плющ" (in Ukrainian). RFE/RL. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- "Famous Soviet dissident Leonid Plyushch dies aged 77". Ukraine Today. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- "Prominent Soviet dissident Leonid Plyushch dies". Business Insider. 4 June 2015. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- Plyushch, Leonid; Mikhaylov, Mikhaylo; Belotserkovsky, Vadim; Elberfeld, Yan; Andreev, Herman; Vishnevskaya, Yuliya; Yanov, Alexander; Levitin-Krasnov, Anatoly; Etkind, Efim; Kushev, Yevgeny (1976). СССР. Демократические альтернативы: сборник статей и документов [USSR. Democratic alternatives: a collection of articles and documents] (in Russian). Achberg. ISBN 3881030700. OCLC 3953394.
- Pljušč, Leonid; Michajlov, Michailo; Belocerkovskij, Vadim; Andreev, German; Elberfeld, Jan; Janov, Aleksandr; Levitin-Krasnov, Anatolij; Etkind, Jefim; Kušev, Jevgenij (1977). UdSSR. Alternativen der demokratischen Opposition. Sammelband [USSR. Alternatives of democratic opposition. Collection] (in German). Achberg. ISBN 3881030859.
- Pliouchtch, Léonide; Biélotserkovsky, Vadim; Mikhaïlov, Mikhaïlo; Andreev, Herman; Lévitine-Krasnov, Anatoli; Yanov, Alexandre; Elberfeld, Yan; Etkind, Yéfime; Vichnevskaia, Youlia; Kouchev, Evguéni (1978). U.R.S.S.: alternatives démocratiques [U.S.S.R.: democratic alternatives] (in French). Paris: Savelli. ISBN 2859300252.
- Plyushch, Leonid; Khodorovich, Tatyana (1979). History's carnival: a dissident's autobiography. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 0151416141.
- Плющ, Леонід (1986). Екзод Тараса Шевченка. Навколо "Москалевої криниці" [Taras Shevchenko's exodus. By "The Muscovite Well"] (in Ukrainian). Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.
- Pliouchtch, Léonide (1991). Réponse à Alexandre Soljénitsyne [Response to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn] (in French). La Tour-d'Aigues: Éditions de l'Aube. ISBN 287678064X.
- Pliouchtch, Léonide (1993). Ukraine, à nous l'Europe! [Ukraine, our Europe!] (in French). Monaco: Éditions du Rocher. ISBN 2268014126.
- Плющ, Леонід (2006). Його таємниця, або, "Прекрасна ложа" Хвильового [His secret, or Khvylovy's "Beautifil Bed"] (in Ukrainian). Kiev: Факт.
Articles and interviews
- Plyushch, Leonid (15 April 1976). "A message to all British nurses and to their professional organisations and trade unions from Leonid Plyushch". Nursing Mirror and Midwives Journal 142 (16): 47–48. PMID 1046216.
- Bukovsky, Vladimir; Plyushch, Leonid (17 February 1977). "An appeal for Vasyl Fedorenko". The New York Review of Books.
- Alexeyeva, Lyudmila; Bukovsky, Vladimir; Amalrik, Andrei; Voikhanskaya, Marina; Plyushch, Leonid; Elina, Emilia; Voronina, Lidia; Bresenden, Yevgeniy (November 1977). "The Orlov tribunal". Index on Censorship 6 (6): 52–60. doi:10.1080/03064227708532716.
- Plyushch, Leonid (August 1978). "Liberty in the Soviet Union". Quadrant 22 (8): 4–11.
- Pliouchtch, Léonide (1987). "Les limites de la glasnost" [The limits of glasnost] (PDF, immediate download). Lignes (in French) 1 (1): 44–62. doi:10.3917/lignes0.001.0044. Archived from the original on 25 May 2016.
- Pljusc, Leonid (18 October 1987). "II dissidente sovietico parla del "nuovo corso". L’Urss vista da Leonid Pljusc. Tra speranze e contraddizioni" [The Soviet dissident speaks of "a new course." The USSR seen by Leonid Plyushch. Between hopes and contradictions] (PDF). Bresciaoggi (in Italian). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 April 2016.
- Pljusc, Leonid (25 April 1989). "Pljusc, dall l'URSS al PSDI" [Plyushch, from the USSR to PSDI]. la Repubblica (in Italian).
- Clarity, James (4 February 1976). "A freed dissident says Soviet doctors sought to break his political beliefs". New York Times.
- Himka, John-Paul (Fall 1980). "Leonid Plyushch: the Ukrainian Marxist resurgent". Journal of Ukrainian Studies 5 (2): 61.
- Khodorovich, Tatiana (1976). The Case of Leonid Plyushch. Boulder: Westview Press. p. 152. ISBN 0-89158-600-8.
- Nivat, Georges; Kravetz, Marc (1977). URSS: gli scrittori del dissenso: Bukowsky, Calamov, Daniel, Guinzburg, Pliusc, Solgeniztin [USSR: writers of dissent: Bukovsky, Shalamov, Daniel, Ginzburg, Plyushch, Solzhenitsyn] (in Italian). Venezia: La Biennale di Venezia. OCLC 797904993.
- Rich, Vera (20 September 1974). "Vancouver boycott supports Plyushch". Nature 251 (5472): 180. Bibcode:1974Natur.251..180R. doi:10.1038/251180a0.
- Rich, Vera (19 February 1976). "USSR: Plyushch says protest". Nature 259 (5544): 520. Bibcode:1976Natur.259..520R. doi:10.1038/259520a0.
- PLYUSHCH, Leonid Ivanovych at the Dissident Movement in Ukraine Virtual Museum