Leopard 2

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Leopard 2A4)
Jump to: navigation, search
Leopard 2
Leopard 2 A5 der Bundeswehr.jpg
Leopard 2A5 of the German Army (Heer)
Type Main battle tank
Place of origin West Germany
Service history
In service 1979–present[1]
Used by See Operators
Wars War in Afghanistan
Production history
Designer Krauss-Maffei
Designed 1970s
Manufacturer Krauss‐Maffei Wegmann
Maschinenbau Kiel
Unit cost 2A6: US$5.74 million (2007)[2]
Produced 1979–present
Number built 3,480
Variants See Variants
Specifications
Weight 2A6: 62.3 tonnes (68.7 short tons)
Length 2A6: 9.97 metres (393 inches) (gun forward)
Width 2A6: 3.75 m (148 in)
Height 2A6: 3.0 m (120 in)
Crew 4[1]

Armour 2A6: 3rd generation composite; including high-hardness steel, tungsten and plastic filler with ceramic component.
Main
armament
120 mm Rheinmetall L55 smoothbore gun[1] (42 rounds)
Secondary
armament
7.62 mm MG3A1[1] (4,750 rounds)
Engine MTU MB 873 Ka-501 liquid-cooled V-12 Twin-turbo diesel engine
1,500 PS (1,479 hp, 1,103 kW) at 2,600 rpm
Power/weight 24.1 PS/t (17.7 kW/t)
Transmission Renk HSWL 354
Suspension Torsion bar suspension
Fuel capacity 1,200 litres (264 imperial gallons; 317 US gallons)[3]
Operational
range
550 km (340 mi) (internal fuel)[1]
Speed 72 km/h (45 mph)[1]

The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and 12 other European countries, as well as several non-European nations. More than 3,480 Leopard 2s have been manufactured.[citation needed] The Leopard 2 was used in Kosovo with the German Army and has also seen action in Afghanistan with the Danish and Canadian contributions to the International Security Assistance Force.

There are two main development batches of the tank, the original models up to Leopard 2A4, which have vertically faced turret armour, and the "improved" batch, namely the Leopard 2A5 and newer versions, which have angled arrow-shaped turret appliqué armour together with other improvements. All models feature digital fire control systems with laser rangefinders, a fully stabilized main gun and coaxial machine gun, and advanced night vision and sighting equipment (first vehicles used a low-light level TV system or LLLTV; thermal imaging was introduced later on). The tank has the ability to engage moving targets while moving over rough terrain.

History[edit]

Development[edit]

Even as the Leopard 1 was just entering service, the German military was interested in producing a improved tank in the next decade. This resulted in the start of the MBT-70 development in cooperation with the United States beginning in 1963.[4] However already in 1967 it became questionable whether the MBT-70 would enter service at any time in the foreseeable future. Therefore the German government issued the order to research future upgrade options of the Leopard 1 to the German company Porsche in 1967.[5] This study was named vergoldeter Leopard (Gilded Leopard) and focused on incorporating advanced technology into the Leopard design. The projected upgrades added an autoloader, a coaxial autocannon and an independent commander's periscope.[6] The anti-air machine gun could be operated from inside the vehicle and a TV surveillance camera was mounted on an expendable mast. The shape of the turret and hull was optimized using cast steel armour, while the suspension, transmission and the engine exhaust vents were improved.[7]

Experimentalentwicklung and prototype development[edit]

Leopard 2 PT15 with 105 mm smoothbore gun
Leopard 2 prototype
The Leopard 2 T14 mod. with the modified turret housing composite armour

Following the end of Gilded Leopard study in 1967, the West-German government decided to focus on the Experimentalentwicklung (experimental development) as feasibility study and to develop new components for upgrading the Leopard 1 and for use on a future main battle tank program.[6] At first 25 million DM were invested, but after the industry came to the conclusion that with such a low budget the development of the two projected testbeds was not possible, a total of 30 to 32 million DM was invested. The experimental development was contracted to the company Krauss-Maffei, but with the obligation to cooperate with Porsche for the development of the chassis and with Wegmann for the development of the turret. Two prototypes with differing components were built with the aim to improve the conception of the Leopard 1 in such a way, that it would match the firepower requirements of the MBT-70. A high first-hit probability at ranges of 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) and the ability to accurately engage targets on the move thanks to a computerized fire control system were the main goals of the experimental development. The resulting vehicles were nicknamed Keiler (tusker). Two prototypes (ET 01 and ET 02) of the Keiler were built in 1969 and 1970, both of them being powered by the MB 872 engine.[8]

The MBT-70 was a revolutionary design, but after large cost overruns and technological problems, Germany withdrew from the project in 1969. After unsuccessful attempts of saving the MBT-70 by conceptual changes in order to eliminate the biggest issue — the driver being seated in the turret — it became clear in Fall 1969 that Germany would stop the bi-national development of the MBT-70.[7] The assistant secretary of the military procurement division of the German Ministry of Defence suggested reusing as much technologies developed for the MBT-70 as possible in a further program, which was nicknamed Eber (boar) due to him being named Eberhardt. The Eber used a modified MBT-70 turret and hull, with the driver being seated in the hull. Only a wooden mock-up was made. One year later, a choice was made to continue the development based on the earlier Keiler project of the late sixties, instead of finishing the development of the Eber. In 1971 the name of the design was determined as Leopard 2 with the original Leopard retroactively becoming the Leopard 1. Originally two versions were projected: the gun-armed Leopard 2K and the Leopard 2FK, which would be armed with the XM150 gun/launcher weapon of the MBT-70.[9] A total of seventeen prototypes were ordered that year, but only sixteen hulls were built as the production of hull PT12 was cancelled. At first only ten were ordered, but later the order was increased by seven. The 17 turrets were designated T1 to T17, while the hulls were designated PT1 to PT11 and PT13 to PT17. In order to test a larger number of components and concepts, each prototype was fitted with components not found on the other prototypes. Ten of the turrets were equipped with 105 mm smoothbore guns, while the other seven prototypes were equipped with a 120 mm smoothbore gun.[10][9] The hulls PT11 and PT17 were fitted with a hydropneumatic suspension based on the MBT-70 design.[9] The running gears of these two hulls had only six road wheels. Different types of APUs were mounted in the prototypes. All turrets were equipped with a machine gun for air-defence except the turret mounted on PT11, where a 20 mm remotely operated autocannon was mounted. With the exception of the hull PT07, PT09, PT15 and PT17, all prototypes used the MB 873 engine. The road wheels were taken from the MBT-70 and the return rollers from the Leopard 1.[9] The prototypes were designed with a projected weight of MLC50, which equals approximately 47.5 tonnes (46.7 long tons; 52.4 short tons). The welded turret utilized spaced armour formed by two steel plates.[11] The prototypes were equipped with an EMES-12 optical rangefinder and fire control system, which later was adopted on the Leopard 1A4.

In the Summer of 1973 a new turret was designed by Wegmann saving 1.5 tonnes (1.5 long tons; 1.7 short tons) weight.[12] It was nicknamed the Spitzmaus-Turm (shrew turret) due to the highly sloped front. This design was only possible with the new EMES-13 optical rangefinder, which required a base length of only 350 millimetres (14 in) instead of the previous 1,720 millimetres (68 in).[11] However in view of experiences in the Yom Kippur War, a higher level of protection than the prototypes' heavily sloped spaced armour was demanded in Fall 1973 and the Spitzmaus-Turm was never produced.[13] The weight limit was increased from MLC50 to MLC60, which equals approximately 55 tonnes (54 long tons; 61 short tons). The turret T14 was modified to test a new armour configuration, taking on a blockier-looking appearance as a result of using vertical modules of spaced multilayer armour. It was also used to test the new EMES-13 optical rangefinder. The modified turret T14 was designated T14 mod.[13] and was fitted with a fully electric turret drive and stabilization system, which was developed together by the companies General Electric and AEG Telefunken.

Leopard 2AV[edit]

In July of 1973 German Federal Minister of Defence Georg Leber and his US counterpart James R. Schlesinger agreed upon a higher degree of standardization in main battle tanks being favourable to NATO. By integrating components already fully developed by German companies for the Leopard 2, the costs of the XM1 Abrams should be reduced. A German commission was sent to the US to evaluate the harmonisation of components between the XM1 and Leopard 2.[14] However by American law it was not possible for a public bidder to interfere in a procurement tender after a contract with intention of profits and deadline was awarded to companies of the private industry.[14] As a result the modification of the Leopard 2 prototypes in order to meet the US Army requirements was investigated. Following a number of further talks, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) was signed on 11 December 1974 between the Federal Republic of Germany and the USA, which declared that a modified version of the Leopard 2 should be trialled by the USA against their XM1 prototypes,[15] after the Americans had bought and investigated prototype PT07 in 1973.[16] The MOU obligated the Federal Republic of Germany to send a complete prototype, a hull, a vehicle for ballistic tests and a number of special ballistic parts to the USA, where they would be put through US testing procedures for no additional costs.[17]

The Leopard 2AV (austere version) was based on the experiences of the previous Leopard 2 development. It was created in order to meet the US requirements and the latest protection requirements of the German MoD. The turret T14 mod was used as base for the Leopard 2AV's turret, but meeting the required level of protection for the hull required several attempts until the final ballistic trials on 23 to 26 June 1976.[18] Following the US' preference of laser rangefinders, the turret of prototype PT19 was fitted with a laser rangefinder developed together with the American company Hughes.[19] In comparison with the earlier Leopard 2 prototypes, the fire control system was simplified by replacing the EMES-12 optical rangefinder and removing the crosswind sensor, the air-pressure and temperature sensors, the powder temperature sensor, the PERI R12 commander sight with IR searchlight, the short-range grenade launcher for use against infantry, the retractable search-light, the spotlight, the retractable passive night vision sight, the APU and the mechanical loading assistant.[17] Due to the design and production of the Leopard 2AV taking more time than expected, the shipment to the US and the US evaluation was delayed. It was not possible to test the Leopard 2AV before 1 September 1976.[18] Despite the German wish that the Leopard 2AV and the XM1 prototypes would be evaluated at the same time, the US Army decided not to wait for the Leopard 2AV and tested the XM1 prototypes from Chrysler and General Motors beforehand.[14][20]

Two new prototype hulls and three turrets were shipped to the US: PT20 mounting a 105 mm rifled L7 gun and a Hughes fire control system, PT19 with the same fire control system but able to swap out the gun for the 120 mm Rheinmetall smoothbore gun, and the PT21 fitted with the Krupp Atlas Elektronik EMES-13 fire control system and the 120 mm Rheinmetall gun.

The Leopard 2AV fully met the US requirements.[21] A study made by the American FMC Corporation showed, that it was possible to produce the Leopard 2AV under licence in America without exceeding the cost limits set by the Army.[21] But already before the trials were finished, it was decided that instead of the US army possibly adopting the Leopard 2AV, the focus was shifted on the commonization of components between the two tanks. FMC, after having acquired the licences for production of the Leopard 2AV, decided not to submit a technical proposal, as they saw little to no chance in the US Army adopting a vehicle not developed in the USA.[20] The US Army evaluation showed that on the XM1 a larger portion of the tank's surface was covered by special armour than on the Leopard 2AV.[20] Differences in armour protection were attributed to the different perceptions on the expected threats and the haste in which the Leopard 2AV was designed to accommodate special armour.[20] On mobility trials the Leopard 2AV performed equal to better than the XM1 prototypes. The AGT-1500 gas turbine proved to consume about 50% more fuel[22] and the Diehl tracks had a higher endurance, while the tracks used on the XM1 prototypes failed to meet the Army's requirements.[21] The heat signature of the MTU diesel engine was much lower.[22] The fire control system and the sights of the Leopard 2 were considered to be better and the 120 mm gun proved to be superior.[20] The projected production costs for one XM1 tank were $728,000 in 1976, the costs for one Leopard 2AV were $56,000 higher.[20]

After the American evaluation of the Leopard 2AV and the US army's decision to opt for the XM1 Abrams, both American and German sources blamed the other side. According to American literature it was discovered, that the Leopard 2AV prototype used for mobility trials was underweight.[nb 1] In Germany the test conditions were criticized for being unrealistic and favouring the XM1. Instead of using actual performance data, the calculated hypothetical acceleration was used.[22] The XM1 was found to have a slightly higher rate of fire despite having internal layouts similar to the Leopard 2AV, because the XM1 prototypes were manned by professional crews, while the Leopard 2AV had to be manned by conscripts in order to proof that the Leopard 2AV was not too complicated.[22] Firing on the move was demonstrated on flat tracks, which nullified the better stabilization systems of the Leopard 2AV.[22]

Series production[edit]

Leopard 2 tanks during a maneuver in 1986

The decision to put the Leopard 2 tank in production for the German army was made after a study was undertaken, which showed that adopting the Leopard 2 mod would result in a greater combat potential of the German army than producing more Leopard 1A4 tanks or developing an improved version of the Leopard 1A4 with 105/120 mm smoothbore gun, improved armour protection, a new fire control system and a 1,200 horsepower (890 kW) or 1,500 horsepower (1,100 kW) engine.[23] A number of changes was applied to the Leopard 2 design before the series production started.[24][25] Engine, transmission and supension were slightly modified and improved. The ballistic protection of turret and hull was improved and weak spots were eliminated. The turret bustle containing the ready ammunition racks and the hydraulic systems was separated from the crew compartment and fitted with blow-out panels. The development of several new components introduced to the Leopard 2 during the Leopard 2AV development and after the US testing was completed. For the series version the Hughes-designed laser rangefinder made with US Common Modules was chosen over the passive EMES-13 rangefinder. The EMES-13 system was considered to be the superior solution, but the Hughes system was cheaper and fully developed.[26] The German company Krupp-Atlas-Elektronik acquired the licence of the Hughes design and modified it to meet the needs of the German army.[26] The modified rangefinder received the designation EMES-15. The installation of the US AGT-1500 in the Leopard 2 was tested by MaK.[21] The AGT-1500 was borrowed from the United States and required deep modifications of the Leopard 2's chassis. However driving tests at the WTD 41 revealed a number of drawbacks such as high fuel consumption and the lacking performance of the transmission including the brakes.[21] This project was thus terminated.

In January 1977 Germany ordered a small pre-series of three hulls and two turrets which were delivered in 1978. These vehicles had increased armour protection on the front of the hull. One of the hulls was fitted with the earlier turret T21 and was used by the German army school in Munster for troop trials until 1979.[27] In September 1977, 1800 Leopard 2 tanks were ordered, to be produced in five batches. The main contractor was Krauss-Maffei, but Maschinenbau Kiel (MaK) was awarded with a contract for producing 45% of the tanks. The first batch consisted of 380 tanks. The delivery of six tanks was scheduled for 1979, 114 for 1980, 180 for 1981 and 300 tanks each following year.[28] The first series tank was delivered on 25 October 1979. By 1982 the first batch of 380 Leopard 2 tanks was completed. 209 were built by Krauss-Maffei (chassis no. 10001 to 10210) and 171 by MaK (chassis no. 20001 to 20172). The first production tanks were fitted with the PzB-200 image intensifier due to production shortages of the new thermal night-sight system, which was later retrofitted to the earlier models. After the original five batches, three further batches of Leopard 2 tanks were ordered, increasing the amount of Leopard 2 tanks ordered by Germany to a total of 2,125.[29] The sixth batch was ordered in June 1987 and consisted of 150 tanks, which were produced between January 1988 and May 1999. The seventh batch of 100 tanks was produced between May 1988 and April 1990. The last batch for the German army totalling 75 tanks was produced from January 1991 to March 1992.

Further improvements[edit]

While previous models only varied in detail, the Leopard 2A4 introduced a digital ballistic computer and an improved fire extinguishing system. Starting within the sixth batch tanks were fitted with an improved armour array and new side skirts. In 1984 the German military procurement agency stated a number of requirements for a future Leopard 2 upgrade. In 1989 the Kampfwertsteigerung (combat potential increasement) program was initiated in Germany with the delivery of first prototypes. The official military requirements were published in March 1990.[30] The KWS program was projected to consist of three stages. The first stage of the KWS program replaced the Rh 120 L/44 gun barrel and the corresponding gun mount with a longer-barreled and more lethal Rh 120 L/55 version.[30] This stage was adopted in form of 225 Leopard 2A6 tanks starting in 2001 and a lasting to 2005.[31] The KWS stage 2 focused on improvements of armour protection and survivability, it was adopted in form of the Leopard 2A5 starting in 1995. The base armour of the tank was exchanged and additional armour modules were installed at the turret. A first batch of 225 Leopard 2 tanks was upgraded to Leopard 2A5 configuration between 1995 and 1998, a second batch of 125 followed 1999 to 2002.[32] In the third stage of KWS was the planned replacement of the Leopard 2 turret by a new turret fitted with a 140 mm NPzK tank gun, an autoloader and the IFIS battlefield management system.[30] The ballistic protection at the hull was to be improved.[30] Originally a total requirement for 650 Leopard 2 tanks with KWS 3 was projected.[31] It was never finalized, but the 140 mm NPzK tank gun was tested on an older prototype. In 1995 it was decided to cancel due to changes in the political environment. The funds were redirected to the NGP project of the German army. The Leopard 2A6M was developed with an enhanced mine-protection kit providing protection against mines that can detonate below the hull (like mines with bending wire trigger) and EFP mines.[31] The weight of the Leopard 2A6M is 62.5 tonnes.[33] The latest version of the tank is the Leopard 2A7, which entered service in a small initial batch of 20 tanks in 2014.

Replacement[edit]

On 22 May 2015, the German Defense Ministry announced plans to develop a successor to the Leopard 2 tank, likely to be named the Leopard 3, which may be developed in cooperation with France. The Leopard 2 first entered service in 1979, so its lifespan will come to an end around 2030. Technologies and concepts will be investigated between 2015 and 2018 to determine what capabilities are needed in a future tank.[34]

Exports[edit]

Germany has fielded about 2,125 Leopard 2 main battle tanks in various versions, but following the German reunification most of the tanks have been sold. Other countries demanded newly or locally built tanks. The Royal Netherlands Army ordered 445 Leopard 2 tanks on the second March of 1979, after examining the results of the Leopard 2AV in the United States.[35] It became the first export costumer of the Leopard 2, the vehicles were delivered between July 1981 and July 1986. The Swiss army decided to purchase Leopard 2 tanks over the M1A1 Abrams after trialing both tanks between August 1981 and June 1982. The Swiss decision was made on 24 August 1983 and the funding was subsequently approved by the government in 1984.[36] Thirty-five of the tanks were delivered by Kraus-Maffei by June 1987, Eidgenössische Konstruktionswerkstätte Thun started license production of 345 additional vehicles in December 1987. The Leopard 2 became very popular in the 1990s, when the shrinking German army offered many of its redundant Leopard 2s at a reduced price. It became successful enough in Europe that the manufacturer started calling it the Euro Leopard, despite France, Britain, and Italy all operating their own MBTs. But with further non-European orders, the name "Global-Leopard" is now used instead.[37]

After investigating the option of a locally developed replacement for the Strv 103 tank, Sweden decided to buy a foreign tanks. The Leopard 2 Improved (Leopard 2A5 prototype) won the competition against the M1A2 Abrams and the French Leclerc, after intensive test from January 1994 to June 1994, the Swedish military opted for the Leopard 2.[38] The Swedish military also evaluated the Soviet T-80U tank, but separately from the other tanks. The Swedish military found the Leopard 2 Improved to meet the military demands by 90%.[38] The M1A2 only met the Swedish requirements by 86%, whereas the Leclerc only met 63%. Sweden contracted on 20 June 1994 the production of 120 Stridsvagn 122 (Swedish Leopard 2A5 subversion) with many components being made locally. The first Stridsvagn 122 was delivered on 19 December 1996. Sweden also leased and later bought a total of 160 Leopard 2A4 tanks in 1994 and 1995, the first vehicle was delivered in February 1994. Denmark bought 51 ex-German Leopard 2A4 tanks after the Danish military school, the Haerens Kampskole, recommended to base the adoption of a new tank on the Swedish army trials. The tanks were delivered in 1997, but the upgrade to Leopard 2A5 level was already decided. In 2004 the Danish army bought another 18 ex-German Leopard 2 tanks.

In 1998 Greece held a competition to determine the main battle tank for the Hellenic army. The Leopard 2 Improved managed to outperform the Challenger 2E, Leclerc, M1A2 Abrams, T-80U and, T-84 and was subsequently chosen by the Greek officials. In March 2003 Greece ordered 170 Leopard 2 tanks of which 140 were locally assembled.[39][40] Greece also bought 183 Leopard 2A4 and 150 Leopard 1 tanks.[41]

Spain initially leased 109 Leopard 2A4 tanks, after Krauss-Maffei withdrew from the Lince development, a special lighter version of the Leopard 2 developed together with Santa Bárbara Sistemas. Before the end of the Lince tank, Spain already had rejected the M1A1 Abrams and the Vickers Valiant tank. After deciding to purchase the leased tanks, Santa Bárbara Sistemas acquired the licence to locally produce 219 Leopard 2A6 tanks for the Spanish army.

Poland received 128 Leopard 2A4 tanks from German army stocks in 2002. In 2013 Poland ordered a further 119 ex-German Leopard 2s. Finland bought 124 used Leopard 2A4 tanks and 6 armoured bridge-layer Leopard 2L tanks from Germany in 2002 and 2003. The tanks served as replacement for the old Soviet-made T-55 and T-72M1. The Netherlands resold 114 of their tanks(and one turret) to Austria, 80 to Canada in 2007,[42] another 52 tanks to Norway, 37 to Portugal and finally 100 to Finland.

In 2005 Turkey ordered 298 Leopard 2 tanks from German army stocks.[43] The Leopard 2 was already chosen in 2001 after successfully competing one year earlier in the Turkish army trials against the T-84 Yatagan, Leclerc and a version of the M1A2 Abrams fitted with a German MTU diesel engine. Turkey already wanted to buy 1,000 Leopard 2 tanks in 1999, but the German government rejected such deal. Chile bought 172 ex-German Leopard 2A4 tanks and 273 Marder 1A3 IFVs in 2007. Singapore bought 96 Leopard 2 tanks from Germany in 2006.[44] Indonesia ordered 103 Leopard 2 tanks and 42 Marder 1A3 IFVs in 2013.[45] At first the export of heavy weapons to Indonesia was not allowed by the German government, due to the questionable human rights record of Indonesia. 61 of the 103 Leopard 2 tanks will be upgraded by Rheinmetall to the Leopard 2RI standard, based on Rheinmetall's Revolution modular upgrade concept.[46]

Qatar ordered 62 Leopard 2A7 tanks and 24 Panzerhaubitze 2000s in 2013[47] The delivery of the tanks started in late 2015 and the first tanks were displayed on a military parade on 18 December 2015.[48]

Saudi-Arabia has shown interest in buying the Leopard 2 since the 1980s. However due to the political circumstances and the questionable situation of human rights in Saudi Arabia, no deal was made. Saudi-Arabia renewed it's intention of buying Leopard 2 tanks in 2011.[49] While earlier news reports suggested an interest in buying about 200 tanks, later reports revealed an increased order of 600 to 800 tanks.[49] The German government at first approved the deal, but canceled it later due to human rights situation and Saudi-Arabia's military intervention in Bahrain.[49][50]

The Leopard 2 was also tested by the United Kingdom. In 1989 the Leopard 2 was evaluated as possible replacement for the Challenger 1 tank.[51] Ultimately the British armed forces decided to adopt the locally made Challenger 2. The Australian Army evaluated ex-Swiss Army Leopard 2s as a replacement for its Leopard 1AS tanks in 2003, but selected the M1A1 AIM instead due to easier logistics. More modern versions of the Leopard 2 or M1 Abrams, such as the Leopard 2A6 were no considered due to their higher price.[52]

Combat history[edit]

KFOR[edit]

Starting on 12th June of 1999 28 Leopard 2A5 tanks were deployed by the German army as part of KFOR to Kosovo. The vehicles, which belonged to Panzerbataillon 33 and 214, were sent from Macedonia to Prizren. They were used used for patrols, protecting checkpoints and bases aswell as part of the show of force. During an incident on 13th June 1999, two members of the Serbian paramilitary started firing from inside a Lada at one of the checkpoints in Prizren. A Leopard 2A5 was located at the checkpoint, but it could not participate in the fighting as it was only partial manned.[53] On 26th of June 1999 a Leopard 2A5 fired four warning shots above the town of Orahovac.[54] At the end of 2000 and beginning of 2001 the tanks were replaced by the older Leopard 2A4 model. A number of Leopard 2A4s were deployed to Macedonia during 2001 as part of the NATO intervention. The tanks served to protect Bundeswehr logistic sites located in Macedonia. Until their return in 2004 the Leopard 2 tanks were stationed at the Austrian-Swiss camp "Casablanca".[54]

IFOR/SFOR[edit]

The Dutch contingent in Bosnia-Hercegovina operated Leopard 2 tanks.[55] Dutch Leopard 2A4s and Leopard 2A5s at the NLD bases at Bugojno, Novi Travnik, Sisava, Knezevo, Maslovare and Suica.[citation needed]

ISAF/OEF[edit]

In October 2003, Canada was planning to replace its Leopard C2s with wheeled Stryker Mobile Gun Systems. However, operational experience in Afghanistan, and in particular during Operation Medusa, convinced the Canadian military of the usefulness of maintaining a tank fleet.[56] Leopard C2s were deployed to Kandahar in December 2006,[57] but they were by then almost 30 years old, and were nearing the end of their operational life. The Canadian government decided to borrow 20 Leopard 2A6s and three armoured recovery vehicles from Germany for rapid deployment to Afghanistan. In late August 2007, the first Leopard 2s were airlifted into Afghanistan to equip Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians).[58]

In an assault on 2 November 2007, a Leopard 2A6M hit an IED and survived without casualties: "My crew stumbled upon an IED (improvised explosive device) and made history as the first (crew) to test the (Leopard 2A6) M-packet. It worked as it should." wrote a Canadian officer in an email to German defence officials.[59] Canadian Chief of the Defence Staff General Rick Hillier denied reports that a Leopard 2 tank that was struck by an IED was a write-off, insisting that the tank has been repaired and is once again in use. "The Taliban have been engaged with some of the new Leopard 2 tanks in several ambushes" and that as a result the Taliban "learned some very harsh lessons" and lost the battle in question "very quickly and very violently."[60]

In October 2007, Denmark also deployed Leopard 2A5 DKs in support of operations in southern Afghanistan. The Danish tank unit, drawn from the first battalion of the Jydske Dragonregiment (Jutland Dragoons Regiment),[61] was equipped with three tanks and one M113 armoured personnel carrier, with an armoured recovery vehicle and another tank kept in reserve.[62] The Danish version of the Leopard 2A5 is fitted with Swedish-made Barracuda camouflage mats, that limit the absorption of solar heat, thus reducing infrared signature and interior temperature.[61] It also has a conventional driver's seat bolted on the floor of the tank, wherereas in the Canadian 2A6M (as part of the mine-protection package) the driver's seat has been replaced by a "Dynamic Safety Seat",[63] which is a parachute-harness like arrangement that the driver wears around his hip; in this way, the driver does not have any contact with the hull except on the pedals and is out of the shockwave area of exploding land mines or IEDs.

In January 2008, Danish tanks halted a flanking maneuver by Taliban forces near the Helmand River by providing gunfire in support of Danish and British infantry from elevated positions.[64] On 26 February 2008, a Danish Leopard 2 was hit by an explosive device, damaging one track. No one was injured and the tank returned to camp on its own for repairs.[65] The first fatality suffered by a crew operating a Leopard 2 happened on 25 July 2008. A Danish Leopard 2A5 hit an IED in Helmand Province. The vehicle was able to continue 200 metres (656 ft) before it halted. Three members of the four-man crew were able to escape even though wounded, but the driver was stuck inside. On site treatment by Danish medics could not save him. The vehicle was towed to FOB Attal and then later to FOB Armadillo for investigation and possible redeployment. During the same contact with Taliban forces, a second tank was caught in an explosion but none of the crew were wounded.[66] Beginning on December 7, 2008, Leopard 2 tanks took part in Operation Red Dagger, firing 31 rounds in support of Coalition troops as they recaptured Nad Ali District. A press release from the British Ministry of Defence praised the tank's fire accuracy and mobility, claiming the Leopard 2 was a decisive factor in the coalition's success.[citation needed] Danish Leopard 2A5s are, as of 2013, still in Afghanistan, providing security cover for the withdrawal of British and NATO troops.[67]

Design[edit]

Protection[edit]

Arrowhead-shaped armour module of the Leopard 2A5
The turret and hull sides of the Leopard 2A7+ are fitted with additional armour modules
The Leopard 2SG is fitted with AMAP composite armour

The Leopard 2 uses spaced multilayer armour throughout the design.[68] The armour consists of a combination of steel plates of different hardness, elastic materials and other non-metallic materials.[69][70][71] Steel plates with high hardness and high ductility are used. The armour is a result of extensive research about the formation and penetration mechanism of shaped charge jets.[72] The Leopard 2's armour might be based on the British Burlington armour, which had already been demonstrated to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1970.[73] Later, in the mid-1970s, full details about Burlington were handed over to the West-German government. The frontal arc of the Leopard 2's armour is designed to withstand large caliber kinetic energy penetrators and shaped charge projectiles.[71] During the 1980s, it was estimated that the Leopard 2's front would resist 125 mm APFSDS rounds fired from a distance of 1,500 m.[72][74]

The Leopard 2A4's armour has a maximum physical thickness of 80 centimetres (31 in) based on unofficial measurements and estimates made by former conscripts and professional soldiers of the German army.[75] On the Leopard 2A5 and subsequent models, the thickness is increased by the wedge-shaped armour module to 150 centimetres (59 in).[75]

The side and the rear of the tank protect against heavy machine guns, medium caliber rounds and older types of tank ammunition. The side of the hull is covered by armour skirts to increase protection against projectiles and RPGs. The frontal third of the hull sides is covered by heavy ballistic skirts, while the rest of the hull sides is covered by steel-reinforced rubber skirts. For increased protection against mines, the sides of the hull floor are sloped by 45° and the floor is reinforced with corrugations.[69]

Secondary protection[edit]

Ammunition storage in a Leopard 2A4

The Leopard 2's design follows the concept of compartmentation; possible sources of fire or explosions have been moved away from the crew.[71] In the turret, the ammunition and the hydraulics are located in compartments separated from the crew. In case of a detonation, the blow-off panels on the compartment roofs will direct the explosion and fire away from the crew. The crew is also protected against nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) threats, as the Leopard 2 is equipped with a Dräger NBC overpressurization system, which provides up to 4 millibars (4.0 hPa) over-pressure inside the vehicle.[76]

Two groups of four Wegmann 76 mm smoke mortars are mounted on either side of the turret and can be electrically fired either as single rounds or in salvos of four. They are mounted on most Leopard 2 models, with the exception of Dutch Leopard 2s, which are equipped instead with a Dutch-designed smoke mortar system with six barrels on each side.[76] Swedish Stridsvagn 122 utilize French GALIX smoke dispensers, similar to the system found on the French Leclerc.[77]

The Leopard 2 is equipped with a fire protection system. Four 9 kg Halon fire extinguisher bottles are installed on the right behind the driver's station. The bottles are connected to pipes and hoses and are activated automatically by the fire detection system, when temperatures rise above 82 °C (180 °F) inside the fighting compartment, or manually via a control panel in the driver's compartment.[76] An extra 2.5 kg Halon fire extinguisher is stored on the floor beneath the main gun.

Armour upgrades[edit]

Following the Leopard 2's introduction into service in 1979, the armour has been gradually improved over the years. A modified version of spaced multilayer armour was introduced beginning with the 97th vehicle of the 6th production batch.[78] The same batch also introduced an improved type of heavy ballistic skirts.

The Leopard 2A5 upgrade focused on increased armour protection. While upgrading a Leopard 2 tank to the Leopard 2A5 configuration, the roof covering the armour modules is cut open and new armour modules are inserted.[79][80] New additional armour modules made of laminated armour are covering the frontal arc of the turret. They have a distinctive arrowhead shape and improve the protection against both kinetic penetrators and shaped charges.[80][81] The side skirts also incorporate improved armour protection.[81] Furthermore, a circa 2.5 cm-thick spall liner reduces the danger of crew injuries in case of armour penetration.[76][80][82]

The Leopard 2A7 features the latest generation of passive armour and belly armour providing protection against mines and IEDs.[83] The Leopard 2A7 is fitted with adapters for mounting additional armour modules or protection systems against RPGs.[84]

For urban combat, the Leopard 2 can be fitted with different packages of modular armour. The Leopard 2A4M CAN, Leopard 2 PSO (Peace Support Operations) and the Leopard 2A7 can mount thick modules of composite armour along the flanks of turret and hull, while slat armour can be adapted at the vehicle rear. The armour modules provide protection against the RPG-7, which depending on the warhead can penetrate between 280 millimetres (11 in) and 600 millimetres (24 in) of steel armour.[85] The Leopard 2A6M CAN increases protection against rocket-propelled grenades (RPGs) by including additional slat armour.[86]

Additional armour packages have been developed by a number of different companies. IBD Deisenroth has developed upgrades with MEXAS and AMAP composite armour, the latter is being used on Singaporean and Indonesian Leopard 2 tanks. RUAG has developed an armour upgrade utilizing their SidePRO-ATR composite armour. This upgrade was first presented on the IAV 2013.[87]

The Leopard 2A4M and 2A6M add an additional mine protection plate for the belly, which increases protection against mines and improvised explosive devices.[76]

Armour protection estimates[edit]

Estimated levels of protection for the Leopard 2 range from 590–690 mm RHAe on the turret, 600 mm RHAe on the glacis and lower front hull on the Leopard 2A4, to 920–940 mm RHAe on the turret, 620 mm RHAe on the glacis and lower front hull on the Leopard 2A6 against kinetic projectiles.[76][unreliable source?]

According to a description page hosted by the Federation of American Scientists, the armour of the Leopard 2A4 is believed to provide protection equivalent to 700 mm armour steel (RHA) against kinetic energy penetrators and 1000 mm RHA against shaped charge warheads.[88]

Armament[edit]

View through the panoramic PERI R17 sight

Primary[edit]

The primary armament for production versions of the Leopard 2 is the Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore gun - the same gun currently used on the M1 Abrams - in either the L44 variant (found on all production Leopard 2s until the A5), or the L55 variant (as found on the Leopard 2A6 and subsequent models).[76] Ammunition for the gun comprises 27 rounds stored in a special magazine in the forward section of the hull, to the left of the driver's station, with an additional 15 rounds stored in the left side of the turret bustle, which are separated from the fighting compartment by an electrically operated door.[76] If the ammunition storage area is hit, a blow-off panel in the turret roof would direct an explosion upwards away from the crew compartment.[76] The gun is fully stabilized, and can fire a variety of types of rounds, such as the German DM43 APFSDS-T anti-tank round, which is said to be able to penetrate 560 millimeters (22 in)[89] of steel armour at a range of 2,000 metres (2,200 yd),[90] and the German DM12 multipurpose anti-tank projectile (MPAT).[91] For the L55 gun, a newer APFSDS-T round was introduced to take advantage of the longer barrel, the DM-53, which is said to be able to penetrate 750 mm of RHAe armour at a range of 2,000 meters.[76] The bore evacuator and the gun's thermal sleeve of the A4 and A5, designed to regulate the temperature of the barrel, are fabricated from glass-reinforced plastic. The barrel has a chrome lining to increase barrel life.[92] The main gun is capable of power elevating from +20° to −9°.[93]

Rheinmetall has developed an upgrade for Leopard 2 tanks to give them the ability to fire the Israeli LAHAT anti-tank guided missile through the main gun; the missile can engage targets out to a range of 6,000 metres (20,000 ft).[94]

Secondary[edit]

The Leopard 2 is equipped with two machine guns, one mounted co-axially, the other on an anti-aircraft mount. German models use the MG 3 7.62 mm machine gun; Dutch and Singapore models use FN MAG 7.62 mm machine guns; Swiss models use Swiss MG 87 7.5 mm machine guns.[76] 4750 rounds of machine gun ammunition are carried on board the Leopard 2.

Fire control[edit]

The standard fire control system found on the Leopard 2 is the German EMES 15 fire control system with a dual magnification stabilized primary sight. The primary sight has an integrated neodymium yttrium aluminium garnet Nd:YAG laser rangefinder and a 120 element Mercury cadmium telluride, HgCdTe (also known as CMT) Zeiss thermographic camera, both of which are linked to the tank's fire control computer.[95] A backup 8x auxiliary telescope FERO-Z18 is mounted coaxially for the gunner.[76] The commander has an independent periscope, the Rheinmetall/Zeiss PERI-R 17 A2. The PERI-R 17 A2 is a stabilised panoramic periscope sight designed for day/night observation and target identification; it provides an all round view with a traverse of 360°. The thermal image from the commander's periscope is displayed on a monitor inside the tank. Initial production tanks were not equipped with a thermal sight, due to the sight not being ready, and instead temporarily substituted the PZB 200 low light TV system (LLLTV).[76]

The fire control suite is capable of providing up to three range values in four seconds. The range data is transmitted to the fire control computer and is used to calculate the firing solution. Also, because the laser rangefinder is integrated into the gunner's primary sight, the gunner is able to read the digital range measurement directly. The maximum range of the laser rangefinder is just less than 10,000 m with a measuring accuracy to within 20 m at this range.[95] The combined system allows the Leopard 2 to engage moving targets at ranges of up to 5,000 meters whilst itself being on the move over rough terrain.

Propulsion[edit]

The Leopard 2's MB 873 Ka-501 V12 engine
German Leopard 2A4 with turret snorkel, 2010

The Leopard 2 is propelled by the MTU MB 873 diesel engine, which provides 1,500 PS (1,103 kW) of engine output. The MTU MB 873 diesel engine is a four-stroke, 47.6 litre, 12-cylinder multi-fuel, exhaust turbo-charged, liquid-cooled engine, which has an estimated fuel consumption rate of around 300 litres per 100 km on roads and 500 litres per 100 km across country, and is coupled to the Renk HSWL 354 gear and brake system.[76][95] The Renk HSWL 354 transmission has four forward and two reverse gears, with a torque converter and is completely automatic, with the driver selecting the range.[76] The Leopard 2 has four fuel tanks, which have a total capacity of approximately 1,160 litres, giving a maximum road range of about 500 km.[76] The propulsion pack is capable of driving the tank to a top road speed of 68 km/h (limited to 50 km/h during peacetime by law), and top reverse is 31 km/h.[76] The power pack can be changed in the field in 35 minutes.[76] The engine and transmission is separated from the crew compartment through a fireproof bulkhead.[95] An enhanced version of the EuroPowerPack, with a 1,650 PS (1,214 kW) MTU MT883 engine has also been trialled by the Leopard 2.[95]

The Leopard 2 has a torsion bar suspension, and has advanced friction dampers. The running gear consists of seven dual rubber-tyred road wheels and four return rollers per side, with the idler wheel at the front and drive sprocket at the rear.[76] The tracks are Diehl 570F tracks, with rubber-bashed end connectors, which have removable rubber pads and use 82 links on each track. For use in icy ground, up to 18 rubber pads can be replaced by the same number of grousers, which are stored in the vehicle's bow when not in use.[76] The upper part of the tracks are covered with side skirts, with the first two road wheels and idler covered by an armoured skirt.[93]

The Leopard 2 can drive through water 4 meters (13 ft) deep using a snorkel or 1.2 meters (3 ft 11 in) without any preparation. It can climb vertical obstacles over one metre high.

The German Army has prioritized mobility in its Leopard 2, which may be considered the fastest MBT in existence.[96]

Variants[edit]

Two German Army Leopard 2s demonstrate their deep-wading capabilities

Leopard 2[edit]

The baseline Leopard 2, sometimes informally called the "A0" to differentiate it from later versions, was the first series manufactured version. The vehicles were manufactured from October 1979 until March 1982, altogether 380 vehicles. 209 were built by Krauss Maffei and 171 by MaK. The basic equipment consisted of electrical-hydraulic stabilizer WNA-H22, a fire control computer, a laser rangefinder, a wind sensor, a general purpose telescope EMES 15, a panorama periscope PERI R17, the tower sight FERO Z18, on the tower roof as well as a computer controlled tank testing set RPP 1–8. 200 of the vehicles had a low-light enhancer (PZB 200) instead of a thermal imaging. Two chassis served as driver training vehicles.

Leopard 2A1[edit]

Minor modifications and the installation of the gunner's thermal sight[1] were worked into the second batch of 450 vehicles Leopard 2 designated the A1; 248 by Krauss-Maffei (Chassis Nr. 10211 to 10458) and 202 by Mak (Chassis Nr. 20173 to 20347). Deliveries of the 2A1 models started in March 1982 and ended in November 1983. The two most notable changes were the modification of the ammunition racks to be identical to those in the M1 Abrams, and redesigned fuel filters that reduced refuelling time.

A third batch of 300 Leopard 2 - 165 by Krauss-Maffei (Chassis Nr. 10459 to 10623) and 135 by MaK (Chassis Nr. 20375 to 20509.) - was built between November 1983 and November 1984. This batch included more minor changes that were later retrofitted to the earlier 2A1s.

Leopard 2A2[edit]

This designation was given to upgraded vehicles of the first batch of Leopard 2s, brought up to the standard of the second and third batches. This modernisation gradually replaced the original PZB 200 sights in the first batch with thermal sights for the EMES 15 as they became available. Furthermore, the upgrade included the fitting of filler openings and caps to the forward hull fuel tanks to allow separate refuelling, as well as the addition of a deflector plate for the periscope and a large coverplate to protect the existing NBC protection system. Finally, the tank was given new five metre towing cables with a different position. The programme began in 1984 and ended in 1987; the third, fourth and fifth batches, which were produced during this period, had the same features. The modernised first batch can be recognised by the circular plate covering the hole where the cross-wind sensor for the fire-control system was removed.[97]

Leopard 2A3[edit]

The fourth batch of 300 vehicles; 165 by Krauss-Maffei (Chassis Nr. 10624 to 10788) and 135 by Mak (Chassis Nr. 20510 to 20644) was delivered between December 1984 and December 1985. The main change was the addition of the SEM80/90 digital radio sets (also being fitted to the Leopard 1 at the same time), and the ammunition reloading hatches being welded shut. Even with these minor changes the new batch was known as the 2A3.

Leopard 2A4[edit]

Singapore Army Leopard 2SG upgraded with AMAP composite armour and towards the rear with slat armour by IBD & ST Kinetics

The most widespread version of the Leopard 2 family, the 2A4 models included more substantial changes, including an automated fire and explosion suppression system, an all-digital fire control system able to handle new ammunition types, and an improved turret with flat titanium/tungsten armour. The Leopard 2s were manufactured in eight batches between 1985 and 1992. All the older models were upgraded to 2A4 standard. Until 1994, Germany operated 2,125 2A4s (695 newly built and the rest modified older versions), while the Netherlands had an additional 445 tanks. The 2A4 was also license manufactured in Switzerland as the Panzer 87 "Leopard" or Pz 87. This version included Swiss-built 7.5 mm Mg 87 machine guns and communications equipment, and featured improved NBC protection system. Switzerland operated 380 Pz 87 tanks.

After 2000, Germany and the Netherlands found themselves with large stocks of tanks that they had no need for after the Cold War. These tanks were sold to NATO or friendly armies around the world. Among these were Austria, who received 114 vehicles, Canada (107), Chile (140), Denmark (51), Finland (139), Greece (183), Norway (52), Poland (128), Portugal (37), Singapore (96), Spain (108), Sweden (160), and Turkey (354) were among the buyers of the surplus tanks.[98]

Austrian Leopard 2A4 sights

The Pz 87WE (WertErhaltung) is a planned Swiss modification and upgrade of the Pz 87.[99] The modification significantly improves protection through the addition of the Leopard 2A6M's mine protection kit, thicker armour on the front glacis, and a turret equipped with a Swiss-developed armour package using titanium alloy. The turret roof armour is improved and the smoke grenade launchers redesigned. Further improvements enhance survivability and combat capability, such as a turret electric drive similar to the Leopard 2A5, a driver rear-view camera, an independent weapons station for the loader, and enhanced command and control systems. The fire control system is also upgraded, using the Carl Zeiss Optronics GmbH PERI-R17A2 fire control system. A remote weapons station containing a fully stabilized Mg 64 0.50 in (12.7 mm) machine gun is also fitted to the tank.

The Pz 87-140[100] is an experimental variant of the Swiss Pz 87 with a 140 mm gun and additional armour, which was later used on the newer production variants.

The Leopard 2A4CHL is the upgraded Chilean version of the Leopard 2A4 ordered by Chile in 2007. Upgrades include new electronics, sighting and information systems meant to elevate the Leopard 2A4's networking capability to be equal to that of the Leopard 2A6, a new suspension system and the upgrading of the tanks main gun to the L55 smoothbore cannon used on the Leopard 2A6. Other upgrades are remote weapon stations over the gunner and commander hatches fitted with the MG3 and HK GMG. The Leopard 2A4CHL also has improved roof and side turret armour and can be uplinked with Chile's battlefield control network.[citation needed]

Leopard 2A4 of the Bundesheer, with its powerplant on display

The Leopard 2A4M CAN is the upgraded Canadian version of the Leopard 2A4 acquired from the Royal Netherlands Army surplus. The Leopard 2A4M CAN is specially designed for the war in Afghanistan, based on experience gained by Leopard 2 operators. The first 20 were delivered in October 2010; of which just five were deployed to Afghanistan at the end of 2010 and operated until July 2011, when combat operations stopped.[101] Though originally planned to be up-gunned to the L55 for consistency with the 2A6M CAN, the longer barreled guns (optimized for tank-vs-tank warfare) were found to be less than ideal in Afghanistan, therefore it was decided to retain the L44. In addition, only small areas of slat armour were added, in contrast with the fully caged 2A6M CANs. The protection of the Leopard 2A4M CAN has been further augmented by the addition of applique armour resembling that found on the most recent Leopard 2A7+ variant, but modified to fit the turret configuration of the 2A4.[102] Of the remaining ex-Dutch Leopards, Canada will upgrade 13 for training use (9 A4's, 2 A4M's and 2 A6M's) and convert 18 to Armoured Engineering Vehicles (13 firm and 5 options). Canada has also purchased 15 2A4s from Germany as Logistic Stock Vehicles (for spare parts), and in February 2011 bought 12 2A4s/Pz 87 from the Swiss to be converted to "support vehicles" (likely Armoured Recovery Vehicles).

The Leopard 2NG (Next Generation) is a privately funded Turkish upgrade by Aselsan that includes the application of modular composite armour (AMAP), upgraded optics, completely overhauled turret mechanics and a new fire control system on the work since 1995 and to be delivered by late 2011, which is intended to be used on the new Altay MBT. It was developed without an order of the Turkish Army, but might meet the requirements for the modernization of the Turkish Leopard 2A4s.[103] The old powerpack and the L/44 gun barrel are kept, but the combat weight is increased to 65 tonnes.[103] According to Turkish news sources, Finland was interested in getting the Turkish upgrade package to modernize their fleet of Leopard 2A4s. However, in 2015 Finland purchased 120 2A6 vehicles from the Netherlands.[104][105]

Leopard 2A5[edit]

"Leopard 2 Improved" was a prototype-series for enhancing the A4, introducing a wedge-shaped, spaced add-on armour to the turret front and the frontal area of the sides. These spaced armour modules defeat a hollow charge prior to reaching the base armour, and causes kinetic-energy penetrators to change direction, eroding them in the process; it does not form a shot-trap, since it does not deflect the penetrators outwards to hit the hull or turret ring. The gun mantlet was redesigned to accept the new armour.

A (Strv 122) of the Swedish army

The Leopard 2 Imp was then developed into the A5. There were also some improvements in the main armour composition. The interior received spall liners to reduce fragments if the armour is penetrated. The frontal "heavy" third of the side skirts was replaced with a stronger type. The commander's sight was moved to a new position behind the hatch and it received an independent thermal channel. The gunner's sight was moved to the turret roof as opposed to the cavity in the front armour in previous models. A heavier sliding driver's hatch was fitted. Turret controls went all-electric, increasing reliability and crew safety, as well as weight savings. The gun braking system was improved to prepare for the later mounting of the new L55 gun tube and to enable firing of more powerful ammunition, such as the DM-53 APFSDS. The A5 entered service in German tank battalions in mid-1998.

The Leopard 2(S) is a Swedish Army variant of the Leopard 2 Imp, which has received the local designation Stridsvagn 122. It is based on what was then called "Leopard 2 Improved" and features increased armour on the turret top and front hull, and improved command, control and fire control systems. Externally, the vehicle can be distinguished from the Leopard 2A5 by the French GALIX smoke dispensers, different storage bins, and the much thicker crew hatches.[77] The Strv 122B, a variant equipped with modular AMAP composite armour from IBD Deisenroth, has increased 360° protection against threats like EFPs, RPGs and IEDs.[106] The width of exactly 4 metres (13 ft) has been kept, while the weight increases by only 350 kilograms (770 lb).[106]

The Leopard 2A5 DK is a variant of the Leopard 2A5 similar to the Leopard 2A6 with some small modifications, used by the Danish Army.

Leopard 2A6[edit]

German Leopard 2A6M with turret reversed

The Leopard 2A6 includes the addition of the Rheinmetall 120 mm L55 smoothbore gun and other changes. All German tank battalions of the "crisis intervention forces" are equipped with the A6. Canada purchased 20 Leopard 2A6s from the Netherlands. These were delivered in 2007.[107] Portugal also purchased 37 Leopard 2A6 from the Dutch in 2007, with delivery in 2008. In January 2014, Finland purchased 100 L2A6s, as well as munitions, simulators, and a ten-year supply of reserve parts from the Netherlands. The tanks are being delivered in batches between 2015-2019.[108]

The Leopard 2A6M is a version of the 2A6 with enhanced mine protection under the chassis, and internal enhancements to improve crew survivability.[109] Canada has borrowed 20 A6Ms from Germany for deployment to Afghanistan in summer 2007. The Leopard 2 Hel is a derivative of the 2A6 that was ordered by the Greek Army in 2003 - the "Hel" stands for "Hellenic". The 170 tanks were to be delivered between 2006 and 2009. A total of 140 will be built in Greece by ELBO, which delivered the first units in late 2006.[110]

Hellenic Army Leopard 2A6HEL in the streets of Athens

The Leopard 2A6M CAN is a Canadian variant of the Leopard 2A6M. Significant modifications include distinctive black boxes mounted on the rear of the turret bustle,[111] and stand-off slat armour.[112] The first tanks configured in this variant were 20 loaned from the German Bundeswehr in an effort to increase firepower and protection given to Canadian troops operating in the south of Afghanistan. The loaned tanks are expected to retain their German MG3 machine guns, the ex-Dutch tanks are also expected to retain their FN MAG machine guns due to commonality with Canadian stocks.[113] Due to the loaned status of the first 20 tanks, the air conditioning unit originally could not be installed as only minimal changes could be made (the crew wore cooling vests instead, and the turret's electric drive generates less heat than the hydraulic drive of the older Leopard C2). The loaned German tanks will be kept by the Canadian Forces and may be further upgraded, while ex-Dutch Leopard 2A6s were modified to German Leopard 2A6M specifications and used as restitution for the loaned tanks.[114] Canadian Leopard 2s in Afghanistan were later fitted with air conditioning units and Saab's Barracuda camouflage mats, which also serve to reduce solar loading by 50 percent.[86]

The Leopard 2E is a derivative of the 2A6, with greater armour protection,[115] developed under a program of co-production between the defence industries of Spain and Germany. The program was developed within the frame of collaboration decided in 1995 between the Defence Ministries of both countries, in which also was included the cession of use by a period of five years of 108 Leopard 2A4 from the German Army to the Spanish Army. However, this cession was extended up to 2016, and after that those tanks will be the sole property of the Spanish Army, as has been made public on 24 January 2006, then having been paid a total of 15,124,014 euros in ten yearly installments, giving the Spanish co-ownership from 2006. In 1998, the Spanish government agreed to contract 219 tanks of the Leopard 2E line, 16 recovery tanks Leopard 2ER (Bufalo) and 4 training vehicles. They chose Santa Bárbara Sistemas as the main contractor. The program, with a budget of 1,939.4 million Euros, also includes the integrated logistical support, training courses for crew instructors and maintenance engineers and driving, turret, maintenance, aiming and shooting simulators. Deliveries of the first batch began in 2004 and should complete in 2008.

Leopard 2 PSO[edit]

Leopard 2PSO at Eurosatory 2006

The new Leopard 2 PSO (Peace Support Operations) variant is designed specially for urban warfare, which had been encountered in peacekeeping operations with increasing frequency. Therefore, the Leopard 2 PSO is equipped with more effective all-around protection, a secondary weapons station, improved reconnaissance ability, a bulldozer blade, a shorter gun barrel (for maneuvering on urban streets at the expense of fire range), non-lethal armament, close-range surveillance ability (through camera systems), a searchlight and further changes to improve its perseverance and mobility in a built-up non-wide open area. These features are not too dissimilar to the Tank Urban Survival Kit for the American M1A2 Abrams.

Leopard 2A7[edit]

The Leopard 2A7 is fundamentally different from the KMW variant 2A7+ and is not optimized for combat in urban terrain. A total of 20 vehicles are provided for converting. It involves former Dutch A6NL models returned by Canada to Germany. The original upgrade to A6M has been extended in coordination with Canada and includes an air-conditioning system, a Steyr M12 TCA (turbocharged, aftercooled) auxiliary power unit, the Barracuda camouflage system with heat transfer system, a field trial proven combat management and information system (IFIS; Integriertes Führungs- und Informationssystem), onboard network optimization with ultracapacitors in the chassis and turret, a SOTAS IP digital intercom system, a renewal of the fire suppression system in the crew compartment, and the retrofitting of Attica thermal imaging module in the commander optics. The weapon system is adapted for firing HE ammunition. It is also fitted for, but not with, additional passive side protection armour. The first Leopard 2A7 was handed over to the German Army in Munich on 10 December 2014. A total of 14 vehicles for Tank Battalion 203, four more go to the Armoured Corps Training Centre and one vehicle at the Technical School for Land Systems and School for Technology of the Army. The last Tank remains as a reference vehicle at KMW.[116]

Leopard 2A7+[edit]

Leopard 2A7+ as seen on the Eurosatory

The Leopard 2A7+ was first shown to the public during the Eurosatory 2010, featuring the label "Developed by KMW - tested and qualified by German MoD". The Leopard 2A7+ has been tested by the Bundeswehr under the name UrbOb (urban operations).

The Leopard 2A7+ is designed to operate both in low intensity and high intensity conflicts.[117] The tank's protection has been increased by modular armour; the frontal protection has been improved with a dual-kit on the turret and hull front, while 360° protection against RPGs and mine protection increase the survivability of the tank in urban operations.[117] It can fire programmable HE munitions and the turret mounted MG3 has been replaced with a stabilized FLW 200 remotely controlled weapon station. The mobility, sustainability and situational awareness have also been improved.[117]

Leopard 2-140[edit]

As the 1990s began, Rheinmetall began developing a 140 mm smoothbore cannon as a future tank cannon. This was intended to counter new developments in Soviet-bloc armoured fighting vehicles, most especially persistent rumours that the next-generation Soviet main battle tank would be armed with either a 135 mm or 152 mm cannon. This program was contemplated as the third stage in the KWS program of modernizing Leopard 2 tanks. KWS I was the replacement of the L44 120 mm cannon with the 55-calibre model, KWS II was a modernization program that became the Leopard 2A5, and KWS III was the development of a new turret including a 140 mm smoothbore weapon system and an automatic loader, which would have resulted in the reduction of the crew to three soldiers. The final project design contained a lateral loading mechanism and had the main gun moved in the left turret side. Ammunition load for the main gun was 32 rounds, which were stored in a large ammunition bunker, covering the full turret rear. Moving the ammunition out of the crew's compartment would have resulted in a higher survivability in case of a penetration. The planned protection level was to be equal to the Leopard 2A5 or better. Command and control of the tank was supposed to be improved by the introduction of the ISIS system in its latest version. The KWS III was not adopted then, but development continued on the 140 mm weapon system, with Rheinmetall coordinating with Royal Ordnance from the UK and GIAT from France. To test out the weapon's capabilities, the 140 mm gun was mounted to a Leopard 2. The tank was not equipped with the new turret armour of the KWS III improvement program, nor with an automatic loader, and it also still had the electro-hydraulic turret drive. To cope with the extra weight of the main gun, counterweights were added to the turret rear. The tests were partially successful, with the gun showing superior penetration power, but also some difficulties with the handling.[118]

Engineering and driver training tanks[edit]

BPz3 "Büffel", German Army
Bergepanzer BPz3 Büffel (Gr. Buffalo)
The BPz3 armoured recovery vehicle includes both a bulldozer and a crane with integral winch, allowing it to approach damaged vehicles, even over rough and fought-over terrain, and tow them to safety. It is equipped with a machine gun for local self-defence, a smoke grenade launcher, and NBC protection. Like the tank, it is powered by a 1,500 PS (1,479 hp, 1,103 kW) diesel engine. In service with Germany (where it is also designated Büffel or Bergepanzer 3 for Salvage Tank 3), the Netherlands (who co-developed it and call it Buffel), Austria, Canada, Greece, Singapore, Spain (where it is called Leopard 2ER Buffalo), Sweden (in modified form as the Bgbv 120), and Switzerland (BPz3).
Panzerschnellbrücke 2
This vehicle, created by MAN Mobile Bridges GmbH, is an armoured vehicle-launched bridge developed from the Leopard 2 tank chassis. It is designed to carry a folding mobile bridge, which it can "launch" across a river. Once emplaced, the bridge is sturdy enough to support most vehicles, even Leopard tanks. When the crossing is complete, the bridge-layer simply hooks up to the bridge and re-stows it.
Panzerschnellbrücke Leguan on Leopard 2 chassis, demoed by the German Army
Panzerschnellbrücke Leguan
This modular system combines a bridge module created by MAN Mobile Bridges GmbH with a tank chassis. The Bundeswehr is testing the Leguan on Leopard 2 chassis.
Pionierpanzer 3 Kodiak
A combat engineering vehicle conversion of the Leopard 2, the Kodiak is used by Swiss Army (SKodiak), and is on order for the Dutch army and Swedish army.[119] While equipped with a bulldozer, excavator, and dual capstan winches, the Pionierpanzer 3 has no turret instead, a Remote Weapon Station is fitted. It rides on the Leopard 2 chassis with a built-up forward superstructure. The vehicle is used primarily for the clearance of obstacles (including minefields). The Dutch version will have additional bomblet protection for the crew compartments. Spain may procure 24 examples for the Spanish Army from converted Leopard 2A4 hulls. One vehicle has been trialled in Spain.[120]
Driver Training Tank (Fahrschulpanzer)
The Leopard 2 Driver Training Tank, as the name implies, is a non-combatant Leopard 2 for instructing soldiers in the finer points of handling the tank. The turret is supplanted by a weighted and fixed observation cab with forward and side-facing windows and a dummy gun. The instructor rides in this cab, with override controls for critical systems, and space is provided for two other students to observe.
Leopard 2R
Heavy mine breaching vehicle developed by Patria for the Finnish Army, based on the Leopard 2A4. Ten vehicles were converted. The vehicles are equipped with a mine-plough or a dozer blade, and an automated marking system.[121][122]
Leopard 2L
Armoured vehicle-launched bridge developed by KMW and Patria for the Finnish Army. Ten Finnish 2A4 tanks were re-built to carry the LEGUAN bridge.[121][122]
WISENT 2
Multi-purpose, Leopard 2 based Armoured Support Vehicle developed by Flensburger Fahrzeugbau. The vehicle's modular design allows it to be converted quickly from an Armoured Recovery Vehicle (ARV) to an Armoured Engineer Vehicle (AEV) in less than five hours.[123] Orders placed by Canada, Qatar, UAE & Saudi Arabia.

Leopard 2 SPAAG[edit]

Finland has also modernized its Marksman SPAAG vehicles, and replaced the chassis with a Leopard 2A4 chassis.[124]

Technical data[edit]

Technical Data[125]
Description Leopard 2A4 Leopard 2A5 Leopard 2A6/A6M
Crew: 4
Engine: MTU-12-cylinder-Diesel engine MB 873-Ka 501, with two exhaust turbochargers
Capacity: 47,600 cm3, RPM: 2,600/min
Power output: 1,500 PS (1,479 hp, 1,103 kW)
Transmission: Hydro-mechanical control, reversing and steering gear HSWL 354 with combined hydrodynamic-mechanical service brake, 4 forward, 2 reverse
Suspension system: Torsion bar spring mounted support roller drive with hydraulic dampers
Length
Turret forward:
9,670 mm 10,970 mm
Width: 3,700 mm 3,760 mm
Height: 2,790 mm 3,030 mm
Ground clearance: 540 mm
Wading depth without preparation: 1,200 mm
Wading depth with snorkel: 4,000 mm
Trench passability: 3,000 mm
Climbing ability: 1,100 mm
Empty weight: 52 t 57.3 t 57.6 t
A6M 60.2 t
Combat weight: 55.15 t 59.5 t A6 59.9 t (maximum mass; 61.7 t),
A6M 62.5 t
Maximum speed: 71 km/h; backwards 31 km/h
Fuel capacity: 1,160 liters (limited to 900 liters when not in battle)
Fuel consumption and operating range:

Road: ca. 340 l/100 km, ca. 340 km
Terrain: ca. 530 l/100 km, ca. 220 km
Average: ca. 410 l/100 km, ca. 280 km
Static test: 12,5 l/h, 72–93 hours (with 900–1,160 liters capacity)

Rotation time (360°): 10 seconds
Armament: Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore gun L/44 and 2 machine guns Rheinmetall 120 mm smoothbore gun L/55 and 2 machine guns
Turret weight: 16 t 21 t
Turret rotation time: 360° in 9 seconds (electric)

Operators[edit]

Leopard 2 operators as of April 2014 (former operators in red)

Current operators[edit]

  •  Austria: The Austrian Army acquired 114 Leopard 2A4s from surplus Dutch stocks plus one turret.
  •  Canada: The Canadian Army acquired 80 Leopard 2A4 and 20 Leopard 2A6 tanks from the Netherlands in 2007. Twenty Leopard 2A6M were borrowed from the German Army beginning in mid-2007 to support the Canadian deployment in Afghanistan,[107] with the first tank handed over after upgrading by KMW on August 2, 2007,[109][126] and arriving in Afghanistan on August 16, 2007.[111] Two Bergepanzer 3 Büffel were purchased from the German Army for use with the Canadian deployment in Afghanistan.[127] An additional fifteen Leopard 2A4 tanks were purchased from the German Army as Logistic Supply Vehicles (for spare parts).[128] A further 12 surplus Pz 87 were purchased from Switzerland in 2011 for conversion to armoured recovery vehicles.[129] The Canadian Army can field 59 Leopard 2 tanks (31 2A4+, 12 2A4M CAN and 16 2A6M CAN), as of July 2015, to be supported by 13 AEVs, 7 ABLV's and 14 ARVs (conversion of which is ongoing).[130]
  •  Chile: The Chilean Army acquired 132 Leopard 2A4s upgraded to the Leopard 2A4CHL standard (plus 8 to be used as spares) from German stocks in 2007.[131] In April 2013, Chile began negotiations to purchase 100 Leopard 2A5 tanks from surplus German stocks, as well as modernization kits to upgrade all its current Leopard 2A4s up to A5 standard.[132]
  •  Denmark: The Royal Danish Army operates 57 Leopard 2A5DK (equal to Leopard 2A6 minus the L55 gun) and 6 Leopard 2A4 (for spares) from German stocks.[133]
  •  Finland: The Finnish Army originally bought 124 2A4s from surplus German stocks in 2003.[134] Of these, 12 were converted into bridge-laying and combat engineering tanks and 12 were disassembled for use as spares, leaving 100 operational tanks.[135][136] In 2009, the Finnish Army bought 15 more German surplus Leopard 2A4s for spare parts of existing fleet, bringing the total number of Finnish Leopard 2A4 tanks to 139.[137] On 16 January 2014, Finland agreed with the Netherlands to purchase 100 used Leopard 2A6NL tanks for approximately €200 million.[138] In 2015, most of the of the Leopard 2A4s were moved into reserve, with some converted into Marksman AA vehicles and mine clearing tanks.[139]
  •  Germany: The German Army operated about 2,350 Leopard 2s of all versions. To reduce maintenance costs, the German military has sold, donated or scrapped 90% of its inventory. Approximately 250 Leopard 2 tanks are in service as of March 2015.[140]This number will be increased to 328 tanks, with an upgrade of A4 variant from storage, to A6 variant.[141]
  •  Greece: The Hellenic Army operates 353 Leopard 2s (183 ex-German 2A4s and 170 newly built Leopard 2A6 HEL vehicles)[citation needed]
  •  Indonesia: Indonesia sought and obtained approval for the purchase of 103 used Leopard 2A4 tanks from Bundeswehr stocks, along with 4 Büffel ARV (Bergepanzer), 3 Leguan AVLB bridge-laying tanks (Brückenlegepanzer) and 3 Kodiak AEV (Pionierpanzer). About 63 of Leopard 2A4 will be upgraded to Revolution standard by Rheinmetall. 50 Marder 1A3 infantry fighting vehicles would also be acquired as part of the deal.[142] In September 2013, the Indonesian Army (TNI-AD or Tentara Nasional Indonesia - Angkatan Darat) received the first two Leopard 2A4 tanks and 2 Marder 1A3 infantry fighting vehicles. The used Leopard 2s have been modified to suit Indonesia's tropical climate, therefore the Tanks are internally named Leopard 2RI (RI referring to "Republic of Indonesia")[143]
  •  Netherlands: The Royal Netherlands Army has operated 445 Leopard 2s. 330 of these were updated to 2A5 standard in 1993, and later, 188 of these were converted to 2A6 standard. Many Leopard 2s were sold after the end of the Cold War. On 8 April 2011, the Dutch Ministry of Defense announced that the last remaining tank division will be dissolved and the remaining Leopard tanks sold due to large budget cuts.[144] On 18 May 2011, the last tank fired the final shot at the Bergen-Hohne Training Area. They were due to be delivered to the Indonesian Army, which planned to purchase the entire Dutch stock of Leopard 2A6s.[145] However, the deal was scrapped after opposition from the Dutch Parliament.[146] The Dutch Army offered its formerly operated Leopard 2A6s for comparative tests to be conducted by the Peruvian Army for possible acquisition.[147] By September 2013, the Leopard 2A6 had been disqualified by Peru due to logistical complexities.[148] The Leopard 2s were eventually sold to Finland in a deal signed in January 2014 for €200 million with deliveries to start from 2015 to 2019.[149] On 15 September 2015, the Dutch government published that the army will have 16 tanks put out of storage and 18 are to be leased from Germany for a new tank squadron by 2016 as part of a German armoured battalion; one is preserved at the new military museum.[150]
  •  Norway: The Norwegian Army operates 52 ex-Dutch Leopard 2A4s, designated A4NO. The Norwegian Leopards will be upgraded to 2A5 standard.[citation needed]
  •  Poland: The Polish Land Forces operate 128 Leopard 2A4s and ordered 14 more Leopard 2A4s and 105 Leopard 2A5s as of March 2013. The Polish Leopard 2 tanks serve with the 10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade based in Świętoszów. By November 2013, the Polish Defense Ministry had acquired 119 tanks (105 Leopard 2A5s and 14 2A4s) from the German Army. All acquired Leopard 2A4 tanks are to be upgraded to Leopard 2PL standard.[151] The first 11 Leopard 2A5s arrived with the 34th Armoured Cavalry Brigade based in Żagań on 16 May 2014.[152]
  •  Portugal: The Portuguese Army has 37 ex-Dutch Leopard 2A6s in service.
  •  Qatar: Qatar signed a contract for 62 Leopard 2A7+ tanks in April 2013.[153] Deliveries are to commence in late 2014 or early 2015[154] and be completed in 2018.[155] The first units were displayed at Qatar's annual national day parade on 18 December 2015.[156]
  •  Singapore: The Singapore Army acquired 96 ex-German Leopard 2A4s, including 30 spare tanks. A number were upgraded with additional AMAP composite armour in 2010 by IBD Deisenroth and ST Kinetics and renamed Leopard 2SG in October 2010. By 2013, it was reported that Singapore had taken delivery of 182 Leopard 2A4s.[157]
  •  Spain: The Spanish Army operates 327 Leopard 2s (108 ex-German Leopard 2A4s and 219 new-built Leopard 2A6+ (Leopard 2E). Spain offered its Leopard 2A4 for comparative tests to be conducted by the Peruvian Army for possible acquisition. By September 2013, the Leopard 2A4 had been disqualified by Peru due to logistical complexities.[148]
  •  Sweden: The Swedish Army operates 120 Leopard 2(S) (local designation Strv 122) and has operated 160 leased ex-German Leopard 2A4s (Strv 121). Only the Strv 122s are still in active service.[158]
  •   Switzerland: The Swiss Army purchased 380 2A4s designated Pz 87, for Panzer 87. 35 of these were bought from Germany while the remaining ones were license manufactured locally. Beginning in 2006, 134 of these tanks have been modernized, 42 were sold back to Rheinmetall, and 12 were turned into de-mining and engineer vehicles. The remaining tanks are in storage.[citation needed]
  •  Turkey: The Turkish Army received 354 Leopard 2A4s.[98]

Future and pending operators[edit]

  •  Saudi Arabia: The Saudi Arabian government is seeking to buy Leopard 2A7s (total of 600-800 desired). In early July 2011, the German press reported that the Bundessicherheitsrat (Federal Security Council) approved the sale by KMW of more than 200 units of the 2A7+ tanks to Saudi Arabia.[159][160] This news was met with criticism both inside and outside of Germany, because of the autocratic nature of the Saudi Arabian state and its involvement in repressing popular protests in the neighboring country of Bahrain.[161] Criticism also came from within the Chancellor Angela Merkel's government coalition,[162] and, later from within KMW.[163] In June 2012, reports surfaced that Saudi Arabia had raised the number of tanks it is interested in to 600-800. So far a contract has not been finalized, and the issue is debated both in the German public and in Germany's federal parliament.[164] On 13 April 2014, a German newspaper reported that the deal for Leopard 2 tanks for Saudi Arabia was likely to be cancelled due to opposition from the Social Democrat Economy Minister.[165]
  •  Bulgaria: The Bulgarian Ministry of Defence has been interested in purchasing a minimum of 24 units of the Leopard 2A6 variant. The deal has received support from a military budget increase to 2.0% of GDP by 2016 in the new Bulgarian budget, and a military pledge to spend €2.2 billion on new armaments for the Bulgarian military.[166]

Tanks of comparable role, performance and era[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ In King of the Killing Zone Orr Kelly reported that after knocking on one Leopard 2AV prototype, a hollow sound was discovered by Colonel Robert J. Sunell. When confronting the German Colonel Kettman, he admitted that PT19 (the mobility test-bed) was not fitted with any special armour. Orr Kelly claims that the Leopard 2AV would have weighed 64 short tons instead of the 59.6 short tons and as a result the performance data of the mobility was invalidated. However the weight value claimed by Orr Kelly does not match the actual weight of a Leopard 2 fitted with special armour nor does it match the weight mentioned in US documents from the evaluation.
Bibliography
  • Jerchel, Michael; Schnellbacher, Uwe (1998). Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank 1979–1998. London: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-691-0. OCLC 40544103. 
  • Scheibert, Michael (1996). Leopard 2 A5 Euro-Leopard (in German). Wölfersheim-Berstadt: Pudzun-Pallas-Verlag GmbH. ISBN 3-7909-0576-3. 
  • Scheibert, Michael; Schneider, Wolfgang (1986). Leopard 2 Ein Spitzenprodukt deutscher Wehrtechnik (in German). Dorheim: Pudzun-Pallas-Verlag GmbH. ISBN 3-7909-0265-9. 
  • Krapke, Paul W. (June 2004). Leopard 2 sein Werden und seine Leistung (in German). Books on Demand. ISBN 978-3833414251. 
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Gelbart, Marsh (1996). Tanks: main battle and light tanks. Brassey's UK Ltd. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-1-85753-168-8. OCLC 36171829. 
  2. ^ "Canada Acquires 120 Leopard 2 Tanks from German, Dutch Surplus". Defense update. Apr 16, 2007. 
  3. ^ Foss, Christopher F (2002), Jane’s Tanks and Combat Vehicles Recognition Guide, New York: HarperCollins, p. 32 .
  4. ^ Jerchel, p. 3
  5. ^ Krapke, p. 19
  6. ^ a b Krapke, p. 20
  7. ^ a b Krapke, p. 22
  8. ^ Jerchel, p. 5
  9. ^ a b c d Jerchel, p. 6
  10. ^ Hilmes, Rolf (1983). Kampfpanzer Entwicklungen der Nachkriegszeit (in German). Soldat Und Technik. p. 27. ISBN 9783524890012. 
  11. ^ a b Krapke, p. 27
  12. ^ Jerchel, p. 7
  13. ^ a b Krapke, p. 30
  14. ^ a b c Krapke, Paul-Werner (1984). Das Waffensystem Kampfpanzer Leopard 2 (in German). Allgemeine schweizerische Militärzeitschrift. 
  15. ^ Krapke, p. 32
  16. ^ Jerchel, p. 8
  17. ^ a b Krapke, p. 33
  18. ^ a b Krapke, p. 34
  19. ^ Krapke, p. 37 and 38
  20. ^ a b c d e f Staats, Elmer B. (28 November 1977). Department Of Defense Consideration Of West Germany's Leopard As The Army's New Main Battle Tank. United States: U.S. Government Accountability Office. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Krapke, p. 35
  22. ^ a b c d e "Orientalische Sitten". Der Spiegel. 14 March 1977. Retrieved 16 December 2015. 
  23. ^ Krapke, p. 31
  24. ^ Krapke, p. 41
  25. ^ Krapke, p. 54 and 55
  26. ^ a b Krapke, p. 38
  27. ^ Jerchel, p. 10 and 11
  28. ^ Krapke, p. 39
  29. ^ Jerchel, p. 20 and 21
  30. ^ a b c d Hilmes, Rolf (30 November 2007). Kampfpanzer heute und morgen: Konzepte - Systeme - Technologien (in German). Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 68. ISBN 978-3613027930. 
  31. ^ a b c Hilmes, Rolf (30 November 2007). Kampfpanzer heute und morgen: Konzepte - Systeme - Technologien (in German). Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 70. ISBN 978-3613027930. 
  32. ^ Hilmes, Rolf (30 November 2007). Kampfpanzer heute und morgen: Konzepte - Systeme - Technologien (in German). Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 69. ISBN 978-3613027930. 
  33. ^ Hilmes, Rolf (30 November 2007). Kampfpanzer heute und morgen: Konzepte - Systeme - Technologien (in German). Germany: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 71. ISBN 978-3613027930. 
  34. ^ Germany, France to jointly develop 'Leopard 3' tank - DeutscheWelle.de, 22 May 2015
  35. ^ Jerchel, p. 36
  36. ^ Jerchel, p. 38
  37. ^ Krauss-Maffei Wegmann
  38. ^ a b Jerchel, p. 40
  39. ^ "Greece, Krauss-Maffei Wegmann sign procurement contract for 170 Leopard 2 HEL MBTs". www.defense-aerospace.com. 20 March 2003. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  40. ^ "Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank, Germany". Army-Technology.com. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  41. ^ "Greece Signs Contracts for 183 Leopard 2s, 150 Leopard 1s". Defense Industry Daily. 5 August 2005. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  42. ^ Ministerie van defensie - Nieuws
  43. ^ "Germany to Sell 298 Leopard 2 Tanks to Turkey". www.defenseindustrydaily.com. 11 November 2005. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  44. ^ "Asian Tiger Ordering Leopards". www.defenseindustrydaily.com. 12 December 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
  45. ^ Hardy, James (12 November 2013). "Rheinmetall confirms Indonesian Leopard 2 contract". Jane's IHS. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  46. ^ Foss, Christopher F. (16 June 2014). "Leopard migrates eastward". Jane's IHS. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  47. ^ Foss, Christopher F. (21 February 2015). "Leopard ready to prowl in Qatar". Jane's IHS. Retrieved 10 January 2016. 
  48. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (23 December 2015). "Qatar parades new equipment". Jane's IHS. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  49. ^ a b c "Desert Leopards: Germany Selling Heavy Armor to the Saudis?". www.defenseindustrydaily.com. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
  50. ^ "German tank sale to Saudi Arabia likely to be cancelled: newspaper". www.reuters.com. Reuters. 13 April 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
  51. ^ Ogorkiewicz, Richard (20 February 2015). Tanks: 100 years of evolution. Osprey Publishing. p. 185. ISBN 9781472806703. 
  52. ^ Acquisition of the ABRAMS Main Battle Tank (PDF). Department of Defence. p. 37. ISBN 0 642 80974 7. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  53. ^ "Kosovo: Schießerei am deutschen Kontrollpunkt". SPIEGEL ONLINE (in German). 1999-06-14. 
  54. ^ a b Lobitz, Frank (2009). Kampfpanzer Leopard 2. Entwicklung und Einsatz in der Bundeswehr (in German). Tankograd Publishing – Verlag Jochen Vollert. p. 229 et seq. ISBN 978-3-936519-08-2. 
  55. ^ Jerchel, p. 37
  56. ^ "Tanks for the Lesson: Leopards, too, for Canada". Defense Industry Daily. December 2006. Archived from the original on June 21, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  57. ^ Priestley, Stephen (2008-10-08). "In to Action - Canadian Leopard C2 tanks and the TLAV M113A3s in Combat". Canadian American Strategic Review. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  58. ^ Corbett, Brian (2007-09-19). "Canada's new main battle tank—Leopard 2" (PDF). The Maple Leaf. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  59. ^ "Germany gets a thank-you from Canadian IED survivor". Grand Prairie Daily Herald-Tribune. 2007-12-06. Retrieved 2010-10-27. 
  60. ^ Freeman, Alan (2007-12-08). "Tank hit by IED back in service: Hillier". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  61. ^ a b Priestley, Stephen (May 2007). "The Danish Army is Prepared to Deploy Tanks to Helmand Province". Canadian American Strategic Review. Retrieved 2009-01-09. 
  62. ^ "Danish tanks arrive in Afghanistan". NATO. 2008-11-28. Retrieved 2008-12-15. 
  63. ^ "LEOPARD 2 bewährt sich gegen IEDs" (in German). Europäische Sicherheit. January 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-07. 
  64. ^ Stephen, Priestley (January 2008). "Danish Leopard tanks in supporting action in Helmand Province: Can Open Government be measured by a Military Press Release?". Canadian American Strategic Review. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  65. ^ Lohse, Eckart (2008-03-16). "Leopardenjagd am Hindukusch" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. p. 6. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  66. ^ "Status over fredagens begivenheder - Afghanistan: Alle danske soldater er nu tilbage i deres respektive lejre i Helmand provinsen" (in Danish). Royal Danish Army. 2008-07-25. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  67. ^ http://www.bfbs.com/news/milestone-danes-afghanistan-64296.html
  68. ^ Foss, Christopher F. (2005). Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005-2006. Jane's IHS. p. 36. ISBN 978-0710626868. 
  69. ^ a b Krapke, Paul-Werner (1984). Das Waffensystem Kampfpanzer Leopard 2 (in German). Allgemeine schweizerische Militärzeitschrift ASMZ Nr. 5/1984. p. 240. 
  70. ^ Hilmes, Rolf (1983). Kampfpanzer Entwicklungen der Nachkriegszeit (in German). Report Verlag GmbH. p. 76. 
  71. ^ a b c Krapke, Paul-Werner (2004). Leopard 2 sein Werden und seine Leistung (in German). Books on Demand GmbH. p. 60. ISBN 978-3833414251. 
  72. ^ a b Krapke, Paul-Werner (2004). Leopard 2 sein Werden und seine Leistung. Books on Demand GmbH. p. 59. ISBN 978-3833414251. 
  73. ^ Chieftain tanks: engine problems and improvements; main battle tank armour development (Burlington) proposed collaboration with Germany (DEFE 13/1369). National Archives. 10 March 1970. 
  74. ^ Bischofberger, Walter (1980). Panzerwaffen : Feuerkraft und Panzerung im Vergleich (in German). Allgemeine schweizerische Militärzeitschrift ASMZ Nr. 12/1980. p. 697. 
  75. ^ a b "waffenHQ.de: Leopard 2" (in German). Retrieved 2012-01-03. 
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Main Battle Tank – Leopard 2". Fabio Prado. 2009-12-12. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  77. ^ a b Swedish Defence Materiel Administration: Leopard 2 - Stridsvagn 122 (Swedish)
  78. ^ Lobitz, Frank (2009-06-20). Kampfpanzer LEOPARD 2 - Entwicklung und Einsatz in der Bundeswehr (in German). p. 124. ISBN 978-3936519082. 
  79. ^ Scheibert, Michael (1996). Leopard 2 A5 - Euro-Leopard 2. Podzun-Pallas-Verlag GmbH. p. 60. ISBN 3-7909-0576-3. 
  80. ^ a b c Van Oosbree, Gerard (1998). ARMOR Magazine article: Germany’s Big Guns (PDF). U.S. Army Armor Center. p. 29. 
  81. ^ a b Foss, Christopher F. (2005). Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005-2006. Jane's IHS. p. 33. ISBN 978-0710626868. 
  82. ^ "Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank". Gary's Combat Vehicle Reference Guide. 14 February 2008. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  83. ^ "Germany receives first Leopard 2A7 MBT". janes.com. 2014-12-10. Retrieved 2015-05-15. 
  84. ^ LEOPARD 2A7. Y – DAS MAGAZIN DER BUNDESWEHR (German Bundeswehr magazine). March 2015. p. 63. 
  85. ^ Hilmes, Rolf (30 November 2007). Kampfpanzer Heute und Morgen (in German). Motorbuch Verlag. p. 217. ISBN 978-3613027930. 
  86. ^ a b "Canadian Forces Armour — Leopard 2A6M CAN Main Battle Tank". Canadian American Strategic Review. Retrieved 2010-05-11. 
  87. ^ "RUAG introduces a new Leopard 2 A4 armor upgrade at IAV 2013 International Armoured Vehicles". www.armyrecognition.com. 2013-02-06. Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  88. ^ "Battle tank Leopard 2/Kampfpanzer Leopard 2". Fas.org. June 18, 1999. Retrieved 2012-01-03. 
  89. ^ Jane's Ammunition Handbook (subscription), "120 mm DM 33A1 and DM 43A1 APFSDS-T rounds (Germany)".[dead link] Retrieved 11 November 2008.
  90. ^ Worldwide Equipment Guide (WEG), volume 1: ground systems. US ARMY TRADOC G-2, December 2011.
  91. ^ Jerchel, Michael; Uwe Schnellbacher (1998). Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank 1979–1998. Oxford, United Kingdom: Osprey. p. 22. ISBN 1-85532-691-4. 
  92. ^ "Rheinmetall 120 mm L44 smoothbore gun (Germany)". Jane's Armour & Artillery). Retrieved 2008-11-07. [dead link]
  93. ^ a b Foss, Christopher F (2006). Jane's Tank Recognition Guide, 4th Edition. Hammersmith, London: HarperCollins Publishers. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-00-718326-5. 
  94. ^ "Lahat Leopard 2 Upgrade". Germany: Rheinmetall Defence AG. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
  95. ^ a b c d e "Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank, Germany". ArmyTechnology.com. Retrieved 2010-05-13. 
  96. ^ Front Cover Richard Holmes, Hew Strachan, Chris Bellamy (2001). The Oxford companion to military history. Oxford University Press. pp. 493, 902. Retrieved 4 April 2011. 
  97. ^ Jerchel, Michael; Schnellbacher, Uwe (1998). Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank 1979–1998. New York, United States of America: Osprey. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-1-85532-691-0. 
  98. ^ a b "Sipri: Trade Registers". sipri.org. Retrieved 1 April 2015. 
  99. ^ Liess, Stefan (2007-07-22). "Leopard 2". Kampfpanzer.de. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  100. ^ "Pz 87-140 image". Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  101. ^ "Tanks for the Lesson: Leopards, too, for Canada". Retrieved 2010-10-12. 
  102. ^ "Background — Canadian Forces Upgraded Leopard 2A4M Tanks". Canadian-American Strategic Review. Feb 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  103. ^ a b Christopher Foss. "Upgraded Leopard 2 MBT set for firing trials". Jane's Information Group. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  104. ^ "Bakanın ağzından savunma ihalelerinde rüşvet kuşkusu". Radikal. 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2010-12-28. 
  105. ^ Bakanın ağzından savunma ihalelerinde rüşvet kuşkusu (2009-11-30). "Savunma İhalelerinde Rüşvet Skandalı 09 Kasım 2010 17:08". Aktifhaber.com. Retrieved 2010-12-28. 
  106. ^ a b "New MBT122B Evolution with Unprecedented Protection" (PDF). IBD Deisenroth Engineering. Retrieved 28 December 2010. 
  107. ^ a b "Backgrounder: Renewing the Canadian Armed Forces' Tank Capability". DND/CF. Retrieved 2008-01-10. 
  108. ^ "Finland in 200 million-euro used tank deal with the Netherlands". Yle. Retrieved 2014-01-16. 
  109. ^ a b Foss, Christopher F (2007-08-08). "Canada receives first upgraded Leopard 2A6M MBT". Jane's Defence Weekly 44 (32): 10. ISSN 0265-3818. OCLC 210556835. BL Shelfmark 4646.840000. 
  110. ^ "Leopard 2 HEL images and info". Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  111. ^ a b "The First of Twenty Loaned Leopard 2A6M CAN Arrive in Kandahar: A Glimpse of the CF's Future (With a Little Help From Our Friends)". Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from the original on 2008-04-18. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  112. ^ "CASR Background — CF Leased & Purchased Leopard 2 A6M / 2 A4 Tanks". Archived from the original on 2008-04-16. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  113. ^ "CASR Background — Leopard 2 A6M / 2 A4 Tanks for the Canadian Forces?". Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from the original on 2008-04-16. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  114. ^ "Letter of Interest: Tank Replacement Project". MERX Website - Government of Canada. 2008-03-19. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  115. ^ Candil, Antonio (1 February 2007). "The Spanish Leopard 2E: A Magnificent Tool". Military Technology (Mönch Editorial Group), p.66
  116. ^ "Germany receives first Leopard 2A7 MBT". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Retrieved 2014-12-22. 
  117. ^ a b c KMW Press release about the Leopard 2A7 +
  118. ^ Stefan Liess. "www.kampfpanzer.de". Retrieved 2010-12-28. [unreliable source?]
  119. ^ "Rheinmetall to supply Kodiak armoured engineer vehicles to Sweden and the Netherlands". Rheinmetall. 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 
  120. ^ Ejercito De Tierra, page 58, Antonio J. Candil Muñoz, Tankograd Publishing, 2010
  121. ^ a b "Finland improves mobility systems". Jane's Defence Weekly. 2007-10-01. Archived from the original on September 15, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-08. 
  122. ^ a b "Patria Land & Armament Heavy Mine Breaching Vehicle (Finland)". Jane's Military Vehicles and Logistics. 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-17. [dead link]
  123. ^ "ARV/AEV WISENT 2". Flensburger Fahrzeugbau. Retrieved 2014-12-31. 
  124. ^ Armeija ottaa vanhojen Marksman-vaunujen tykkitornit uuteen käyttöön. Helsingin Sanomat, 25 March 2015. Retrieved 2015-03-25.
  125. ^ Lobitz, Frank (2009). "Technical Data - Leopard 2 MBT". Leopard 2 Main Battle Tank Development and German Army Service. Germany Erlangen: Tankograd Publishing. p. 315. ISBN 978-3-936519-08-2. 
  126. ^ KMW delivers first LEOPARD 2 A6M to Canada.[dead link]
  127. ^ "Canadian Armed Forces Armour — Armoured Recovery Vehicle 3 (Büffel)". Archived from the original on 2008-04-14. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  128. ^ "Ottawa to buy old German tanks as spare parts for Afghan mission". CBC.ca. 2008-02-20. Retrieved 2008-02-20. 
  129. ^ "Sale of surplus Leopard 2 Battle Tanks to Canada". Confédération Suisse. 2011-10-02. Retrieved 2008-02-20. 
  130. ^ "Tanks for the Lesson: Leopards, too, for Canada". Defense Industry Daily. 
  131. ^ "Chile gets 140 leopards II". German Army. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  132. ^ Chile; Army negotiates Leopard 2 A5 buy - Dmilt.com, April 4, 2013
  133. ^ "Financial Report of the Danish Defense Ministry" (PDF) (in Danish). Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  134. ^ Main Battle Tanks >> 2003
  135. ^ Turun Sanomat: Pioneerien uudet ajoneuvot panevat vauhtia maavoimiin (21.9.2007)[dead link]
  136. ^ Puolustusvoimille uutta pioneerikalustoa, Etelä-Suomen Sanomat (20.9.2007)]
  137. ^ Main Battle Tanks >> 2009
  138. ^ "Suomi ostaa käytettyjä panssarivaunuja 200 miljoonalla eurolla.". (2014/01/16) Helsingin Sanomat newspaper
  139. ^ "Suomen uudet Leopard-tankit täydessä toiminnassa". (2015/08/5) Iltalehti newspaper
  140. ^ Troianovski, Anton, "Calls in Germany grow to reverse cuts to army", Wall Street Journal, 9 March 2015, p. A10.
  141. ^ [1]. April 18, 2015 Defence News
  142. ^ Nassauer, Otfried; Matthias Gebauer (7 May 2013). "Umstrittener Rüstungsdeal: Berlin genehmigt Verkauf von 164 Panzern nach Indonesien". Spiegel Online. Retrieved 10 May 2013. 
  143. ^ Indonesia takes delivery of first Leopard 2A4 tanks and Marder armoured vehicles from Germany - Armyrecognition.com, 25 September 2013
  144. ^ www.defensie.nl
  145. ^ dvhn.nl (Dutch)
  146. ^ "Indonesia Pulls Out of Dutch Tanks Deal". thejakartaglobe.com. Retrieved 4 July 2012. 
  147. ^ Peruvian Tank Contenders - Army-Technology.com, May 17, 2013
  148. ^ a b Peru; Future main battle tank projects lags on despite criticism - Dmilt.com, 2 September 2013
  149. ^ News Desk. "Finland is Buying Dutch Leopards for €200 Million". Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  150. ^ [2] - 925.nl, jan 13, 2015
  151. ^ Army of Poland plans to purchase 105 Leopard 2A5 and nine 2A4 main battle tanks from Germany - Armyrecognition.com, 3 November 2013
  152. ^ "Leopardy 2A5 są już w Żaganiu.". Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  153. ^ Qatar Orders 24 PzH 2000 Self-Propelled Howitzers and 62 Leopard 2 A7+ Main Battle Tanks - Deagel.com, April 18, 2013
  154. ^ Qatar; Army orders Leopard 2 PzH 2000 from Germany - Dmilt.com, April 22, 2013
  155. ^ Qatar; Rheinmetall awarded $635 Million for Leo-2A7, Pz-2000 support contract - Dmilt.com, 20 June 2013
  156. ^ Qatar parades new equipment
  157. ^ "DefenseNews.com: Singapore to buy refurbished Leopard tanks from Germany". Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  158. ^ "Stridsvagn Leopard 2" (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 2014-04-10. Retrieved 2014-09-22. Idag har de 160 äldre varianterna av Leopard 2 – Stridsvagn 121 – fasats ut och leasingkontraktet med Tyskland har lösts under 2011. 
  159. ^ "Milliardengeschäft: Deutsche Kampfpanzer nach Saudi-Arabien?". Focus.de (in German). 2011-07-03. 
  160. ^ "Germany Wants to Supply Battle Tanks to Saudi Arabia". Der Spiegel. 2011-07-04. 
  161. ^ Kundnani, Hans (2011-07-09). "Germany's contribution to the Arab spring: arms sales – Hans Kundnani". The Guardian (London). 
  162. ^ "Tank Exports to Saudi Arabian Signal German Policy Shift". Der Spiegel. 2011-10-14. 
  163. ^ "KMW-Miteigentümer gegen Panzerausfuhr nach Saudi-Arabien". Tagesschau.de (in German). 2012-06-20. 
  164. ^ "Desert Leopards: Germany Selling Heavy Armor to the Saudis?". DefenseIndustryDaily.com. 2012-06-26. 
  165. ^ German tank sale to Saudi Arabia likely to be cancelled: newspaper - Reuters.com, 13 April 2014
  166. ^ "2,2 милиарда евро даваме за танкове и самолети "Made in USA"" (in Bulgarian). 7plus7.net/. 2015-06-14. 

External links[edit]