Lepsius list of pyramids

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For a modern list of Egyptian pyramids see List of Egyptian pyramids
Members of the Prussian expedition to Egypt celebrate Frederick William IV's birthday on the summit of the Great Pyramid of Giza

The Lepsius list of pyramids is a list of sixty-seven Ancient Egyptian pyramids established in 1842–1843 by Karl Richard Lepsius (1810–1884), an Egyptologist and leader of the "Prussian expedition to Egypt" from 1842 until 1846.

The Lepsius list of pyramid is the first attempt at systematically listing all the Egyptian pyramids, and as such, is a pioneering effort of early modern Egyptology. The list was published together with the results of the expedition in Lepsius work Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien (1849–1859).

List[edit]

History[edit]

Karl Richard Lepsius

Following the success of the Franco-Tuscan Expedition to Egypt under the leadership of Jean-François Champollion, the Prussian scientists Alexander von Humboldt and Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and the minister of instruction Johann Eichhorn recommended to king Frederick William IV that an expedition be sent to Egypt. Karl Richard Lepsius, who had learned of Champollion's method to decipher the hieroglyphs and had met Ippolito Rosellini of the Franco-Tuscan Expedition, was chosen to lead it.[1] The main aim of the expedition was to explore and record the remains of the ancient Egyptian civilization as well as to gather materials for the Egyptian Museum of Berlin.

The Prussian expedition assembled in Alexandria in 1842 and quickly departed for Giza, which was reached in November that same year. Proceeding north to south, Lepsius' men then explored the pyramids field of Abusir, Saqqara, Dahshur and, in 1843, Hawara. Lepsius and its team stayed for 6 months in total at these locations as the Prussian expedition was the first study and record Old Kingdom material in depth.[1] In total, Lepsius and his men uncovered a total of 67 pyramids and 130 tombs.[1] The pyramids, dating from the Third Dynasty (c. 2686–2613 BCE) until the Thirteenth Dynasty (c. 1800–1650 BCE), were given roman numerals from north to south, starting from Abu Rawash in the north. Although a few of the structures reported by Lepsius are now known to have been mastabas and other monumental structures (highlighted on the list below in light gray), the Lepsius list of pyramids is still considered a pioneering achievement of modern Egyptology. Lepsius' numerals have remained the standard designation for some of the pyramids.

The results of the Prussian expedition to Egypt, comprising the list of pyramids, where published in the Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien.[2]

Pyramids[edit]

Lepsius Number Location Modern identification Image
I Abu Rawash Pyramid Lepsius I Lepsius I Pyramid.jpg
II Abu Rawash Pyramid of Djedefre Abu Rawash Pyramid.jpg
III Abu Rawash Pyramid complex of Djedefre, subsidiary pyramid
IV Giza Great Pyramid of Giza Kheops-Pyramid.jpg
V Giza North subsidiary pyramid of Khufu's, G-Ia Queen Pyramid of Hetepheres (G1a).jpg
VI Giza Middle subsidiary pyramid of Khufu's, G-Ib Meritetis-pyramide.jpg
VII Giza South subsidiary pyramid of Khufu's, G-Ic Queen Pyramid of Henutsen (G1c).jpg
VIII Giza Pyramid of Khafre Khephren 009.jpg
IX Giza Pyramid of Menkaure Cairo, Gizeh, Pyramid of Menkaure, Egypt, Oct 2005.jpg
X Giza West subsidiary pyramid of Menkaure's, G-IIIc Queen-Pyramid-G-III-c.jpg
XI Giza Middle subsidiary pyramid of Menkaure's, G-IIIb Queen-Pyramid-G-III-b.jpg
XII Giza East subsidiary pyramid of Menkaure's, G-IIIa MykerinosTop.jpg
XIII Zawyet el'Aryan Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan Vue3-grande-excavation.jpg
XIV Zawyet el'Aryan Layer Pyramid Khaba pyramid at Zawyet el'Aryan.jpg
XV Abu Gorab Sun temple of Nyuserre Ini Solar Temple of Niuserre.jpg
XVI Abusir Unidentified brick pyramid
XVII Abusir Sun temple of Userkaf
XVIII Abusir Pyramid of Sahure Abousir Sahoure 01.jpg
XIX Abusir Mastaba of vizier Ptahshepses Mastaba de Ptahchepsès.JPG
XX Abusir Pyramid of Nyuserre Pyramid of Niuserre.jpg
XXI Abusir Pyramid of Neferirkare Neferirkare.jpg
XXII Abusir Small satellite pyramid
XXIII Abusir Small satellite pyramid
XXIV Abusir Pyramid Lepsius XXIV, queen of Nyuserre Ini Lepsius-XXIV pyramid.jpg
XXV Abusir Double Pyramid, queen of Nyuserre Ini or Neferefre, could be a double mastaba Lepsius-XXV pyramid.jpg
XXVI Abusir Pyramid of Neferefre Pyramid of Neferefre, Abusir, 1970ies.jpg
XXVII Abusir Completely destroyed, only an outline is visible
XXVIII Abusir Unfinished pyramid or a natural structure
XXIX Saqqara Headless Pyramid of Menkauhor Kaiu
XXX Saqqara Pyramid of Teti Saqqarah Teti 01.jpg
XXXI Saqqara Pyramid of Userkaf Saqqarah Ouserkaf 06.jpg
XXXII Saqqara Pyramid of Djoser DjoserPyramid.jpg
XXXIII Saqqara North pavillon of Djoser's pyramid complex
XXXIV Saqqara South pavillon of Djoser's pyramid complex Djoser South House.jpg
XXXV Saqqara Pyramid of Unas Unas Pyramide.jpg
XXXVI Saqqara Pyramid of Pepi I
XXXVII Saqqara Pyramid of Djedkare-Isesi Pyramid of Djedkare, Saqqara, 1990ies.png
XXXVIII Saqqara Subsidiary pyramid to Djedkare's, unknown queen
XXXIX Saqqara Pyramid of Merenre Pyramid of Merenre, Saqqara, 1990ies.jpg
XL Saqqara Pyramid of Ibi Qakare-Ibi-Pyramid.png
XLI Saqqara Pyramid of Pepi II PepiIIPyramid.jpg
XLII Saqqara Subsidiary pyramid of Pepi II's for his queen Wedjebten
XLIII Saqqara Mastabat al-Fir'aun of Shepseskaf Mastaba-faraoun-3.jpg
XLIV Saqqara Pyramid of Khendjer Khendjer-complexe-1.jpg
XLV Saqqara 13th Dynasty structure
XLVI Saqqara Southern South Saqqara pyramid Plan-anonyme-saqqarah-sud.jpg
XLVII Dahshur Pyramid of Senusret III Photo-pyramide-sesostris3.jpg
XLVIII Dahshur Mastaba, unknown owner
XLIX Dahshur Red Pyramid Egypt.Dashur.RedPyramid.01.jpg
L Dahshur Lepsius-L Pyramid
LI Dahshur Pyramid of Amenemhat II
LII Dahshur Pylon of the temple of the pyramid of Amenemhat II
LIII Dahshur Pylon of the temple of the pyramid of Amenemhat II
LIV Dahshur Central Dahshur pyramid
LV Dahshur Mastaba of vizier Siese
LVI Dahshur Bent Pyramid GD-EG-Saqqara004.JPG
LVII Dahshur Subsidiary pyramid of the bent pyramid Dahschur Sattelite Pyramid 01.JPG
LVIII Dahshur Pyramid of Amenemhat III BlackPyramidOfAmenemhetIII.jpg
LIX Dahshur Northern Mazghuna pyramid
LX El-Lisht Pyramid of Amenemhat I AmenemhetIPyramid.jpg
LXI El-Lisht Pyramid of Senusret I Licht-senwsPyramids 01.jpg
LXII El-Lisht Mastaba, unknown owner
LXIII El-Lisht Mastaba of Senusretankh[3]
LXIV El-Lisht Mastaba, possibly belonging to a private individual named Senusret[4]
LXV Meidum Pyramid of Meidum Meidoum pyramide 006.JPG
LXVI El-Lahun Pyramid of Senusret II Pyramid at Lahun.jpg
LXVII Hawara Pyramid of Hawara, of Amenemhat III. Situated north of "The Labyrinth" Hawara.jpg

Lepsius' maps[edit]

Lepsius drew maps of the locations his expedition visited and which regroup the pyramid listed above. They are presented below, from north to south.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Peck 2001, p. 289.
  2. ^ Lepsius Denkmaler 2016.
  3. ^ Arnold 2008, pp. 13–24, pls. 2–7, 9–25, pls. 62–92, pl. 129–133..
  4. ^ Arnold 2008, pp. 24–26, pls. 26–31, pls. 62–92, pl. 129–133.

Bibliography[edit]

Arnold, Dieter (2008). Middle Kingdom Tomb Architecture at Lisht. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-300-12344-9. 
"Carl Richard Lepsius "DENKMÄLER AUS AEGYPTEN UND AETHIOPIEN"". Retrieved 8 May 2016. 
Peck, William H. (2001). "Lepsius, Karl Richard". In Redford, Donald B. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 2. Oxford University Press. pp. 289–290. ISBN 978-0-19-510234-5.