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Temporal range: Eocene
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Protoceratidae
Genus: Leptoreodon
Wortman (1898)

Leptoreodon is a small extinct genus of Artiodactyla, of the family Protoceratidae, endemic to North America from the Eocene epoch (Uintan to Duchesnean stage) 40.2—33.9 Ma, existing for approximately 6.3 million years.[1]


Leptoreodon was named by Wortman (1898). It was assigned to Hypertragulidae by Peterson (1919); and to Protoceratidae by Wortman (1898), Carroll (1988), Prothero (1998) and Prothero and Ludtke (2007).[2][3][4]


Leptoreodon resembled deer. However they were more closely related to camelids. In addition to having horns in the more usual place, protoceratids had additional, rostral horns above the orbital cavity.

Body mass[edit]

Four fossil specimens of Prosynthetoceras were measured by M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist for body mass.[5]

  • Specimen 1: 12.5 kg (28 lb)
  • Specimen 2: 10.3 kg (23 lb)
  • Specimen 3: 9.50 kg (21 lb)
  • Specimen 3: 10.6 kg (23 lb)

Fossil distribution[edit]

Fossils have been recovered from:


  1. ^ PaleoBiology Database: Leptoreodon, basic info
  2. ^ O. A. Peterson. 1919. Annals of Carnegie Museum 12(2)
  3. ^ R. L. Carroll. 1988. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York 1-698
  4. ^ D. R. Prothero and J. A. Ludtke. 2007. Family Protoceratidae. in D. R. Prothero and S. Foss (eds.), The Evolution of Artiodactyls 169-176
  5. ^ M. Mendoza, C. M. Janis, and P. Palmqvist. 2006. Estimating the body mass of extinct ungulates: a study on the use of multiple regression. Journal of Zoology 270(1):90-101
  6. ^ J. W. Westgate. 1988. Biostratigraphic implications of the first Eocene land-mammal fauna from the North American coastal plain. Geology 16:995-998