Leucanthemum vulgare

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Leucanthemum vulgare
Leucanthemum vulgare 'Filigran' Flower 2200px.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Leucanthemum
Species: L. vulgare
Binomial name
Leucanthemum vulgare
Lam.
Synonyms[1]
  • Bellis major Garsault nom. inval.
  • Chamaemelum leucanthemum (L.) E.H.L.Krause
  • Chrysanthemum dentatum Gilib. nom. inval.
  • Chrysanthemum ircutianum Turcz.
  • Chrysanthemum lanceolatum Pers.
  • Chrysanthemum lanceolatum Vest
  • Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.
  • Chrysanthemum montanum Willd. nom. illeg.
  • Chrysanthemum praecox (M.Bieb.) DC.
  • Chrysanthemum pratense Salisb.
  • Chrysanthemum sylvestre Willd.
  • Chrysanthemum vulgare (Lam.) Gaterau
  • Leucanthemum ageratifolium Pau
  • Leucanthemum eliasii (Sennen & Pau) Sennen & Pau
  • Leucanthemum lanceolatum DC.
  • Leucanthemum leucanthemum (L.) Rydb. nom. illeg.
  • Leucanthemum praecox (Horvatić) Villard
  • Matricaria leucanthemum (L.) Desr.
  • Matricaria leucanthemum (L.) Scop.
  • Pontia heterophylla (Willd.) Bubani
  • Pontia vulgaris Bubani
  • Pyrethrum leucanthemum (L.) Franch.
  • Tanacetum leucanthemum (L.) Sch.Bip.

Leucanthemum vulgare, the ox-eye daisy,[2] or oxeye daisy,[3] is a widespread flowering plant native to Europe and the temperate regions of Asia and an introduced plant to North America, Australia and New Zealand. It is one of a number of family Asteraceae plants to be called a "daisy", and has the additional vernacular names common daisy, dog daisy and moon daisy.

L. vulgare is a typical grassland perennial wildflower, growing in a variety of plant communities including meadows and fields, under scrub and open-canopy forests, and in disturbed areas.[4]

Leucanthemum is from the Ancient Greek λευκός (leukós, "white") and ἄνθος (ánthos, "flower"). Symbolic meaning of Oxeye daisy: Patience (Plant symbolism)

Description[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare is a perennial herb one to three feet high by 1 foot (0.30 m) wide.[5] The stem is mostly unbranched and sprouts laterally from a creeping rhizomatous rootstock.[6]

The leaves are dark green on both sides. The basal and middle leaves are petiolate, obovate to spoon-shaped, and serrate to dentate. The upper leaves are shorter, sessile, and borne along the stem.

L. vulgare blooms from late spring to autumn. The small flower head, not larger than 5 centimetres (2.0 in), consists of about 20 white ray florets that surround a yellow disc, growing on the end of 1 to 3 ft (30 to 91 cm) tall stems. The plant produces an abundant number of flat seeds, without pappus, that remain viable in the soil for 2 to 3 years. It also spreads vegetatively by rhizomes.[6]

Uses[edit]

Food[edit]

The unopened flower buds can be marinated and used in a similar way to capers.[7]

Grieve's Modern Herbal (1931) states that "The taste of the dried herb is bitter and tingling, and the odour faintly resembles that of valerian."[8]

Cultivation[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare is widely cultivated and available as a perennial flowering ornamental plant for gardens and designed meadow landscapes. It thrives in a wide range of conditions and can grow in sun to partial shade, and prefers damp soils. There are cultivars, such as 'May Queen' which begins blooming in early spring.

Logos[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare is used as the basis for the logo of the production company Gaumont.

Invasive species[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare became an introduced species via gardens into natural areas in parts of Canada,[2] the United States, Australia, and New Zealand, where it is now a common weed.[9] In some habitats it is an invasive species forming dense colonies displacing native plants and modifying existing communities, and is classified as a noxious weed.[4][10][11]

It is difficult to control or eradicate, since a new plant can regenerate from rhizome fragments[4] and is a problem in pastures where beef and dairy cattle graze, as usually they will not eat it, thus enabling it to spread.[12]

Ox-eye daisy is a host for several viral diseases affecting crops.[6]

Allergies[edit]

Allergies to daisies do occur, usually causing contact dermatitis.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 5 December 2014. 
  2. ^ a b T. Dickinson; D. Metsger; J. Bull; R. Dickinson (2004). ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum. p. 175. 
  3. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  4. ^ a b c "Ox-Eye Daisy – Chrysanthemum leucanthemum". cirrusimage.com. 
  5. ^ "Ox-eye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) – Information on Ox-eye Daisy – Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. 
  6. ^ a b c Ox-Eye Daisy – Chrysanthemum leucanthemum. Cirrusimage.com. Retrieved on 2015-07-08.
  7. ^ "Forbes Wild Food". wildfoods.ca. 
  8. ^ Grieve, Maud (1971). A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs, & Trees with All Their Modern Scientific Uses, Volume 1. p. 248. 
  9. ^ oxeye daisy, Leucanthemum vulgare (Asterales: Asteraceae). Invasive.org (2010-05-04). Retrieved on 2015-07-08.
  10. ^ "Plants Profile for Leucanthemum vulgare (oxeye daisy)". usda.gov. 
  11. ^ "UC/JEPS: Jepson Manual treatment for LEUCANTHEMUM vulgare". berkeley.edu. 
  12. ^ Oxeye daisy. massey.ac.nz
  13. ^ Lynette A. Gordon (1999). "Compositae dermatitis". Australasian Journal of Dermatology. 40 (3): 123–130. doi:10.1046/j.1440-0960.1999.00341.x. PMID 10439521. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]