|Location||390 Park Avenue|
Manhattan, New York City
|Opened||April 29, 1952|
|Height||307 ft (94 m)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Gordon Bunshaft and Natalie de Blois of Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill|
|Main contractor||George A. Fuller Company|
NYC Landmark No. 1277
|Architectural style||International Style|
|NRHP reference No.||83004078|
|Added to NRHP||October 2, 1983|
|Designated NYCL||November 9, 1982|
Lever House is a glass-box skyscraper at 390 Park Avenue in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The building was designed in the International Style by Gordon Bunshaft and Natalie de Blois of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) as the headquarters of soap company Lever Brothers, a subsidiary of Unilever. Constructed from 1950 to 1952, it was the second curtain wall skyscraper in New York City after the United Nations Secretariat Building.
The 307-foot-tall (94 m) building contains 21 office stories topped by a triple-height mechanical section. The ground story contains a courtyard and public space, while the second story overhangs the plaza on a set of columns. The remaining stories are designed as a slab occupying the northern one-quarter of the site. The slab design was chosen to conform with the city's 1916 Zoning Resolution while avoiding the need for setbacks, which had been included in previous skyscrapers built under the ordinance. Lever House contains about 260,000 square feet (24,000 m2) of interior space, much less than in comparable office buildings.
The construction of Lever House changed Park Avenue in Midtown from an avenue with masonry apartment buildings to one with International-style office buildings. The building's design was also influential internationally, being copied by several other structures around the world. Although Lever House was intended solely for Lever Brothers' use, its small size resulted in proposals to redevelop the site with a larger skyscraper. Following one such proposal, the building was designated a New York City Landmark in 1982 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. Unilever moved most of its offices out of Lever House in 1997 and it was subsequently renovated by Aby Rosen's RFR Realty. Following the renovation, Lever House has been used as a standard office building with multiple tenants.
Lever House is at 390 Park Avenue, on the western sidewalk between 53rd Street and 54th Street, in the Midtown Manhattan neighborhood of New York City. The land lot has a frontage of 200 feet (61 m) on Park Avenue, 192 feet (59 m) on 54th Street, and 155 feet (47 m) on 53rd Street, giving the lot a slight "L"-shape. The lot has an area of 34,844 square feet (3,237.1 m2). Nearby buildings include the DuMont Building and Hotel Elysée along the same city block, on 54th Street to the west; 399 Park Avenue directly across Park Avenue to the east; the Seagram Building diagonally across Park Avenue and 53rd Street to the southeast; and the CBS Studio Building and Racquet and Tennis Club across 53rd Street to the south. The Banco Santander building on 53rd Street also abuts Lever House, while an entrance to the New York City Subway's Fifth Avenue/53rd Street station, served by the E and M trains, is less than a block west along 53rd Street.
During the early 19th century, the site of Lever House was part of a farm, which was developed later in that century with four- and five-story row houses. By the late 19th century, the Park Avenue railroad line ran in an open-cut in the middle of Park Avenue. The line was covered with the construction of Grand Central Terminal in the early 20th century, spurring development in the surrounding area, Terminal City. The adjacent stretch of Park Avenue became a wealthy neighborhood with upscale apartments. On Lever House's site, there were twenty-two rowhouses on 53rd and 54th Streets, owned by Robert Walton Goelet. Twenty of these were demolished in 1936 and replaced by the Art Deco Normandie theater and a one-story "taxpayer" structure, while two rowhouses remained at 62 and 64 East 54th Street.
Lever House was built by Gordon Bunshaft and Natalie de Blois of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill (SOM) in the International Style. Although the building was completed in 1952, the design largely incorporates ideas first proposed by Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in the 1920s. The building was constructed by main contractor George A. Fuller Company, with Jaros, Baum & Bolles as mechanical engineers; Weiskopf & Pickworth as structural engineers; and Raymond Loewy Associates as interior designers. It was built and named for the Lever Brothers Company, a soap company which was an American subsidiary of Unilever. Lever House contains the equivalent of 24 stories, including 21 usable office stories and a triple-height mechanical space, and stands 307 feet (94 m) tall.
Lever House's ground and second stories occupy nearly the whole lot. The ground level is largely composed of an outdoor plaza, paved in light- and dark-colored terrazzo, with some indoor sections. A rectangular planted garden with a pool is at the center of the plaza. Lever House's plaza is legally a privately owned public space. To protect against adverse possession, the building's owners have closed the plaza to the public for one day every year since its completion. Within the ground-story plaza are rectangular columns clad in stainless steel, which support the second story. The columns, which extend to the underlying rock, are set 10 feet (3.0 m) behind the lot boundary to avoid interfering with the walls of the Park Avenue railroad tunnel. The column layout gives the appearance that the upper stories are floating above ground. These columns give the appearance of an architectural arcade. The second story is designed with an opening at its center, overlooking the planted garden.
The third through twenty-first stories consist of a rectangular slab atop the northern portion of the site, occupying a quarter of the total lot area. The slab is only 53 feet (16 m) wide along Park Avenue, allowing all offices to be within 25 feet (7.6 m) of a window and thereby providing large amounts of natural light to tenants. Along 54th Street, the slab is 180 feet (55 m) wide. The slab's positioning, with the shorter side along Park Avenue, allowed more natural light from the north and south facades. This design also served a technical purpose, as it complied with the 1916 Zoning Resolution, intended to prevent new skyscrapers in New York City from overwhelming the streets with their sheer bulk. As a result of the slab's small size, Lever House has a floor area ratio (FAR) of 6:1, in comparison to a FAR of 12:1 at Rockefeller Center and a FAR of 25:1 at the Empire State Building.
A provision under the 1916 Zoning Resolution had allowed structures to rise without setbacks, provided that all stories above that level contained an area which was no more than 25 percent of the land lot.[a] This theoretically allowed the construction of slab skyscrapers of unlimited height. In practice, Lever House was the city's first high-rise building to take advantage of this provision. Previous skyscrapers developed under this zoning code had contained setbacks as they rose.[a] If all stories had contained the same area as the land lot, Lever House would have been equivalent to an eight-story structure. While Rockefeller Center's buildings had somewhat similar slab-like designs, the vast majority of the city's previous skyscrapers had been designed to fill the maximum volume allowed under the 1916 Zoning Resolution.
About thirty percent of the ground story is enclosed within glass and marble walls. There are three revolving doors leading to the ground-story lobby, near the northern half of the lot. The elevators, as well as an auditorium and display area on the same floor, are within a black marble enclosure at the northwestern corner of the building. There is also a vehicular ramp to the basement garage, as well as a loading dock, from the western section of the 54th Street frontage, at the lot's northwestern corner. A white marble enclosure with stainless steel doors encloses an emergency exit stair at the southeastern corner of the ground floor.
Above the ground floor, all facades contain a curtain wall with heat-absorbing glass panes as well as stainless steel. The curtain wall was fabricated and installed by General Bronze, which had then just completed the United Nations Secretariat Building's curtain wall. Unlike at the Secretariat, where the narrower sides were faced in solid material, all sides of Lever House's slab are faced in glass. A small portion of the slab's western facade contains a service core with masonry cladding.
The curtain wall contains vertical steel mullions that are anchored to the floor plates within the building. Between each set of mullions are glass window panes which cannot open. These consist of greenish panes for windows on each floor, as well as opaque bluish panels for spandrels between floors. The spandrel panels are separated from the window panes by horizontal mullions as well as muntin grilles. The spandrel panels were intended to conceal the masonry construction of the superstructure. The window panes are 7 feet 2 inches (2.18 m) tall, with the sill being 30 inches (760 mm) above the top of each floor slab, thereby concealing air-conditioning units beneath each window. The mullions are designed to be flush with the glass, projecting about 1 inch (25 mm) from the outer surface of the glass panels. During nighttime, one of every five mullions is lit. Venetian blinds were used to reduce glare.
The curtain wall was designed to reduce the cost of operating and maintaining the property and, as designed, was intended to filter out thirty percent of heat from sunlight. The fixed-pane windows were cheaper to install and reduced the amount of particulate matter that entered the building, as well as kept air conditioning costs down. Additionally, Unilever constructed a window-washing scaffold, which was suspended from a 10.5-short-ton (9.4-long-ton; 9.5 t) "power plant car" on the roof. The scaffold, designed by Kenneth M. Young of SOM, could move vertically along steel rails embedded in the mullions. A pair of window washers was hired to clean the facade every six days. Each of the building's 1,404 windows could be cleaned within ninety seconds; because the window panes were fixed shut, they could be cleaned in less than one-third of the time it took to clean a sash window. According to Curbed, the scaffold was used for a publicity stunt that "used Lever-brand Surf soap to scrub the windows clean".
The fixed-position window panes required that the building be air-conditioned, so steel grilles are also installed on the facade for ventilation intake. The curtain wall cost $28,000 more compared to normal sash windows, while the double glazing cost $135,000 and the window-washing equipment cost $50,000. However, the air conditioning system resulted in $90,000 of upfront savings, $3,600 per year in energy savings, and $1,000 per year in savings from reduced air "leakage". The fixed window panes also saved $2,000 a year on window-washing costs compared to sash windows.
The internal superstructure is made of a cellular-steel skeleton with floor plates made of reinforced concrete. Small sections of the floor slabs outside the restrooms, elevator lobbies, and service core are supported by concrete arches. Generally, the ceilings are about 9 feet (2.7 m) high, but the floor slabs are 3 feet 4 inches (1.02 m) thick. The west end of the slab is cantilevered 5 feet (1.5 m) from the furthest column while the east end is cantilevered 9 feet 8.5 inches (2.959 m). Lever House's wind bracing system consists of transverse bents placed at intervals of 28 feet (8.5 m), with one set of columns through the middle of the slab.
The building's utilities run through the service core on the west side of the slab. Six elevators are provided in the service core: five serving the office stories, as well as a service elevator between the first and third floors. A seventh elevator shaft was provided in the building to serve the upper stories if an additional elevator cab was deemed necessary. The core was placed on the west end of the slab so, if Lever Brothers had ever built a westward addition to the tower, the elevators could serve the addition.
According to the New York City Department of City Planning, Lever House contains 262,945 square feet (24,428.4 m2) of gross floor area.[b] All of the space was intended for Lever Brothers; in exchange for a more prominent structure, the company had been willing to forgo additional space that could have been rented to commercial or office tenants. A Lever spokesperson said the design choice was an intentional architectural and public-relations feature, saying, "The fact is shops don't rent for much on Park Avenue. People buy on Fifth or Madison [Avenues]. All they do on Park is walk." A further consideration was that Lever Brothers wished for the building to be a corporate symbol for itself, rather than being shared with other tenants. In addition to its 21 usable stories and triple-height mechanical space, the building contained an employees' parking garage in the basement.
The enclosed section of the ground floor was largely oriented toward public use, with space for displays, a waiting room, a display kitchen, and an auditorium. Since 2003, the building's owner Aby Rosen has used the plaza and lobby as a gallery for the Lever House Art Collection. Exhibitions have included such works as Virgin Mother by Damien Hirst, Bride Fight by E.V. Day, The Hulks by Jeff Koons, The Snow Queen by Rachel Feinstein, Robert Towne by Sarah Morris, as well as several sculptures by Keith Haring and Tom Sachs. The second and largest floor contained fan, stock, mail, and stenography rooms, as well as the employees' lounge and medical suite. It contains 22,000 square feet (2,000 m2) of space. The second floor has also been used for artwork, such as in 2018, when the second and ground floors were lit as part of Peter Halley's New York, New York. Above the southern three-quarters of the building was a third-story roof terrace clad with red tile, which was outfitted with shuffleboard courts for employees. Inside the third story was the employee kitchen, dining room, and cafeteria.
The offices of Unilever and its subsidiaries occupied the remaining floors with the executive penthouse on the 21st floor. At Lever House's completion, much of Lever Brothers' staff was female, so the offices were designed as spaces that "women would enjoy working in". Each of the upper stories within the slab contains 8,700 square feet (810 m2) of gross floor area. On each floor, about 6,000 square feet (560 m2) is used for office space, excluding area taken up by closets, elevators, restrooms, and walls. Gypsum partitions on each of the office floors were attached to the mullions. The building was also constructed with air conditioning on each floor, as well as an automatic fire alarm system and mail conveyor system. The triple-story mechanical penthouse is atop the 21st floor and includes air-conditioning and elevator machinery, as well as a water tower.
Unilever was formed in 1929 from a merger of two soap companies: the British firm Lever Brothers Limited and the Dutch firm Margarine Unie. Unilever's United States subsidiary was known as Lever Brothers Company and was initially headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The subsidiary took space at 445 Park Avenue, three blocks north of the present building's site, in 1947.
Development and early years
The company began acquiring land on Park Avenue from 53rd to 54th Street around June 1949, leasing the lots from Robert Walton Goelet's estate. The negotiations were made secretively, involving fourteen sets of lawyers, numerous brokers, and several shell companies. As finalized, the lease was to run for sixty years. The main broker behind the transaction, S. Dudley Nostrand, won the award for the "most ingenious and beneficial Manhattan real estate transaction of 1949" from the Title Guarantee and Trust Company.
On October 5, 1949, Lever Brothers announced a wide-ranging expansion program within the United States. The company's president, Charles Luckman, announced the executive offices would be moved from Cambridge to New York City that December, taking temporary space at two buildings in Manhattan. A new executive headquarters known as Lever House, to be built on Park Avenue from 53rd to 54th Street, would house the firm's subsidiaries upon its expected completion in late 1951. SOM was hired to design Lever House when it was announced. Luckman, who also held an architect's license, would assist with the design. Although SOM had prepared plans for slab-like buildings in Chicago for a Lever Brothers headquarters, the company decided upon a New York City headquarters because "the price one pays for soap is 89 percent advertising [...] and the advertising agencies of America were there." In designing Lever House, SOM focused on the fact that Lever Brothers wanted 150,000 square feet (14,000 m2) of office space all to itself.
Luckman left Lever Brothers in January 1950, because of unspecified disagreements with British and Dutch executives of Unilever. Luckman went to design several buildings of his own, initially prompting false speculation that he had been fired from his position at Lever Brothers due to Lever House's design. Final plans for Lever House were filed with the New York City Department of Buildings in April 1950, three months after Luckman's departure. The plans were publicized the same month. Demolition of the four buildings on Lever House's site was scheduled to commence immediately after the plans were announced. The George A. Fuller Company received the contract to construct Lever House in August 1950. The steel framework was topped out during April 1951.
The building officially opened on April 29, 1952, with a tour of the building and a ceremony attended by mayor Vincent R. Impellitteri. Lever Brothers leased the building from the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, taking over the responsibility of maintaining it. In Lever House's early years, the enclosed section of the ground level was used for art exhibitions. These included the Sculptors Guild's annual exhibit as well as an annual heliography exhibition. Lever Brothers commissioned Robert Wiegand in 1970 to paint a 37-by-52-foot (11 by 16 m) mural, Leverage, along a now-demolished wall adjacent to the third-story courtyard.
Lever House's small floor-area ratio became a drawback for real estate developers in the years after its completion, even as that same quality remained popular among the public. The Lever Brothers Company rejected numerous rumors that the building would be replaced by a larger structure, even advertising the building's 25th anniversary in 1977 with a full-page New York Times ad. At the time of Lever House's quarter-century celebration, it had hosted over 250 exhibitions in its history.
Proposed demolition and preservation
By 1982, the Fisher Brothers had signed a contract to purchase the underlying land, or fee position. The firm wished to replace Lever House with a forty-story building containing three times the floor area. Lever Brothers rejected media reports that it was considering moving to New Jersey. At the time, Gordon Bunshaft reflected that he never thought the building would be torn down because it was too small. On November 9, 1982, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) designated Lever House as a landmark. LPC rules specified that New York City individual landmarks be at least 30 years old at the time of their designation, making Lever House the city's youngest landmark at that time. The landmark status had to be ratified by the New York City Board of Estimate to become binding. If the landmark status was ratified, the building could not be demolished unless the landmark status caused significant economic hardship even with tax exemptions.
Fisher Brothers opposed the landmark status, but George Klein, who was in contract to buy the building lease and land from Metropolitan Life, did favor landmark status. At the time, unnamed "trade sources" quoted in The Wall Street Journal believed that Klein was trying to develop an adjacent tower and incorporate Lever House into the new development. Lever Brothers also did not oppose landmark protection. After the LPC designation, it was unknown whether the Board of Estimate would have enough votes to uphold the building's landmark designation. since several board members had expressed their wish that the site be redeveloped more lucratively. This prompted preservationist Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis to say, "It would be too bad if we treated our buildings as disposables and threw them away every 30 years." Among the reasons the Fisher Brothers had cited in their failed attempt to replace Lever House was the structure's deteriorated condition. The firm of Welton Becket and Associates estimated the cost of restoring Lever House at between $12 and 15 million.
In February 1983, the Fisher Brothers publicized plans for its forty-story tower, which they claimed would create 1,500 jobs and generate $9.4 million in annual taxes. The Board of Estimate ratified the landmark status the following month. The landmark status was approved with a slim 6–5 majority, as all five of the city's borough presidents voted against the designation. Lever House's preservation was described by The Christian Science Monitor as "sparking heated debate only in New York City" because, nationally, there was a trend in favor of preservation at the time. Lever House was added to the National Register of Historic Places on October 2, 1983.
Building decay and ownership changes
As a result of Lever House's relatively small floor area, the land lot had 315,000 square feet (29,300 m2) of unused development rights, which under New York City zoning code could be transferred to nearby buildings. However, the LPC had not yet determined whether such a transfer would be applicable to Lever House. Accordingly, the landmark designation caused an impasse between the Fisher Brothers, Klein, and Lever Brothers. Both developers' plans were based on full control of the building and land, as well as lease negotiations with Lever Brothers, whose lease was still active for another twenty-seven years.
Lever Brothers sued the Fisher Brothers in June 1983, alleging the latter was still attempting to gain ownership of Lever House so it could be demolished, thereby breaking Lever Brothers' lease. The Fisher Brothers relented that October, agreeing to sell its fee position to Klein. Sarah Korein acquired the land under Lever House from the Goelet estate in 1985, though Unilever continued to lease the building. Her daughter, Elysabeth Kleinhans, recalled that Korein referred to Lever House as her "Mona Lisa".
Through the 1980s, the building's blue-green glass facade had deteriorated due to harsh weather conditions and the limitations of the original fabrication and materials. Water seeped behind the vertical mullions, causing the carbon steel within and around the glazing pockets to rust and expand. This corrosion led to most of the spandrel glass panels breaking. At least some of these structural failures were attributed to the fact that the technologies used in Lever House's construction were relatively new. According to documents filed with the city government in 1995, forty to fifty percent of the original glass had been replaced. The next year, Unilever submitted plans to the LPC, proposing to replace the curtain wall with one of very similar design, to be designed by SOM. David Childs, an architect from that company, said at the time that only one percent of the glass remained. However, the proposal was not further acted upon.
Restoration and office tenancies
Unilever announced in September 1997 that it was moving its Lever Brothers division to Greenwich, Connecticut. Following the announcement, Lever Brothers slowly began vacating the building, leaving Unilever on only the top four floors. At the time, Lever Brothers had been the building's only ever tenant. Shortly before Korein's death in 1998, real estate magnates Aby Rosen and Michael Fuchs acquired the building lease, although Korein's family retained the land lease. Under the agreement, Rosen's company RFR Holding was obliged to perform a comprehensive restoration of the facade. RFR negotiated a lease-back deal allowing Unilever to remain on the top four floors. The Korein family remained the owner of the land.
After its acquisition, RFR Holding announced a $25 million capital improvement program including a restoration of the building's curtain wall and public spaces, to be conducted by SOM. The deteriorated steel subframe and rusted mullions and caps were replaced. All glass was removed for new panes that were nearly identical to the originals, but met modern energy codes. The renovation project included the addition of marble benches and an Isamu Noguchi sculpture garden to the building's plaza; these elements had been part of the original plans for the building and were never realized. The work was completed by 2001. Following the renovation, Lever House became a standard office building with multiple tenants. Metal processor Alcoa (later Arconic) signed a lease in 1999 for five stories in the building. Other tenants included American General Financial Group; Cosmetics International; and investment bank Thomas Weisel Partners. In 2003, Lever House Restaurant opened as the first restaurant at Lever House. The restaurant closed in early 2009 and was replaced by Casa Lever, which opened during late 2009.
In 2013, the administration of mayor Michael Bloomberg proposed the Midtown East rezoning, which would allow the Korein estate to sell the unused development rights from Lever House for up to $75 million. The rezoning was passed in 2016, enabling the Korein estate to sell the development rights. At the same time, although RFR had an annual ground lease payment of $6 million, the company faced a steep increase to $20 million when the lease was scheduled to reset in 2023. Because of the ground lease, RFR had trouble refinancing Lever House. By early 2018, RFR was three years behind on its rent payments and mortgage bondholders were looking to foreclose on the property, a move that could potentially cancel all of the building's office leases. Bondholders moved to foreclose on the building in May 2018. Two months later, a joint venture between Brookfield Properties and Waterman Interests took the ground lease from RFR, becoming the building's landlord.
RFR's debt load was purchased in early 2019 for $12.8 million, a $68 million decrease from the debt's original value. RFR filed two lawsuits against Brookfield and Waterman during late 2019. One was related to the lack of sprinklers in the building, in which RFR was threatened with lease termination, while the other alleged that Waterman Interests had fraudulently taken over the ground lease using confidential information. Ultimately, in May 2020, RFR gave a majority stake in Lever House's operation to Brookfield and Waterman.
Prior to the building's construction, Architectural Forum described Lever House in 1950 as "infinitely more spirited and dignified than any other commercial office building" in the city. Upon its completion, the same journal wrote, "it is the shape of this building which is impressive, more even than the gleaming materials". New York Times architectural critic Aline B. Louchheim wrote that Lever House was "beautiful as well as functional". British art historian Nikolaus Pevsner, speaking to The New York Times shortly afterward, said: "The fact that such an extraordinary building was commissioned from a firm rather than an individual genius [...] is different from" continental Europe. Architectural Record wrote of the plaza: "In this aspect, the entire structure is thoughtful, pleasant, and a decided advance over the average speculative building."
Subsequent critics also praised the building. In a 1957 article about architecture on Park Avenue, Ada Louise Huxtable wrote that "the staples of our civilization—soap, whiskey and chemicals" (in reference to Lever House, the Seagram Building, and the Union Carbide Building) were represented in the "monuments" then being developed on Park Avenue. According to British art critic Reyner Banham in 1962, Lever House "gave architectural expression to an age just as the age was being born". At the building's 25th anniversary in 1977, Paul Goldberger wrote that Lever House had been "a stunning act of corporate philanthropy". Furthermore, William H. Jordy thought Lever House set a "standard for office buildings" following World War II, while Goldberger wrote in his 1979 book The City Observed that Lever House was as influential to architecture as the Daily News Building and 330 West 42nd Street had been.
Conversely, there was criticism of Lever House both in symbolism and in design. When the building was proposed for demolition in the early 1980s, Luckman reflected in the Los Angeles Times that financiers had nicknamed it "Luckman's folly" during its construction. Critics also debased aspects of the design, such as Louchheim, who found the interiors "too obtrusive" and the penthouse offices "esthetically vulgar". Architect Frank Lloyd Wright called Lever House a "box on sticks" in a 1952 speech at the Waldorf Astoria, while Edward P. Morgan said the same year that "a 10-year-old boy could have done better with a Meccano set". Architectural critic Lewis Mumford, writing for The New Yorker in 1958, found the slab "curiously transitory and ephemeral". Henry Hope Reed Jr., in his 1959 book The Golden City, contrasted a picture of Lever House with one of the Postum Building at 250 Park Avenue, captioning Lever House only with the words "no comment". Art historian Vincent Scully, speaking in 1961, expressed his belief that Lever House's construction divided the landscape of Park Avenue without regard to existing architecture.
In 1952, the year of Lever House's completion, Office Management and Equipment magazine gave the building an award for "Office of the Year". The American Institute of Architects (AIA) gave the building an Honor Award the same year. Lever House also received the Fifth Avenue Association's award for "best New York building" constructed between 1952 and 1953. The AIA further recognized Lever House in 1980 with a Twenty-five Year Award.
According to the LPC, Lever House's design was widely seen by historians as a major advancement in the International Style. Charles Jencks called Lever House's curtain wall a step in "penultimate development and acceptance" of the International Style, while Robert Furneaux Jordan felt the building's court "set a precedent that may lift New York to a new level among world capitals". Furthermore, following Lever House's completion, numerous glass wall skyscrapers were built in New York City and elsewhere. The surrounding stretch of Park Avenue became developed with commercial buildings. Many of the residential structures on Park Avenue were replaced with largely commercial International Style skyscrapers during the 1950s and 1960s. Those structures included the Seagram Building, whose co-designer Philip Johnson specifically cited the construction of Lever House as a forebear.
Lever House's design was also copied internationally: as Nicholas Adams wrote in 2019, "Lever House had represented a clarion call for modernity, and it was widely imitated." These structures included the Banco de Bogotá headquarters in Bogotá in 1960; Ankara's Emek Business Center, Turkey's first curtain-walled skyscraper, in 1965; the high-rise tower of Berlin's Europa-Center in 1965; and the Hydroproject headquarters in Moscow in 1968. Lever House's influence also spread to Scandinavia with Copenhagen's SAS Radisson, designed in 1960, as well as numerous consular offices in Germany, designed in the 1950s by SOM. According to Adams, the design was ultimately copied more than a dozen times around the world.
- List of New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan from 14th to 59th Streets
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan from 14th to 59th Streets
- As per the 1916 Zoning Act, the wall of any given tower that faces a street could only rise to a certain height, proportionate to the street's width, at which point the building had to be set back by a given proportion. This system of setbacks would continue until the tower reaches a floor level in which that level's floor area was 25 percent that of the ground level's area. After that 25 percent threshold was reached, the building could rise without restriction. This law was superseded by the 1961 Zoning Resolution.
- Other sources give a different floor area. Media reports of the building's design, in 1950, indicated that it was supposed to contain about 280,000 square feet (26,000 m2). The New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission states that Lever House was planned with 290,000 square feet (27,000 m2).
- "Federal Register: 49 Fed. Reg. 4459 (Feb. 7, 1984)" (PDF). Library of Congress. February 7, 1984. p. 4653. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- "390 Park Avenue, 10022". New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved September 7, 2020.
- National Park Service 1983, p. 2.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 1.
- "Important Blocks of New York Real Estate". New York Herald Tribune. November 25, 1951. p. 2C. ProQuest 1313586114. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Architectural Forum 1952, p. 106.
- Oser, Alan S. (April 3, 1983). "Action on Landmarking Clears the Way for Talks". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Postings: Lever House Neighbor; A 20-Story Bank Tower". The New York Times. April 14, 1991. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- "MTA Neighborhood Maps: Midtown" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 3.
- National Park Service 1983, p. 8.
- "Grand Central Zone Boasts Many Connected Buildings". The New York Times. September 14, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
- "Exploring New York's Real Underworld".Popular Science Monthly, November 1931, p. 135
- Cooper, Lee (October 9, 1949). "Office Facilities Expanding Rapidly in Park Ave. Zone". The New York Times. p. R1. ISSN 0362-4331. ProQuest 1016020692. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Dunlap, David W. (July 31, 2013). "An Architect Whose Work Stood Out, Even if She Did Not". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S.; Postal, Matthew A. (2009). Postal, Matthew A. (ed.). Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 115–116. ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1.
- White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
- Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, pp. 338–339.
- Architectural Forum 1952, p. 103.
- Architectural Record 1952, p. 131.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 1; National Park Service 1983, p. 5.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 7.
- "Lever House". Emporis. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 7; National Park Service 1983, p. 2.
- Dunlap, David W. (October 29, 2011). "Closing for a Spell, Just to Prove It's Ours". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Lever House courtyard closes so RFR can assert ownership". The Real Deal New York. October 28, 2011. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Architectural Forum 1950, p. 86.
- Fowler, Glenn (September 7, 1958). "New Skyscrapers Are Reviving Classical Street Arcade: Purpose Unchanged, but Styling Reflects Modern Design". The New York Times. p. R1. ISSN 0362-4331. ProQuest 114464589. Retrieved March 16, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Lever Brothers Plans Unusual Office Building: Structure at Park and 53d to Have Glass-Steel Face, Seemingly No First Floor". New York Herald Tribune. April 30, 1950. p. 46. ProQuest 1327216432. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
"Lever Bros. Home Features Arcade; New Offices for Lever Bros. Company" (PDF). The New York Times. April 30, 1950. p. R1. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- "19 Stories Held to One Fourth of Site to Achieve Light and Air for 280,000 Sq Ft Without Setbacks" (PDF). Architectural Record. 107: 12. June 1950.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 7; National Park Service 1983, pp. 2, 4.
- Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, pp. 339–340.
- Architectural Forum 1952, p. 107.
- Murray 2009, p. 35.
- Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 340.
- Louchheim, Aline B. (April 27, 1952). "Newest Building in the New Style". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Kayden & The Municipal Art Society of New York 2000, p. 8.
- Roth, Leland M (1979). A concise history of American architecture. New York: Harper & Row. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-06-438490-2. OCLC 4496712.
- Kayden & The Municipal Art Society of New York 2000, pp. 11–12.
- Architectural Forum 1950, p. 85.
- Murray 2009, p. 31.
- Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 339.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 7; National Park Service 1983, p. 4.
- Architectural Forum 1950, p. 88.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 8.
- Architectural Forum 1950, p. 89.
- Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, pp. 340–341.
- "Lever House Window Washing Solved by Mobile Elevator" (PDF). Architectural Record. 96: 43. April 1952.
- "Window Washers in Gondola Car Speed Cleaning of Glass Building" (PDF). The New York Times. April 1, 1952. p. 31. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Architectural Record 1952, p. 134; Architectural Forum 1952, p. 110.
- National Park Service 1983, p. 4.
- Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 341.
- Sisson, Patrick (May 9, 2017). "Modernist cool: Air conditioning's impact on modern architecture". Curbed. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
- Huxtable, Ada Louise (January 11, 1965). "Does Good Architecture Pay?; Does Good Architecture Pay?" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 125. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 10, 2021.
- Architectural Forum 1952, p. 109.
- Architectural Forum 1950, p. 87.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, pp. 6–7.
- Louchheim, Aline B. (July 7, 1953). "U. S. Architecture Praised by Briton; Nikolaus Pevsner Hails Lever House Here, Notes American Progress Exceeds English" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 25. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Lever Building Seen Major Step In Good Design: Magazine Calls New Tower Best Recent Structure". New York Herald Tribune. July 1, 1950. p. 15. ProQuest 1327262586. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Louchheim, Aline B. (September 24, 1950). "Architecture of and for Our Day; Museum of Modern Art Singles Out Work Of One Firm" (PDF). The New York Times. p. X9. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "The Talk of the Town: Clean". The New Yorker. 28: 27–28. April 26, 1952. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Architectural Record 1952, p. 132.
- "In the Loftiest of Buildings, High Art Still Finds a Home". The New York Times. August 17, 2010. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Willett-Wei, Megan (June 5, 2014). "Real Estate Mogul At War With Neighbors Over His Graphic 30-Foot 'Virgin Mother' Statue". Business Insider. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Cohen, Patricia (June 2, 2014). "Neighbors Protest 33-Foot Statue". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "E.V. Day". Lever House Art Collection. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Yablonsky, Linda (February 2, 2011). "Artifacts; A Snow Queen for Our Time". T Magazine. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Jeff Koons". Lever House Art Collection. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "André Leon Talley on Rachel Feinstein's 'The Snow Queen'". Vogue. January 28, 2011. Archived from the original on February 1, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Colman, David (March 11, 2011). "Rachel Feinstein and John Currin, Their Own Best Creations". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Sarah Morris". Lever House Art Collection. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Sarah Morris, Robert Towne". FAD Magazine. August 30, 2006. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Keith Haring". Lever House Art Collection. February 16, 1990. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Tom Sachs". Lever House Art Collection. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Tom Sachs 'Bronze Collection' Party at Lever House". PAPER. May 14, 2008. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- McGrath, Katherine (September 20, 2018). "Midtown Manhattan Is Bathed in Yellow Light Thanks to This Artist's Installation". Architectural Digest. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Lubasch, Arnold H. (January 28, 1968). "Skyscraper Setbacks Serve as Play Areas: New Yorkers Find Many Recreation Areas Atop Setbacks". The New York Times. p. R1. ISSN 0362-4331. ProQuest 118456397. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Doors Swing Open in House of Glass: Mayor Calls New Building of Lever Brothers on Park Ave. 'Manhattan Showplace'". The New York Times. April 30, 1952. p. 46. ISSN 0362-4331. ProQuest 112504852. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 2.
- Wilson, Charles Henry (1954). The History of Unilever: A Study in Economic Growth and Social Change. The History of Unilever: A Study in Economic Growth and Social Change. Cassell. pp. 228–230.
- "Lever Bros, Co. Rents Quarters On Park Avenue: Soap Concern Takes Large Space in New Tishman Building at 57th Street". New York Herald Tribune. October 21, 1947. p. 39. ProQuest 1291363484. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Lever Lease Ends Tishman Renting; Soap Manufacturers Get Last Space in New Park Avenue Building -- Other Deals" (PDF). The New York Times. October 21, 1947. p. 39. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- Cooper, Lee E. (October 5, 1949). "Lever Bros. to Build on Park Ave.; Plans 20-Story, $6,000,000 Office" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- "Nostrand Wins $1,000 Award For Lever Deal on Park Ave". New York Herald Tribune. February 5, 1950. p. D1. ProQuest 1325395628. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Park Ave. Site Lease to Lever Brothers Wins $1,000 Award for New York Broker" (PDF). The New York Times. February 5, 1950. p. 195. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Lever Brothers Busy With Expansion Plans". The Journal News. October 5, 1949. p. 1. Retrieved March 19, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- "Lever Brothers To Move Offices Here on Dec. 1: Will Erect $6,000,000 20-Story Building Here". New York Herald Tribune. October 5, 1949. p. 32. ProQuest 1327502292. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Lever Brothers to Move Offices to New York City, Put Up 20-Story Building". Wall Street Journal. October 5, 1949. p. 13. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 131821377. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Luckman Resigns as Head of Lever" (PDF). The New York Times. January 19, 1950. p. 41. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- "Luckman Resigns $300,000 Job In Lever Brothers Policy Clash". New York Herald Tribune. January 19, 1950. p. 1. ProQuest 1327216432. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Muschamp, Herbert (January 28, 1999). "Charles Luckman, Architect Who Designed Penn Station's Replacement, Dies at 89". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- "Lever Bros. Building to Cost $4,500,000" (PDF). The New York Times. April 20, 1950. p. 52. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, p. 338.
- "Fuller Gets Contract On Lever Bros. Offices" (PDF). The New York Times. August 23, 1950. p. 50. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- "G.A. Fuller to Build Main Lever Office". New York Herald Tribune. August 23, 1950. p. 30. ProQuest 1326843884. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Offices Going Up on Park Avenue" (PDF). The New York Times. April 15, 1951. p. 218. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 19, 2021.
- "Framework of New Tower on Park Avenue". New York Herald Tribune. April 15, 1951. p. 1C. ProQuest 1291315059. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Peyton, Bernard, Jr. (April 30, 1952). "Lever House Dedicated; 250 Taken on Tour: 24-Story Building of Steel and Blue Glass Called as 'Sound as It Is Daring'". New York Herald Tribune. p. 19. ProQuest 1322203381. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Knox, Sanka (April 7, 1959). "Lever House Gets Sculpture Show; Guild of Artists Finds Glass Lobby Ideal Place to Put Annual Exhibit" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 35. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Deschin, Jacob (August 11, 1963). "Two New Exhibits; Group Show Offered by Heliographers -- Color Prints on Staten Island" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 105. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 12.
- Glueck, Grace (October 20, 1970). "Park Ave. Area Gets. Outdoor Mural". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Goldberger, Paul (November 21, 1982). "Architecture View; Lever House Awaits the Decision on Its Future". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Goldberger, Paul (April 28, 1977). "Design Notebook". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Moritz, Owen (November 28, 1982). "Surprise! Big money talks along Park Ave". New York Daily News. p. 59. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- Hampton, Rick (November 12, 1982). "Lever House a short-lived landmark?". The Record. p. 50. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- Dunlap, David W. (November 10, 1982). "Lever House Office Tower Declared a City Landmark". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Smith, Randall (November 10, 1982). "Famed Lever House May Be Demolished For Redevelopment: Glass-Slab Edifice in New York Is Object of a Row Between Two Real-Estate Interests". Wall Street Journal. p. 19. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 134674875. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Smith, Randall (March 21, 1983). "Lever House Status As Landmark Site Is Upheld by Panel: Manhattan Tower's Prospects Hinge on Fight Among Developers, Unilever Unit". Wall Street Journal. p. 19. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 134900702. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Dunlap, David W. (January 26, 1983). "Lever House Landmark Up for a Vote". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Goldman, John J. (March 21, 1983). "New Yorkers Seek to Save Lever House Skyscraper". The Daily News. p. 20. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- La Rosa, Paul (February 25, 1983). "Jackie O beats the drum for Lever House". New York Daily News. p. 199. Retrieved March 17, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- Moritz, Owen (February 9, 1983). "Unveil plan for Lever site". New York Daily News. p. 81. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- Goldberger, Paul (February 10, 1983). "Tower Plan for Lever House: Three-Way Struggle". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Dunlap, David W. (March 19, 1983). "Board Sustains Lever Building as a Landmark". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Morehouse, Ward, III (April 10, 1983). "Landmark Status of the Lever House Still a Controversy". The Palm Beach Post. p. 156. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- Smith, Randall (March 18, 1983). "Lever House Status As Landmark Seen Being Upheld Today: But the Long-Term Future Of Famed New York Tower Clouded by 3-Way Struggle". Wall Street Journal. p. 17. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 134903343. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "The City; Lever House Sues Over Its Lease". The New York Times. June 9, 1983. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- "Lever House in New York May Avert Destruction". Wall Street Journal. October 4, 1983. p. 12. ISSN 0099-9660. ProQuest 134803513. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Dunlap, David W. (January 27, 1999). "Commercial Real Estate; After One-Tenant History, Lever House Opens Up". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Clarke, Katherine (June 9, 2017). "Meet the family that's got Aby Rosen over a barrel at Lever House". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Gray, Christopher (July 28, 1996). "Streetscapes/Lever House;Park Avenue's First Glass House to Get a Face-Lift". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- "Postings: Landmark's Curtain Wall Is Deteriorating; Aging Lever House May Get a New Skin". The New York Times. October 22, 1995. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Dunlap, David W. (November 4, 1998). "Sarah Korein, 93, Whose Dainty Bearing Masked a Tough Property Investor, Is Dead". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
- Grant, Peter (October 27, 1998). "Lever House sold". New York Daily News. p. 129. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- Geiger, Daniel (December 31, 2016). "Ground wars: Surging property values are upending commercial landlords' ground leases". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- "Lever House Curtain Wall Replacement". Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Dunlap, David W. (December 29, 1999). "Commercial Real Estate; Designing a Restoration, and Words to Describe It". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Cuozzo, Steve (December 11, 2000). "Landmark Update – Lever House to Get Eatery, Noguchi Garden". New York Post. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Interior Design. Interior Design Publishing Company. 2005. p. 270.
- Diamonstein-Spielvogel, Barbaralee (2011). The Landmarks of New York. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-4384-3769-9.
- "Metro Business; Alcoa Will Renew New York Presence". The New York Times. November 26, 1999. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Paumgarten, Nick. "Lever House Restaurant". The New Yorker. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Hamilton, William L. (August 17, 2003). "Tonight's Special: Lever House". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Kludt, Amanda (April 8, 2009). "Lever House to Shutter for At Least A Few Months". Eater NY. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Sifton, Sam (January 6, 2010). "Casa Lever". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Kludt, Amanda (October 12, 2009). "Casa Lever Now Open". Eater NY. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Sifton, Sam (January 5, 2010). "Casa Lever". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
- Bagli, Charles V. (August 2, 2013). "Office Tower's Owners May Profit From Plan to Allow Sale of Landmarks' Air Rights". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Grant, Peter (November 26, 2019). "Why Own a Property When You Can Profit From the Dirt Below?". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Geiger, Daniel (May 8, 2018). "From profit to peril on Park Avenue". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Brenzel, Kathryn (May 8, 2018). "Lever House in "limbo": Bondholders move to foreclose on troubled property". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Brenzel, Kathryn (July 23, 2018). "Brookfield, Waterman take over ground lease at Lever House amid RFR's refi woes". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Weiss, Lois (July 24, 2018). "Brookfield venture likely to win control of landmarked skyscraper". New York Post. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Weiss, Lois (February 20, 2019). "Park Avenue's Lever House CMBS loan lost $68.3M: report". New York Post. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- "Troubled loan backing Lever House sees $68M in losses". The Real Deal New York. February 20, 2019. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- "RFR Sues Brookfield, Waterman over Lever House Sprinklers". The Real Deal New York. November 19, 2019. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- "Aby Rosen sues Philip Waterman over Lever House". The Real Deal New York. November 12, 2019. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Hall, Miriam (November 13, 2019). "RFR Realty Sues Tod Waterman Over Disputed Lever House Ground Lease Deal". Bisnow. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Weiss, Lois (May 27, 2020). "Aby Rosen Hands Over Lever House to Tod Waterman, Brookfield". The Real Deal New York. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Architectural Forum 1952, p. 102.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 9.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 10.
- Huxtable, Ada Louise (December 15, 1957). "Park Avenue School Of Architecture; Business and its new sleek and shiny temples have transformed a famous residential street" (PDF). The New York Times. p. 232. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 21, 2021.
- Stern, Mellins & Fishman 1995, pp. 341–342.
- Landmarks Preservation Commission 1982, p. 11.
- Jordy, William H. (1976). American buildings and their architects. 4. Oxford University Press. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-19-504218-4. OCLC 13821022.
- Goldberger, Paul (1982). The City Observed: New York : a Guide to the Architecture of Manhattan. Penguin. p. 156.
- Luckman, Charles (March 16, 1983). "How the Building of Lever House Changed Architecture – and My Life". Los Angeles Times. p. 33. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- "Frank Lloyd Wright Ridicules Architectural Schools as Waste". New York Herald Tribune. June 26, 1952. p. 17. ProQuest 1319928021. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Morgan, Edward P. (May 1952). "They Say: Edward P. Morgan". Journal of the American Institute of Architects. 17: 239.
- Mumford, Lewis (September 13, 1958). "The Sky Line: The Lesson of the Master". The New Yorker. 34: 151. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "Arch. League Forums Find 'Architecture in Decline'" (PDF). Architectural Record. 131 (1): 28. January 1962.
- "Lever House Wins Award". New York Herald Tribune. October 26, 1952. p. 2C. ProQuest 1313671156. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Architect Chapter to Give Citation to Lever House". New York Herald Tribune. February 24, 1953. p. 26. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Building Award Given; Fifth Ave. Group Presents 1st Prize to Lever House" (PDF). The New York Times. November 16, 1954. p. 31. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- "New York's Lever House joins a list of winners". Chicago Tribune. March 30, 1980. p. 127. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- "In Praise of the Classics: The AIA Twenty-five Year Award". AIArchitect. August 4, 2003. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
- Jencks, Charles (1987). Modern Movements in Architecture. A Penguin book: Art/architecture. Penguin Books. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-14-023005-5.
- Jordan, Robert Furneaux (1969). A Concise History of Western Architecture. World of art library. Thames & Hudson. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-500-18095-2.
- Hanson, Kitty (November 10, 1964). "Men Who Make It Possible To See Right Thru the City". New York Daily News. p. 469. Retrieved March 20, 2021 – via newspapers.com .
- Horsley, Carter B. (November 30, 1975). "In Glass Walls, a Reflected City Stands Beside the Real One: In Glass Walls, a Reflected City Emerges". The New York Times. p. 30. ISSN 0362-4331. ProQuest 120190548. Retrieved March 6, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- "Market for Office Space Still Strong, Peters Says". New York Herald Tribune. May 12, 1957. p. C1. ProQuest 1324234644. Retrieved March 21, 2021 – via ProQuest.
- Schlichting, Kurt C. (2001). Grand Central Terminal: Railroads, Architecture and Engineering in New York. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 180–181. ISBN 978-0-8018-6510-7.
- Gray, Christopher (May 14, 1989). "Is It Time to Redevelop Park Avenue Again?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
- Adams, Nicholas (2019). Gordon Bunshaft and SOM: Building Corporate Modernism. Yale University Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-300-22747-5.
- "Emek Business Center". Emporis. Retrieved March 18, 2021.
- Sennott, Stephen, ed. (2004). Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Architecture. Encyclopedia of 20th Century Architecture. Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-57958-433-7.
- Soi͡uz pisateleĭ SSSR. (1990). Soviet Literature. Foreign Languages Publishing House. p. 186.
- Dupré, Judith (2008). Skyscrapers – A History of the World's Most Extraordinary Buildings. Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 978-1-57912-787-9. OCLC 681544998.
- Kayden, Jerold S.; The Municipal Art Society of New York (2000). Privately Owned Public Space: The New York City Experience. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-36257-9.
- "Lever House" (PDF). New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. November 9, 1982.
- "The Lever House" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service. October 2, 1983.
- "Lever House complete" (PDF). Architectural Forum. 96 (6): 101–110. June 1952.
- "Lever House, New York: Glass and Steel Walls" (PDF). Architectural Record. 111: 131–135. June 1952.
- "Miniature Skyscraper of Blue Glass and Metal Challenges Postwar Craze for Over-building City Lots" (PDF). Architectural Forum. 92 (6). June 1950.
- Murray, Scott (2009). Contemporary Curtain Wall Architecture. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 978-1-56898-797-2.
- Stern, Robert A. M.; Mellins, Thomas; Fishman, David (1995). New York 1960: Architecture and Urbanism Between the Second World War and the Bicentennial. New York: Monacelli Press. ISBN 1-885254-02-4. OCLC 32159240.CS1 maint: ref duplicates default (link)
- Stichweh, Dirk (2009). New York Skyscrapers. Munich New York: Prestel. ISBN 978-3-7913-4054-8. OCLC 340850005.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lever House (Manhattan).|