Levine's sign

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Not to be confused with Levine scale.

Levine's sign is a clenched fist held over the chest to describe ischemic chest pain.[1] As the referred pain associated with ischemia radiates to the area of the left proximal forelimb, the right, unaffected arm is used to produce the gesture.

It is named for Samuel A. Levine (1891–1966), an influential American cardiologist, who first observed that many patients suffering from chest pain made this same sign to describe their symptoms. This clenched fist signal may be seen in patients with acute coronary syndrome (myocardial infarction and angina pectoris).

A variant of this sign which uses the entire palm instead of the clinched fist over the chest is commonly known as the Palm Sign and in Latin America, it is widely referred to as the Cossio's Sign or Cossio-Levine Sign. This sign is named after the famous Argentine Cardiologist, Pedro Alurralde Cossio (1900-1986) who described it sometime in 1934.[2]

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