Book of Leviticus
|Old Testament (Christianity)|
The Book of Leviticus (//; from Greek Λευιτικόν, Leuitikon, meaning "relating to the Levites") is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, and the third of five books of the Torah (or Pentateuch), and the third book of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. Its Hebrew name, Hebrew: וַיִּקְרָא, Vayikra/Wayyiqrā, comes from its first word, "And He called." The English name is from the Latin Leviticus, taken in turn from Greek and a reference to the Levites, the tribe of Aaron, from whom the priests descended. The book, however, addresses all the people of Israel (1:2) though some passages address the priests specifically (6:8). Most of its chapters (1–7, 11–27) consist of God's speeches to Moses which he is commanded to repeat to the Israelites. This takes place within the story of the Israelites' Exodus after they escaped Egypt and reached Mt. Sinai (Exodus 19:1). The book of Exodus narrates how Moses led the Israelites in building the Tabernacle (Exodus 35–40) based on God's instructions (Exodus 25–31). Then in Leviticus, God tells the Israelites and their priests how to make offerings in the Tabernacle and how to conduct themselves while camped around the holy tent sanctuary. Leviticus takes place during the month or month-and-a-half between the completion of the Tabernacle (Exodus 40:17) and the Israelites' departure from Sinai (Numbers 1:1, 10:11).
The instructions of Leviticus emphasize ritual, legal and moral practices rather than beliefs. Nevertheless, they reflect the world view of the creation story in Genesis 1 that God wishes to live with humans. The book teaches that faithful performance of the sanctuary rituals can make that possible, so long as the people avoid sin and impurity whenever possible. The rituals, especially the sin and guilt offerings, provide the means to gain forgiveness for sins (Leviticus 4–5) and purification from impurities (Leviticus 11–16) so that God can continue to live in the Tabernacle in the midst of the people.
The traditional view is that Leviticus was compiled by Moses, or that the material in it goes back to his time, but internal clues suggest that the book developed much later in Israel's history and was completed either near the end of the Judean monarchy in the late seventh century BCE or in the exilic and post-exilic period of the sixth and fifth centuries BCE. Scholars debate whether it was written primarily for Jewish worship in exile that centered on reading or preaching, or was aimed instead at worshipers at temples in Jerusalem and Samaria. but they are practically unanimous that the book had a long period of growth, and that although it includes some material of considerable antiquity, it reached its present form in the Persian period (538–332 BCE).
- 1 Structure
- 2 Summary
- 3 Composition
- 4 Themes
- 5 Subsequent tradition
- 6 Contents according to Judaism's weekly Torah portions
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
I. Laws on sacrifice (1:1–7:38)
- A. Instructions for the laity on bringing offerings (1:1–6:7)
- 1–5. The types of offering: burnt, cereal, peace, purification, reparation (or sin) offerings (ch. 1–5)
- B. Instructions for the priests (6:1–7:38)
- 1–6. The various offerings, with the addition of the priests' cereal offering (6:1–7:36)
- 7. Summary (7:37–38)
II. Institution of the priesthood (8:1–10:20)
- A. Ordination of Aaron and his sons (ch. 8)
- B. Aaron makes the first sacrifices (ch. 9)
- C. Judgement on Nadab and Abihu (ch. 10)
III. Uncleanliness and its treatment (11:1–15:33)
- A. Unclean animals (ch. 11)
- B. Uncleanliness caused by childbirth (ch. 12)
- C. Unclean diseases (ch. 13)
- D. Cleansing of diseases (ch. 14)
- E. Unclean discharges (ch. 15)
IV. Day of Atonement: purification of the tabernacle from the effects of uncleanliness and sin (ch. 16)
V. Prescriptions for practical holiness (the Holiness Code, chs. 17–26)
- A. Sacrifice and food (ch. 17)
- B. Sexual behaviour (ch. 18)
- C. Neighbourliness (ch.19)
- D. Grave crimes (ch. 20)
- E. Rules for priests (ch. 21)
- F. Rules for eating sacrifices (ch. 22)
- G. Festivals (ch.23)
- H. Rules for the tabernacle (ch. 24:1–9)
- I. Blasphemy (ch. 24:10–23)
- J. Sabbatical and Jubilee years (ch. 25)
- K. Exhortation to obey the law: blessing and curse (ch. 26)
V. Redemption of votive gifts (ch. 27)
Chapters 1–5 describe the various sacrifices from the sacrificers' point of view, although the priests are essential for handling the blood. Chapters 6–7 go over much the same ground, but from the point of view of the priest, who, as the one actually carrying out the sacrifice and dividing the "portions", needs to know how this is to be done. Sacrifices are to be divided between God, the priest, and the offerers, although in some cases the entire sacrifice is a single portion consigned to God—i.e., burnt to ashes.
Chapters 8–10 describe the consecration by Moses of Aaron and his sons as the first priests, the first sacrifices, and God's destruction of two of Aaron's sons for ritual offenses. The purpose is to underline the character of altar priesthood (i.e., those priests empowered to offer sacrifices to God) as an Aaronite privilege, and the responsibilities and dangers of their position.
With sacrifice and priesthood established, chapters 11–15 instruct the lay people on purity (or cleanliness). Eating certain animals produces uncleanliness, as does giving birth; certain skin diseases (but not all) are unclean, as are certain conditions affecting walls and clothing (mildew and similar conditions); and genital discharges, including female menses and male gonorrhea, are unclean. The reasoning behind the food rules are obscure; for the rest the guiding principle seems to be that all these conditions involve a loss of "life force", usually but not always blood.
|“||If a man's hair falls out from his head, he is bald; he is clean.||”|
— Leviticus 13:40
Leviticus 16 concerns the Day of Atonement. This is the only day on which the High Priest is to enter the holiest part of the sanctuary, the holy of holies. He is to sacrifice a bull for the sins of the priests, and a goat for the sins of the laypeople. A second goat is to be sent into the desert to "Azazel", bearing the sins of the whole people. Azazel may be a wilderness-demon, but its identity is mysterious.
Chapters 17–26 are the Holiness code. It begins with a prohibition on all slaughter of animals outside the Temple, even for food, and then prohibits a long list of sexual contacts and also child sacrifice. The "holiness" injunctions which give the code its name begin with the next section: penalties are imposed for the worship of Molech, consulting mediums and wizards, cursing one's parents and engaging in unlawful sex. Priests are instructed on mourning rituals and acceptable bodily defects. Blasphemy is to be punished with death, and rules for the eating of sacrifices are set out; the calendar is explained, and rules for sabbatical and Jubilee years set out; and rules are made for oil lamps and bread in the sanctuary; and rules are made for slavery. The code ends by telling the Israelites they must choose between the law and prosperity on the one hand, or, on the other, horrible punishments, the worst of which will be expulsion from the land.
Chapter 27 is a disparate and probably late addition telling about persons and things dedicated to the Lord and how vows can be redeemed instead of fulfilled.
The majority of scholars have concluded that the Pentateuch received its final form during the Persian period (538–332 BCE). Nevertheless, Leviticus had a long period of growth before reaching that form.
The entire book of Leviticus is composed of Priestly literature. Most scholars see chapters 1–16 (the Priestly code) and chapters 17–26 (the Holiness code) as the work of two related schools, but while the Holiness material employs the same technical terms as the Priestly code, it broadens their meaning from pure ritual to the theological and moral, turning the ritual of the Priestly code into a model for the relationship of Israel to God: as the tabernacle is made holy by the presence of the Lord and kept apart from uncleanliness, so He will dwell among Israel when Israel is purified (made holy) and separated from other peoples. The ritual instructions in the Priestly code apparently grew from priests giving instruction and answering questions about ritual matters; the Holiness code (or H) used to be regarded as a separate document later incorporated into Leviticus, but it seems better to think of the Holiness authors as editors who worked with the Priestly code and actually produced Leviticus as we now have it.
A burnt text that was excavated from an ancient Synagogue in Ein Gedi in 1970, and has been carbon dated to the late 5th century AD, was recently discovered to contain verses from the second chapter of Leviticus, making it the oldest piece of the Torah ever discovered after the Dead Sea Scrolls. The text was unreadable until analyzed with a micro CT scanner that was then used to recreate a 3D image of the scroll. It is the first Torah scroll to be found in an ancient Synagogue.
Many scholars argue that the rituals of Leviticus have a theological meaning concerning Israel's relationship with its God. Jacob Milgrom has been especially influential in spreading this view. He maintained that the priestly regulations in Leviticus expressed a rational system of theological thought. The writers expected them to be put into practice in Israel’s temple, so the rituals would express this theology as well, as well as ethical concern for the poor. Milgrom also argued that the book’s purity regulations (chaps. 11-15) are based in ethical thinking. Many other interpreters have followed Milgrom in exploring the theological and ethical implications of Leviticus’s regulations (e.g. Marx, Balentine), though some have questioned how systematic they really are. Ritual, therefore, is not a series of actions undertaken for their own sake, but a means of maintaining the relationship between God, the world, and humankind.
Burnt Offerings & Sacrifices
While not the only form of offering required by God in Leviticus, the requirement of burnt offerings was delegated to the Levite Priests by The Law of Moses in Leviticus, and was a central hub to the ancient Israeli religion. Sacrificing was first seen with Cain and Abel, was repeated by Noah, and Abraham (Genesis 15 & 17), and was formally established by God through Moses (to initiate the Exodus) while Israel still lived under Egyptian captivity (Exodus 3:12, 5:1), in order to free them from slavery (Exodus 3:7-10).
Beginning far back with Cain & Abel (Genesis 4:4-5), Cain first brought a grain offering, then his younger brother Abel brought a Burnt offering from his flocks. God was pleased with Abel's meat offering, but was disdainful toward Cains offering of grains.
Noah (Genesis 8:20-22), sacrificed one of "every clean animal" to God after the flood, after which God made the rainbow to symbolize His promise never again to curse the Earth as he did with the Flood.
Abraham, was told by God to offer animals when Abram asked God to verify His promise to him. Later God told Abraham to offer his Son Isaac as a burnt offering(Genesis 22:2), as a test of faith. (God later stopped Him before he killed Isaac, and designated a Ram instead (Genesis 22:11-13)).
The earliest notion of killing animals in the Bible is attributed to God Himself (Genesis 3:21), where God gives Adam and Eve clothing made of skins after The Fall, from eating from the "Tree of The Knowledge of Good & Evil" (Genesis, Chapter 3).
In the story of the Fall, they had tried to cover themselves with Fig leaves, showing the first presence of shame & sin in scripture, demonstrated as the nakedness felt from broken fellowship with God, coming from their new ability of awareness of both Good & Evil, but perverted since obtained by disobeying God. However, leaves were insufficient, so God gave them skins of animals to help them cover up.
In Messianic theology, this sets the scene for the rituals found in Leviticus later, and then the future sacrifice of The Messiah. Seen in the New Testament as the "Fulfillment of the Law", this is the last and only other sacrifice actually made by God Himself in the Bible, and was meant to be the end of all sacrifices.
In both of these cases, Sacrifice was done in order to deal with the problem of Sin and Shame brought to us in The Fall - as God's ordained way of restoring fellowship and communication with Mankind.
We find in Genesis that Cain brought a sacrifice of grains & plants, followed by Abel who brought an offering of the firstborn of his flock (Genesis 4:3-7). We see there that God preferred the sacrifice of Abel (animal sacrifices) over that of Cain (grain offerings). The presence of this story in scripture tells us that there was a culture of offering Sacrifices and Burnt Offerings already going on from the time of early Man.
It is in this way that the Theology of Sacrifice demonstrated in Leviticus can be traced back to the first sin in the Fall of Man.
II.Instructions For Burnt Offerings
The book of Leviticus contains arguably the most exhaustive body of instructions for animal sacrifice, grain, drink, and other offerings, religious ritual, new laws, and sundry laws, and the like in the whole Bible - second only by Deuteronomy (the "Second [rendering of the] Law), and Exodus, where the original basic law was expounded with the Ten Commandments on Mount Sinai (also called Mount Horeb).
The instructions for Sacrifice in the Book of Leviticus signify the structure of the portion of Jewish Law designated to the Levites by God in the desert just months after they were led out of Egypt, and before the forty years of wandering prior to entering the Promised land (Numbers 32:13). These instructions implicitly describe God's ordinance of Animal Sacrifice as the (1) primary form of repentance & atonement, and the (2) secondary form of worship (the first form, of course, being fidelity and love for God).
Thus the Book of Leviticus provides many deep details as to the myriad types of sacrifices required, and the many sins that they may atone for. Leviticus also gives terms and provisions for sins that may not be atoned for by any Sin Offering such as sins that were punishable only by excommunication, or by death.
III. Ancient Significance of Burnt Offerings
A. Human Sacrifice
Leviticus reveals a solid contrast to the Human Sacrifices of the many neighboring cultures, such as worshipers of Molech (Leviticus 18:21, 20:2) in those days, to whom pagans gave their children as burnt offerings, and Baal, to whom all kinds of worship was ascribed. These pagan cultures gave Human Sacrifices to gain approval of their deity, but in stark contrast, Israel used Animals and other offerings in recognition of the commandments of God.
Those who died under The Law due to disobedience were being removed & disowned from the presence of God & His People, never sacrificed to God. This was done so that there is no connection between God's People Israel, and the neighboring child sacrificing, and perhaps even cannibalistic cultures that may have been eager to assimilate Israel through intermarriage, worship, war, or slavery.
B. Animal Sacrifice
The Theological significance of Animal Sacrifice in the Bible stems from the story of Adam & Eve in The Fall. Sacrifice is seen in the Bible as man's recognition that there is a God.
Before the Law was given through Moses, mankind appeared to be on his own, and God picked and chose whom he would recognize and bless, based upon their merit, and His favor.
In contrast, when God gave this law to Moses, Sacrifice became seen as the only symbolic act of repentance or fellowship that could bridge Mankind's distance from God that the Fall caused, once any Sin had been committed by anyone. Sacrifice temporarily removed shame of one person from all the People, and fewer times, of all the people from any one person - such as the covering of the skins on Adam & Eve by God. It was intended to make God's People holy and was always seen as a symbolic act, that required constant redoing.
C. Grain and Drink Offerings
Not all offerings were made with animals, and not all were burnt offerings. The book of Leviticus delegates the usage of Grain and Drink offerings for peace and fellowship with God (Leviticus 19:5-8; 23:10-14). Sometimes they were eaten, and sometimes they were burned, depending on the purpose and event.
Since the Blood of the animal was seen to contain the Life of the animal, the blood of an innocent animal being spilled also symbolically "poured out" that animals innocence onto Israel. The Burning of the animal, in various ways, parts, and types of animals, & organs, would send up an aroma that was "pleasing to The Lord". Thus through Burnt Offerings and considerable levels of atonement, Israel was to strive to remain Holy.
IV. Sacrifices Sealed the Covenant
With the giving of this Law in Leviticus, God commits Himself to the same covenant pact as Israel, and Israel to God. That is, if they do things exactly the way described in Leviticus, Israel would continue to enjoy God's favor, and Israel and God will continue to dwell together in peace as long as this happened.
This fulfills His promise to Abraham of countless descendants in the Promised Land (Genesis 15 & 17), and left the future outcome of it in their hands.
In a sense, The words written to the Levite Priests and all of Israel in Leviticus are in whole in and of themselves a fulfillment of God's promise, and evidence to the Jews of the advent of God's promise being fulfilled.
V. Influence of Burnt Sacrifices
The influence of the Sacrificial System on Israel had multiple results. Since coming out of almost 500 years of Egyptian domination, which eventually turned into forced captivity, Israel had been influenced and subdued by a long culture of polytheism. Much of the Hebrew act of animal sacrifice was despised by Egypt (Exodus 8:25-26), and thus Israel had been many centuries separated from their old tradition, passed on by Abraham (Genesis 22:2-13), Isaac, and Jacob before the migration to Egypt 480 years earlier in the days of the Famine, and of Joseph (Genesis 47:13-27). This newer, more organized system was intended to develop an extreme respect and fear in them for the God of Abraham, and of Moses, in contrast to the many gods seen worshiped in Egypt, and reverence for devoted obedience to this (then) New Covenant.
Animal Sacrifice also made breaking of the Covenant severely inconvenient. A person who committed a sin would perhaps have to go out of his way to sell belongings, gather or borrow money, and do what had to be done to purchase the smallest to largest animal necessary for that particular sin, perhaps resulting in a severe financial crisis, in order to avoid being cut off from His/Her People, or worse, death. Thus the Levitical system of sacrifice created a sometimes severe hardship on many people in the event of straying a single day from The Law.
Conclusion about Sacrifices
The presentation of Sacrifice in scripture gives us many important clues as to the mind of God, and the beliefs of ancient Jewish people.
Initially, sacrifice happened as an act of mercy from God, in giving clothes to Adam & Eve (Genesis 3:21). Next, it was offered back formally with free will by Cain & Abel (Genesis 4:3-7), and again, after the Flood, a burnt offering by Noah (Genesis 8:20-22). Then Abraham made a non burnt sacrifice (Genesis 15:8-17), and a burnt one(Genesis 22:2-13) as acts of fellowship with God, and in obedience to receive & accept God's promise. Moses was commanded to Lead Israel out to make Sacrifices in the Desert (Exodus 3:12, 5:1), as a way of stirring up the Pharaoh and freeing Israel from Captivity. Later the Levitical Law was given to hand down to the people for many generations (Exodus 19 - Deuteronomy 34) as they went through the wilderness to possess their inheritance – the Promised Land - and is seen as a fulfillment of God's promise.
In Leviticus, we see the sacrifice of Animals as a requirement, and act of judgement & atonement of Israel by God through Moses (Exodus 20, and Exodus 19 - Deuteronomy 34), to be practiced through the work of the Levites through all generations.
These sacrificial acts described implicitly here in Leviticus served the purpose of both appeasing their God, and providing much needed structure to the newly freed nation of Israel. Once the offerings began in the Desert, they were expected perpetually, forever, until the whole Law was Fulfilled and sin abolished - whether it be a peace offering, a burnt offering, a sin offering, etc. This system demonstrated that to dwell with God peacefully as sinful Man will cost everything valued, but also left the hope & promise of eventual recovery from the Fall of Man that before the Law of Moses, no person on earth knew was possible.
References: Holy Bible 
Kehuna (Jewish Priesthood)
The main function of the priests is service at the altar, and only the sons of Aaron are priests in the full sense. (Ezekiel also distinguishes between altar-priests and lower Levites, but in Ezekiel the altar-priests are called sons of Zadok instead of sons of Aaron; many scholars see this as a remnant of struggles between different priestly factions in First Temple times, resolved by the Second Temple into a hierarchy of Aaronite altar-priests and lower-level Levites, including singers, gatekeepers and the like).
In chapter 10, God kills Nadab and Abihu, the oldest sons of Aaron, for offering "strange incense". Fortunately, Aaron has two sons left. Commentators have read various messages in the incident: a reflection of struggles between priestly factions in the post–Exilic period (Gerstenberger); or a warning against offering incense outside the Temple, where there might be the risk of invoking strange gods (Milgrom). In any case, the sanctuary has been polluted by the bodies of the two dead priests, leading into the next theme, holiness.
Uncleanliness and purity
Ritual purity is essential for an Israelite to be able to approach God and remain part of the community. Uncleanliness threatens holiness; Chapters 11–15 review the various causes of uncleanliness and describe the rituals which will restore cleanliness; cleanliness is to be maintained through observation of the rules on sexual behaviour, family relations, land ownership, worship, sacrifice, and observance of holy days.
Yahweh dwells with Israel in the holy of holies. All of the priestly ritual is focused on Yahweh and the construction and maintenance of a holy space, but sin generates impurity, as do everyday events such as childbirth; impurity pollutes the holy dwelling place. Failure to ritually purify the sacred space could result in God leaving, which would be disastrous.
Through sacrifice the priest "makes atonement" for sin and the offerer is forgiven (but only if God accepts the sacrifice—forgiveness comes only from God). Atonement rituals involve blood, poured or sprinkled, as the symbol of the life of the victim: the blood has the power to wipe out or absorb the sin. The role of atonement is reflected structurally in two-part division of the book: chapters 1–16 call for the establishment of the institution for atonement, and chapters 17–27 call for the life of the atoned community in holiness.
The consistent theme of chapters 17–26 is the repeated phrase, "Be holy, for I the Lord your God am holy." Holiness in ancient Israel had a different meaning than in contemporary usage: it might have been regarded as the "god-ness" of God, an invisible but physical and potentially dangerous force. Specific objects, or even days, can be holy, but they derive holiness from being connected with God—the seventh day, the tabernacle, and the priests all derive their holiness from God. As a result, Israel had to maintain its own holiness in order to live safely alongside God.
The need for holiness is directed to the possession of the Promised Land (Canaan), where the Jews will become a holy people: "You shall not do as they do in the land of Egypt where you dwelt, and you shall not do as they do in the land of Canaan to which I am bringing you...You shall do my ordinances and keep my statutes...I am the Lord, your God" (ch. 18:3).
Leviticus, as part of the Torah, became the law book of Jerusalem's second temple as well as of the Samaritan temple. Evidence of its influence was found among the Dead Sea Scrolls, which included fragments of seventeen manuscripts of Leviticus dating from the third to the first centuries BCE. Many other Qumran scrolls cite the book, especially the Temple Scroll and 4QMMT.
Leviticus's instructions for animal offerings have not been observed by Jews or Christians since the first century CE. Because of the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE, Jewish worship has focused on prayer and the study of Torah. Nevertheless, Leviticus constitutes a major source of Jewish law and is traditionally the first book taught to children in the Rabbinic system of education. There are two main Midrashim on Leviticus—the halakhic one (Sifra) and a more aggadic one (Vayikra Rabbah).
In the New Testament, the letter to the Hebrews in particular uses ideas and images from Leviticus to describe Christ as the high priest who offers his own blood as a sin offering. Therefore, Christians do not make animal offerings either, as Gordon Wenham summarized: "With the death of Christ the only sufficient "burnt offering" was offered once and for all, and therefore the animal sacrifices which foreshadowed Christ's sacrifice were made obsolete."
Christians generally have the view that the New Covenant supersedes (i.e., replaces) the Old Testament's ritual laws, which includes many of the rules in Leviticus. Christians therefore have usually not observed Leviticus' rules regarding diet, purity, and agriculture. Christian teachings have differed, however, as to where to draw the line between ritual and moral regulations.
Contents according to Judaism's weekly Torah portions
- For detailed contents see:
- Vayikra, on Leviticus 1–5: Laws of the sacrifices
- Tzav, on Leviticus 6–8: Sacrifices, ordination of the priests
- Shemini, on Leviticus 9–11: Tabernacle consecrated, alien fire, dietary laws
- Tazria, on Leviticus 12–13: Childbirth, skin disease, clothing
- Metzora, on Leviticus 14–15: Skin disease, infected houses, genital discharges
- Acharei Mot, on Leviticus 16–18: Yom Kippur, centralized offerings, sexual practices
- Kedoshim, on Leviticus 19–20: Holiness, penalties for transgressions
- Emor, on Leviticus 21–24: Rules for priests, holy days, lights and bread, a blasphemer
- Behar, on Leviticus 25–25: Sabbatical year, debt servitude limited
- Bechukotai, on Leviticus 26–27: Blessings and curses, payment of vows
- Gorman, pp.4–5, 14–16
- Wenham, p.8 ff.
- Gerstenberger, p.4
- Watts (2013), pp.104–107
- Grabbe (1998), p.92
- Wenham, pp.3–4
- Hartley, pp.vii-viii
- Milgrom (1991), pp.v-x
- Watts (2013), pp.12-20
- Grabbe (2006), p.208
- Kugler, Hartin, p.82
- Kugler, Hartin, pp.82–83
- Kugler, Hartin
- Kugler, Hartin, p.83
- "Leviticus 25 NIV". niv.scripturetext.com. Retrieved 2014-09-24.
- Kugler, Hartin, pp.83–84
- Kugler, Hartin, p.84
- Calvin's Commentaries, Volume II, "Harmony of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, p177ff
- Bonar, Andrew, Leviticus, p.75ff.
- Newsom, p.26
- Levine (2006), p.11
- Houston, p.102
- Houston, pp.102–103
- "CT scan of charred scroll yields oldest Biblical remnant after Dead Sea Scrolls". The Times of Israel.
- Milgrom (2004), pp.8-16.
- Milgrom (1991), pp.704-41.
- Watts (2013), pp.40-54.
- Balentine (1999) p.150
- Grabbe (2006), p.211
- Grabbe (2006), p.211 (fn.11)
- Houston, p.110
- Davies, Rogerson, p.101
- Marx, p.104
- Balentine (2002), p.8
- Gorman, pp.10–11
- Houston, p.106
- Houston, p.107
- Knierim, p.114
- Rodd, p.7
- Brueggemann, p.99
- Rodd, p.8
- Clines, p.56
- Watts (2013), p.10
- Wenham, p.65
- Watts (2013), p. 77–86
Translations of Leviticus
- Leviticus at Bible gateway
Commentaries on Leviticus
- Balentine, Samuel E (2002). Leviticus. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664237356.
- Gerstenberger, Erhard S (1996). Leviticus: A Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664226732.
- Gorman, Frank H (1997). Divine presence and community: a commentary on the Book of Leviticus. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802801104.
- Grabbe, Lester (1998). "Leviticus". In John Barton. Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005.
- Hartley, John E. (1992). Leviticus. Word. ISBN 0849902037.
- Houston, Walter J (2003). "Leviticus". In James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson. Eerdmans Bible Commentary. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Kleinig, John W (2004). Leviticus. Concordia Publishing House. ISBN 9780570063179.
- Levine, Baruch A. (1989). JPS Torah Commentary: Leviticus. Jewish Publication Society.
- Milgrom, Jacob (1998–2001). Leviticus 1-16, Leviticus 17-22, Leviticus 23-27. New Haven: Yale.
- Milgrom, Jacob (2004). Leviticus: A Book of Ritual and Ethics. Minneapolis: Fortress.
- Watts, James W. (2013). Leviticus 1-10. Leuven: Peeters. ISBN 9042929847.
- Wenham, Gordon (1979). The book of Leviticus. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802825223.
- Balentine, Samuel E (1999). The Torah's vision of worship. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451418088.
- Bandstra, Barry L (2004). Reading the Old Testament: an introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Wadsworth. ISBN 9780495391050.
- Brueggemann, Walter (2002). Reverberations of faith: a theological handbook of Old Testament themes. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 9780664222314.
- Campbell, Antony F; O'Brien, Mark A (1993). Sources of the Pentateuch: texts, introductions, annotations. Fortress Press. ISBN 9781451413670.
- Clines, David A (1997). The theme of the Pentateuch. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 9780567431967.
- Davies, Philip R; Rogerson, John W (2005). The Old Testament world. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780664230258.
- Dawes, Gregory W (2005). Introduction to the Bible. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814628355.
- Gilbert, Christopher (2009). A Complete Introduction to the Bible. Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809145522.
- Grabbe, Lester (2006). "The priests in Leviticus". In Rolf Rendtorff, Robert A. Kugler. The Book of Leviticus: Composition and Reception. Brill. ISBN 9789004126343.
- Knierim, Rolf P (1995). The task of Old Testament theology: substance, method, and cases. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802807151.
- Kugler, Robert; Hartin, Patrick (2009). An Introduction to the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802846365.
- Levine, Baruch (2006). "Leviticus: Its Literary History and Location in Biblical Literature". In Rolf Rendtorff, Robert A. Kugler. The Book of Leviticus: Composition and Reception. Brill. ISBN 9789004126343.
- Marx, Alfred (2006). "The theology of the sacrifice according to Leviticus 1–7". In Rolf Rendtorff, Robert A. Kugler. The Book of Leviticus: Composition and Reception. Brill. ISBN 9789004126343.
- McDermott, John J (2002). Reading the Pentateuch: a historical introduction. Pauline Press. ISBN 9780809140824.
- Newsom, Carol Ann (2004). The self as symbolic space: constructing identity and community at Qumran. BRILL. ISBN 9789004138032.
- Nihan, Christophe (2007). From Priestly Torah to Pentateuch: A Study in the Composition of the Book of Leviticus. Tuebingen: Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 9783161492570.
- Rodd, Cyril S (2001). Glimpses of a strange land: studies in Old Testament ethics. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567087539.
- Rogerson, J.W (1991). Genesis 1–11. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567083388.
- Van Seters, John (1998). "The Pentateuch". In Steven L. McKenzie, Matt Patrick Graham. The Hebrew Bible today: an introduction to critical issues. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256524.
- Ska, Jean-Louis (2006). Introduction to reading the Pentateuch. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575061221.
- Watts, James W. (2007). Ritual and Rhetoric in Leviticus: From Sacrifice to Scripture. New York: Cambridge. ISBN 9780521871938.
- Wenham, Gordon (2003). Exploring the Old Testament: The Pentateuch. SPCK.
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Online versions of Leviticus:
- Leviticus at Mechon-Mamre (Jewish Publication Society translation)
- Leviticus (The Living Torah) Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's translation and commentary at Ort.org
- Vayikra—Levitichius (Judaica Press) translation [with Rashi's commentary] at Chabad.org
- ויקרא Vayikra—Leviticus (Hebrew—English at Mechon-Mamre.org)
- Christian translations:
- The Book of Leviticus, Douay Rheims Version, with Bishop Challoner Commentaries
- Online Bible at GospelHall.org (King James Version)
- oremus Bible Browser (New Revised Standard Version)
- oremus Bible Browser (Anglicized New Revised Standard Version)
- Leviticus public domain audiobook at LibriVox Various versions
Free Online Bibliography on Leviticus:
Book of Leviticus
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