Lexus LS (XF40)
|Lexus LS (XF40)|
|Assembly||Japan: Tahara, Aichi (Tahara plant)|
|Designer||Yo Hiruta (2003, 2004)|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Full-size luxury car|
|Body style||4-door sedan|
|Platform||Toyota N platform|
|Engine||4.6 L 1UR-FE V8
4.6 L 1UR-FSE V8
5.0 L 2UR-FSE V8
|Transmission||8-speed AA80E RWD automatic
8-speed AA80F AWD automatic
CVT L110F automatic (hybrid)
|Wheelbase||SWB: 2,969 mm (116.9 in)
LWB: 3,091 mm (121.7 in)
SWB: 5,029 mm (198.0 in)
LWB: 5,151 mm (202.8 in)
SWB: 5,060 mm (199.2 in)
LWB: 5,179 mm (203.9 in)
|Width||1,875 mm (73.8 in)|
|Height||1,476 mm (58.1 in)
1,481 mm (58.3 in) (hybrid)
1,466 mm (57.7 in)
|Curb weight||SWB: 1,950–2,320 kg (4,300–5,110 lb)
LWB: 2,040–2,380 kg (4,500–5,250 lb)
The Lexus LS (XF40) is the fourth generation of the Lexus LS line of flagship sedans. Lexus debuted the model line at the 2006 North American International Auto Show, with variants including the standard wheelbase LS 460 (USF40) and long wheelbase LS 460 L (USF41); the chassis codes (USF40/USF41) are derived from the fourth generation XF40 platform code and UR series engine designation. In development from 2001, the final design was selected for the V8 models in late 2003, with the hybrid variant's design finalized in 2004. Introduced at the 2006 New York International Auto Show, all-wheel drive hybrid models, the standard wheelbase LS 600h (UVF45) and long wheelbase LS 600h L (UVF46), joined the lineup in the 2008 model year. The LS 460 and LS 460 L models feature a 4.6 L UR series V8 and an 8-speed automatic transmission, while hybrid models are powered by a 5.0 L UR series V8 engine equipped with electric motors, with a continuously variable transmission and all-wheel drive. All-wheel drive versions of the non-hybrid LS 460 (USF45) and LS 460 L (USF46) models were introduced at the 2008 Moscow International Motor Show. The XF40 received updates for the 2010 and 2013 model years.
Since its introduction, multiple fourth generation Lexus LS models have been sold worldwide, including standard, long wheelbase, hybrid, and all-wheel-drive versions. At its introduction, the LS 600h L became the most expensive sedan produced in Japan, with a sticker price of approximately US$125,000.
- 1 Design and engineering
- 2 Variants
- 3 Limited editions
- 4 Concept models
- 5 Specifications
- 6 Awards
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Design and engineering
The fourth generation Lexus flagship was the first LS to receive the styling cues of Lexus' new design direction, L-finesse. The design features body forms running the length of the car, with wheel arches, arrow-shaped chrome trim, a grille set slightly below the level of the headlamps, and a fastback rear decklid. Compared to the previous generation LS, the forward and aft coefficient of lift was reduced to 0.02 and 0.01, respectively, while aerodynamic drag remained the same (Cd 0.26). Exterior-wise, the LS 460 L has a similar profile as the LS 460, with identical overhangs in both front and rear; the rear passenger doors are noticeably longer in the stretched model. Design patents for the vehicle's exterior design, including front and rear fascias, side windows, and lights, were filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office on 3 October 2005.
Additional details of the design include adaptive headlamps housed in hand polished surrounds designed to look like Baccarat crystal tumblers, chrome exhaust vents integrated into the rear bumper, and "L"/"S" curve shapes. The fenders are produced using a 5200-ton press, which when introduced made it the world's strongest stamping press. The model's new paint finish is applied to bare-metal body panels which are first prepared by a six-axis buffing robot with 3D movements, the entire paint finish is wet-sanded twice by hand between layers of paint application. Both front and rear window frames are each constructed from a single die-cast zinc piece, plated in chrome and then polished by hand.
Interior features include a 19-speaker Mark Levinson Reference Surround Sound System, Gracenote, and a 30 GB HDD with room for 2,000 songs. The fifth generation HDD-based Lexus navigation system features XM NavTraffic, a real-time traffic monitoring system with dynamic rerouting (in the U.S., and similar systems elsewhere). Keyless SmartAccess with push-button start, Optitron instrument panel with TFT multi-information display, auxiliary MP3 player input, and a 5-position tire pressure display are standard equipment. A 24-hour concierge/emergency aid service, Lexus Link (later Lexus Enform), was offered in North America, with the analogous G-Link system offered in Japan. Japanese market LS sedans also feature MiniDisc compatibility, television reception, onboard security surveillance cameras, and remote cellphone access.
Comfort and convenience features range from a 16-way adjustable heated and cooled driver seat to a rear cabin with power reclining memory seats, a cool box, and five powered sunshades. Certain versions of the LS can be equipped with climate control features such as first automobile ceiling air diffusers, air purifiers, air ionisers, and four-zone climate control with infrared body temperature sensors. The leather on the seats and steering wheel are made smoother than previous models, due to being buffed longer in production, the steering wheel is buffed for three hours and incorporates a whip stitching pattern. Upgraded materials (such as a headliner made out of ecsaine, a suede-like material used by couturier Yves Saint-Laurent) are offered for the interior. Inside the wood veneer trim has been laminated to aluminum instead of fiberglass by Yamaha's piano craftsmen. A special-order "Executive" seating package on long wheelbase models includes a rear seat DVD entertainment system with ceiling fold-down LCD screen, fixed center console with a swivel tray table, and a passenger-side shiatsu and shoulder massaging ottoman seat.
The Intelligent Parking Assist System feature (also called Advanced Parking Guidance System) can parallel-park or reverse-park the LS into a preselected space with minimal brake input at the push of a button. This feature utilizes the backup camera and parking sensors. Other drive-assist features include Dynamic Radar Cruise Control, which can accelerate and brake while monitoring traffic (similar to Mercedes-Benz's Distronic Plus), a Brake Hold button, which prevents creeping forward motion when the driver's foot is off the brake pedal, and the Automatic Parking Brake, which can engage the parking brake simultaneously whenever the transmission is shifted to Park.
The Lane Keeping Assist (not available on the LS 600h due to conflict with LED headlamps) feature includes the Lane Departure Warning (LDW) and Lane Keep (LK) systems. When activated, the LDW system will issue an audiovisual warning and LK will apply a brief corrective steering response when veering motion is detected. The LK system (activated when the radar cruise control is engaged) will actively provide continued steering assist.
Debuted on the fourth generation Lexus LS, the next-generation Pre-Crash System (Pre-Collision in the U.S.) offers forward and rear protection. The Frontal Pre-Crash system will activate a warning buzzer and red dash lights to alert the driver if a potential hazard is detected in the vehicle's path. If the system detects a potential collision, the system will adjust steering and braking responsiveness. If a collision is determined to be unavoidable, the seatbelt pretensioners will activate, and the brakes will automatically engage to slow the vehicle. The Rear Pre-Crash system, the first active rear collision safety feature in an automobile, utilizes trunk-mounted obstacle detection and warning systems; if a rear collision is deemed unavoidable, sensor-equipped Pre-Crash Intelligent Headrests in the front seats will adjust position upwards up to 25 mm (0.98 in) and forwards up to 60 mm (2.4 in) to cradle the head during impact, reducing whiplash. The rear Pre-Crash system in the U.S. market waited for FCC regulatory approval. For 2010, the LS hybrid further incorporated an all-TFT instrument panel display, which featured the addition of a night vision capability with pedestrian detection.
A new active safety feature called the Driver Monitoring System debuted on the LS 600h L sedan. The Driver Monitoring System uses a CCD camera placed on the steering column to track driver attentiveness by eye tracking. Using infrared detectors, this system will respond if a collision is imminent and the driver not paying attention (a warning alarm will sound followed by a brief automatic application of the braking system).
Standard active safety features also include electronically controlled braking (ECB), anti-lock brakes (ABS), and traction control (TRAC). The stability/traction control system, Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) (with disable button), incorporates Electronically Controlled Brake (ECB), Anti-Lock Brakes (ABS), Electronic Brakeforce Distribution (EBD), Traction Control (TRC) and Vehicle Stability Control (VSC) active safety systems with the Adaptive Variable Suspension (AVS), Electric Power Steering (EPS) and Variable Gear Ratio Steering (VGRS) systems. VDIM integrates these systems to improve vehicle responsiveness to driver input and prevent loss of control. An Emergency Steering Assist system acts to minimize body roll and improve vehicle responsiveness in sudden maneuvers. This system reduces the steering gear ratio and prompts the suspension to adopt stiffer settings, helping make emergency maneuvers more stable and controlled. Passive safety features include eight to ten standard airbags (depending on model, up to eleven with upgraded rear seats), passenger detection systems, front and rear crumple zones, three-point seatbelts with pretensioners and force limiters, and a reinforced steel body. Dual-stage driver and twin-chambered front passenger airbags, front knee airbags, full-length side curtain airbags, and Thorax-Abdomen-Pelvis (TAP) airbags are also installed.
The 2009 (2010 model year) refresh added redesigned forward and rear fascias, updated interior, an active Eco Mode energy-saving capability, and redesigned chassis and drivetrain components to the non-hybrid models. The interior received additional chrome trim for the center console, an optional DVD entertainment system behind the center armrest (versus the ceiling drop-down version available before), and in certain markets, an all-digital instrument panel with night vision capability. The "Executive" seating option gained a five-seat configuration, and vibrating massage for both outboard rear seats was introduced. The exterior paint gained a self-repairing clear coat.
Introduced in 2009 for the 2010 model year was the LS 460 Sport, a performance package available only on the rear-wheel drive standard wheelbase model, equipped with a sport-tuned air suspension, Brembo brakes, forged wheels, paddle shifters, body kit, and a unique two-tone interior. The LS 460 Sport featured the Sport Direct Shift transmission, also found in the Lexus IS F, with downshift rev-matching capability and manual mode.
Also debuting in late 2009 for the 2010 model year was the revised LS hybrids, including refreshed front and rear fascias, a four-bar grille, the addition of side mirror turn signals, and new wheel designs. The 2010 models also were the introductory year for the LS hybrid in the Middle East and Indonesia. For the Japanese market, the 2010 models saw the introduction of an interior customization program called "L-Select", which allowed owners to have hybrid and non-hybrid LS models built to their material trim specifications.
Lexus released an official photograph of its restyled XF40 series in July 2012 which will be released for the 2013 model year. The substantial update incorporates the new Lexus corporate fascia, comprising the "spindle" grill and consequently sees the fitment of a redesigned hood, reshaped front fenders and headlamps, plus a new bumper. These styling revisions see the retention of the side profile and doors, including rear fenders. Thus, the newly designed tail-lamps, trunk lid, and rear bumper are only partially modified. The sport package, still only offered on the standard wheelbase variant but now including all-wheel drive as well as rear-wheel drive, is now known as the F-Sport.
Reportedly, the refresh involved 1000 engineers and replaced 3000 out of 6000 new parts.
USF40 / USF41 (2006)
Introduced at the 2006 North American International Auto Show, the redesigned LS was based on the LF-Sh concept vehicle and used an all-new platform. The initial models, the LS 460 (USF40) and long wheelbase LS 460 L (USF41), featured a brand-new 4.6 L 1UR-FSE V8 producing 380 hp (283 kW) and 367 ft·lbf (498 N•m) of torque. The LS 460 introduced the first production eight-speed automatic transmission and an automatic parking system.
The LS 460 and LS 460 L first went on sale in Japan on 19 September 2006. It was the first time the car was sold under the Lexus marque in Japan, and identified the next phase of Lexus' launch as a global premium brand. Its exclusivity is shared with the Toyota Century and the Toyota Crown Majesta, which are only sold at dedicated Toyota Japanese dealerships called Toyota Store .
The LS 460 and LS 460 L arrived at dealerships in the United States on 20 October 2006. Sales of the LS 460 began in Europe in late 2006. In early 2007, the redesigned Lexus LS reached the Middle East and other Asian countries. The LS 460 arrived in Australia in mid-2007. The U.S. launch of the 2007 Lexus LS model was accompanied by special presentations at "460 Degrees" art galleries in Beverly Hills, Chicago, Miami, and New York City, and an outdoor vehicle art display at the World Financial Center in downtown Manhattan.
The previous double-wishbone front suspension was replaced with a dual joint multilink design, with an all-electric system. To increase rigidity and lower unsprung weight, forged aluminum is now used for the suspension links, front steering knuckles, and rear hub carriers. along with a single-piece hollow die-cast aluminum front subframe with machined mounting points, and approximately half of the body uses high-tensile steel. Overall the amount of laser welding has been doubled compared to the previous model.
The LS 460 L, the debut vehicle of the LS line at the 2006 North American International Auto Show, sports an added 4.8 inches (121.9 mm) of length, affording passengers a more capacious rear compartment, and adds more features. Standard amenities on the LS 460 L (some optional on the LS 460) include a power open/close trunk, heated steering wheel, backup camera, navigation system, XM NavTraffic in the U.S., Bluetooth, semi-aniline leather interior, and heated/cooled power memory rear seats. The LS 460 L offers the Variable Gear Ratio Steering (VGRS) and the Adaptive Variable Suspension performance upgrades; the air suspension features normal, comfort, and sport modes. Compared to the standard wheelbase LS 460, the LS 460 L adds up to 250 lb (110 kg) of weight while still matching the 0–60 miles per hour (97 km/h) acceleration of its lighter stablemate, listed at 5.4 seconds. The "Executive Class Four-Seat Package" with massaging rear seat is an option for chauffeured customers.
UVF45 / UVF46 (2007)
Launched at the New York International Auto Show in April 2006, the LS 600h L (UVF46) is the first production V8-powered full-hybrid vehicle. The LS 600h (UVF45), a standard wheelbase version destined for Asia and Europe, was launched in Japan in May 2007. Both models are equipped with Lexus Hybrid Drive, featuring a 5.0 L 2UR-FSE V8 engine mated to two electric motors with nickel-metal hydride battery packs. The first motor has two primary functions, starting the gasoline engine and charging both the second motor and the nickel-metal hydride battery; the second motor is a high-output generator capable of 165 kilowatts (221 hp) alone. The entire system generates an official output of 327 kilowatts (439 hp). This total figure does not combine the V8 engine and the electric motor standalone power figures. The powertrain uses a two-stage L110F continuously variable transmission, featuring a three-mode power switch for control of torque output between hybrid (normal), power, or snow modes; an additional EV mode allows for silent driving under full electric power.
According to tests by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and on the European combined cycle, fuel economy is slightly higher overall than the lower-powered non-hybrid LS; the LS 600h L also receives a U.S. Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) rating. European emissions standards testing has listed the LS 600h L's CO2 emissions at 219g/km, and the vehicle is listed under the United Kingdom's Vehicle Excise Duty tax band F. According to EPA testing, the LS 600h L earns an energy impact score of 16.3 barrels of petroleum gasoline per year, with a carbon footprint of 8.7 tons of CO2 emitted per year. Japanese drivers pay the top level road tax, the same amount that Toyota Century owners pay.
Aiming to compete with top-specification versions of rival luxury sedans, designers billed the LS hybrids as having "the performance of a V12, but the efficiencies of a V8", opting for the hybrid approach to meet performance, fuel efficiency, and emission targets. The LS 600h L, based on the long-wheelbase LS 460 L introduced with the new LS 460 platform, aimed to compete with the Audi A8 L W12, BMW 760Li, and Mercedes-Benz S 600, whose prices approach or exceed US$120,000. This market featured separate engineering and engine designs for added power, with the most common powerplant being a 12-cylinder engine. Designers visited Beverly Hills and South Florida as part of the LS hybrid development process. To reduce noise, vibration, and harshness, the transmission gear teeth and engagement points were finished to within micrometres, a sound-absorbing cover was employed, and acoustic analysis was performed to evaluate noise emissions.
Standard equipment on the LS hybrids includes all-wheel drive, a Torsen limited-slip differential, and an Adaptive Variable Air Suspension, plus an optional Active Stabilizer Suspension System (an upgrade to the standard multi-link front suspension expressly developed for the LS hybrids). Hybrid-only features include the first production low beam LED headlights in the U.S. market, a leather-trimmed dash, and blue-tinted badging; the standard SmartAccess key fob can also be substituted with a 3.35 mm (0.132 in) thick wallet-sized "smart card". After its press debut, the LS 600h L's price was speculated to be higher than any previous Lexus, and in April 2007, Lexus announced that the base price for the LS 600h L would be over US$104,000, surpassing the V12-equipped Toyota Century as the most expensive Japanese flagship sedan ever produced. With a price reaching six figures, the LS 600h L placed a Lexus vehicle in the U.S. "ultra-luxury" segment for the first time.
By March 2007, the initial allocation of LS hybrids in the U.S. was nearly sold out, with 1,850 preorders placed months before debut. As of October 2007, Lexus sold 6,093 LS 600h's worldwide. When the LS hybrid originally went on sale in July 2007, Lexus initially targeted 7,000 total units worldwide for the first year, and 2,000 annually in other markets. Ward's Auto and other media outlets reported that the Lexus LS 600h first year's (2007) allocation was entirely sold out and that there was a one-year backorder as a result. Positioned as the halo vehicles of the LS line, the LS 600h and LS 600h L saw corporate purchases for emissions reductions, along with use as an official state car. In 2008, a redesign of the rear battery area increased trunk space by 20%.
USF45 / USF46 (2008)
All-wheel drive, specifically the LS 460 AWD (USF45) and LS 460 L AWD (USF46), was added to non-hybrid models for in 2008 for the 2009 model year with the addition of front passenger memory function.
Specialty department store Neiman Marcus offered 100 individually numbered LS 600h L "Launch Edition" sedans for early 2007, available only through the Neiman Marcus catalog for InCircle members. These special models came in an exclusive Truffle Mica color with Alabaster interior, with chrome wheels and a customized Italian leather luggage set. The limited units were symbolically chosen to coincide with Neiman Marcus' centennial anniversary.
For the 2009 model year, the LS 600h L was produced in a 50-unit "Pebble Beach Edition" in partnership with the Pebble Beach Company, operator of the namesake golf courses and resorts. These vehicles featured Pebble Beach badging and tags, a two-tone interior, and the choice of a travel or merchandise package. The special edition was first shown at the 2008 Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance.
Salone del Mobile
The 2006 Salone del Mobile (Milan Design Week) exhibition at the Museo della Permanente in Milan, Italy, featured an LS 460 art model with a sculpted body along with a fiber-optic "Evolving Fiber" landscape. At 2007's Salone del Mobile, Lexus presented an "Invisible Garden" exhibition at the city's Zona Tortona featuring a frosted LS 600h hybrid model. The model was later shown at the Salon International de l'Auto (Geneva Motor Show).
LS 600h L Landaulet
In 2011, an LS 600h L was converted to landaulet configuration for use in the Wedding of Albert II, Prince of Monaco, and Charlene Wittstock. The conversion was handled by Belgian coachmaker Carat Duchatelet in collaboration with Lexus. The LS 600h L Landaulet's rear cabin featured a transparent bubble roof with no additional reinforcement, and the vehicle received a bespoke, water-based blue livery. The vehicle was used to transport the royal couple on the day of their wedding, and afterwards put on display at the Oceanographic Museum.
The Lexus LF-Sh concept previewed the appearance of the fourth generation USF40/USF41 design of the Lexus LS. This concept vehicle debuted at the 2005 Tokyo Motor Show. The designation refers to Lexus Future-Sedan hybrid, and the vehicle took the form of a hybrid standard wheelbase sedan model with all-wheel drive, LED headlamps, and integrated exhaust tips. No interior was shown. Lexus subsequently debuted a production hybrid powertrain and all-wheel drive with the LS 600h/LS 600h L.
A specialized Lexus LS 460 is used in a warehouse-sized driving simulator at Toyota's Higashifuji Technical Center in Shizuoka, Japan. This vehicle is mounted inside a 4.5 by 7.0 m (14.8 by 23.0 ft) high dome, and surrounded by a 360° projector screen. This setup is used to simulate the audiovisual and vibration aspects of driving.
Simulator data is directly transmitted to a strut/track-mounted driver occupant dome containing the forward cabin of an LS 460, creating the impression of forward movement in a three-dimensional environment. The occupant dome further simulates vehicle motion. The driving simulator is used for testing and development of automotive safety features in a secure environment.
LS 460 ITS-Safety
For the Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS-Safety) 2010 exhibition at the MirRed Lake, Minnesotan museum in Tokyo, the LS 460 ITS-Safety concept was shown. The ITS-Safety concept included road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle information-exchange technologies. The LS 460 ITS-Safety concept was equipped with radar cruise control and automatic parking driver-assist systems.
In September 2011, photos were taken of a heavily modified LS, later revealed to be the LS TMG (Toyota Motorsport GmbH) prototype spotted on the Nürburgring. Aside from a redesigned aero package, the LS TMG contains a 5.0-liter V8 engine that produces 641 hp and 524 pound-feet of torque, giving the car a top speed around 200 mph and 4.2-second 0–60 time.
Different models based on the standard (USF40) and long wheelbase (USF41) platforms are sold worldwide. From 2007, rear-wheel drive is offered with the 4.6 L gasoline powered V8, and all-wheel drive is featured with the 5.0 L hybrid V8. Some markets receive a modified 4.6 L V8 engine without direct injection. The standard (UVF45) and long wheelbase (UVF46) hybrid models feature a two-stage planetary-gear continuously variable transmission (CVT). The LS 600h L is sold in major global markets in North America, Asia, and Europe, while the LS 600h is sold in Asian and European markets.
|Production model variants by region|
|Chassis code||Model no.||Production years||Drivetrain||Transmission||Engine type||Engine code||Region(s)|
|4.6 L petrol V8||1UR-FSE||N. America, Asia, Europe, Oceania|
|USF41||LS 460 L||1UR-FSE||N. America, Asia, Europe|
|USF45||LS 460 AWD||2007–||AWD||8-speed
|USF46||LS 460 L AWD|
|UVF45||LS 600h||L110F CVT||5.0 L hybrid V8||2UR-FSE||Asia, Europe|
|UVF46||LS 600h L||N. America, Asia, Europe, Oceania|
|Performance specifications by model|
|LS 460||LS 460 L||LS 460 AWD||LS 460 L AWD||LS 600h AWD||LS 600h L AWD|
|Displacement||4,608 cc (4.6 L)||4,608 cc (4.6 L)||4,608 cc (4.6 L)||4,608 cc (4.6 L)||4,969 cc (5.0 L)||4,969 cc (5.0 L)|
|Power||280 kW (380 hp)||280 kW (380 hp)||270 kW (360 hp)||270 kW (360 hp)||327 kW (439 hp)||327 kW (439 hp)|
|Torque||493 N·m (364 ft·lbf)||493 N·m (364 ft·lbf)||469 N·m (346 ft·lbf)||469 N·m (346 ft·lbf)||520 N·m (380 ft·lbf)||520 N·m (380 ft·lbf)|
|Top speed||0–250 km/h (160 mph) (electronically limited)|
0–100 km/h (62 mph)
|5.7 seconds||5.7 seconds||6.3 seconds||6.3 seconds||6.3 seconds||6.3 seconds|
|Fuel consumption||11.1 L/100 km (21.2 mpg-US; 25.4 mpg-imp)||11.1 L/100 km (21.2 mpg-US; 25.4 mpg-imp)||11.6 L/100 km (20.3 mpg-US; 24.4 mpg-imp)||11.6 L/100 km (20.3 mpg-US; 24.4 mpg-imp)||9.3 L/100 km (25.3 mpg-US; 30.4 mpg-imp)||9.3 L/100 km (25.3 mpg-US; 30.4 mpg-imp)|
|CO2 emissions||261 g/km (14.8 oz/mi)||261 g/km (14.8 oz/mi)||274 g/km (15.6 oz/mi)||274 g/km (15.6 oz/mi)||219 g/km (12.4 oz/mi)||219 g/km (12.4 oz/mi)|
At the 2007 New York International Auto Show, the LS 460 received the World Car of the Year award, selected by automotive journalists from twenty-two countries. The panel commented that the LS was "the embodiment of the Lexus brand's 'pursuit of perfection.'" Other awards include International Car of the Year (2007 ICOTY), Japan Car of the Year (2006–2007 JCOTY), and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) 2007 "Best Engineered Vehicle" award. In 2007, the LS 460 was named Luxury Car of the Year at the North American International Auto Show and was selected as the Best Luxury Car at the Fleet World Honours. Notable awards won by the LS 600h include Top Gear's Limo of the Year (2006), Fleet World Honours' Best Luxury Car (2007, 2008), World's Most Beautiful Automobile (Limousine category), L'Automobile più Bella del Mondo awards (2007), Japanesque Modern Awards List, MotorWeek Best Dream Machine (2008), and Chauffeur Car of the Year (2008). The LS 600h L has also received the Canadian Automobile Association's CAA Pyramid Award for Safety Innovation, and has been named to Forbes' list of the Top Ten Least-Polluting Luxury Cars.
- "Affiliates (Toyota wholly-owned subsidiaries)-Toyota Auto Body Co., Ltd.". Toyota Motor Corporation. 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Akita, Masahiro; Shiohara, Kunihiko (11 June 2012). "Observations on TNGA: How will Toyota’s plans to make better cars affect suppliers". Credit Suisse. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2014.
- Parrott, Victoria (19 August 2008). "Lexus LS460 gets 4x4". Autocar. Retrieved 27 January 2009.
- "Japan Report: Lexus LS600hl To Displace Toyota Century As Japan’s Priciest Auto". Winding Road. 8 May 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
- Newbury, Stephen. The Car Design Yearbook 5: The Definitive Annual Guide to All New Concept And Production Cars Worldwide. Merrell, 2006, p. 162-63. ISBN 1-85894-319-1.
- McCraw, Jim (2006). "2007 Lexus LS 460 Review". New Car Test Drive.com. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- "United States Patent: D531547". United States Patent and Trademark Office. 3 October 2005. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- 2007 Lexus LS 460 Specs & Pricing - Luxury Sedan First Drive & Review - Motor Trend
- Vasilash, Gary (30 August 2006). "Lexus Comes into Its Own". Automotive Design and Production. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- 2007 Lexus LS 460 - Top Speed
- "Lexus LS USA Specifications". 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- Peterson, Thane (14 February 2007). "BusinessWeek – Lexus LS 460: More Luxury for Less". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- "Lexus LS Japan Specifications" (in Japanese). 2007. Archived from the original on 8 April 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- Ofria, Charles (30 August 2006). "Familycar 2007 Lexus LS 460 Preview". FamilyCar.com. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- ":Automotive Engineering International Magazine Names Lexus LS 460 As 2007 Best Engineered Vehicle". SAE International. 10 April 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- First Drive: 2007 Lexus LS 460 - Motor Trend
- "Lexus Reveals Details of New 2007 LS 460". Global Auto Systems. 15 August 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- Wiese, Dan (11 March 2007). "For well-heeled drivers who face parallel panic, Lexus LS 460 is the parking ticket". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on 14 June 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- "Lexus LS 460 safety features". Lexus.co.uk. 2006. Archived from the original on 22 February 2007. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- "Auto Bild Safety Comparison LS460 vs. S550" (in German). Auto Bild. 5 December 2006. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- Kageyama, Yuri (11 February 2007). "Rear collision warnings part of Toyota's safety features". Associated Press. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- "Lexus Introduces World's First Driver Monitoring System". BusinessWeek/Gizmag. 7 September 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- Tayman, John (15 March 2006). "Business 2.0 What's cool: The self-parking Lexus LS 460L". CNNMoney.com. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
- "Frankfurt 2009: Lexus Officially Announces LS460 Sports Version : Auto News". Autoguide.com. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "レクサス LS / 2010 LS460 LS600h" (in Japanese). Carview.co.jp. 24 August 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
- Peterson, Thane (14 April 2006). "Lexus' New Luxury V8 Hybrid". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 14 February 2007. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "hybrid" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "LS460 achieves a world-first in preventative safety". NewCarNet.co.uk. 30 August 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- "2007 Lexus LS 460 First Drive". AutoSite. 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- "Lexus LS460 into Saudi". AMEInfo.com. 5 February 2007. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- Wood, Colum (16 September 2009). "Frankfurt 2009: Lexus Officially Announces LS460 Sports Version". Autoguide.com. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
- Pincott, Karla (21 October 2009). "Lexus to get self-repairing paint". Carsguide.com.au. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
- Harwood, Allyson (6 December 2009). "2010 Lexus LS 460 Sport First Drive". Motor Trend. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
- "Getting a true 'taste of Lexus'". Gulf Weekly. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "detikOto.com : Lexus LS600h Bakal Dibanderol Mulai Rp 2,7 M". oto.detik.com. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- Hammerton, Ron (27 July 2012). "First look: Lexus flagship revealed". GoAuto. John Mellor. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Lexus LS 460 – 2007 World Car of the Year". World Car of the Year. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- Greenberg, Karl (3 November 2006). "Lexus Marries Art With Design at City Events". Marketing Daily. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- Frère, Paul (October 2006). "First Drive: 2007 Lexus LS 460 (10/2006)". Road & Track. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
- Lyons, Peter (21 August 2006). "Behind the Sheetmetal – Inside the Lexus LS 460 and LS 460 L". Automotive News. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
- "Lexus LS460 test drive" (in Japanese). Carview.co.jp. 2006. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
- Schreffler, Roger (28 December 2006). "Lexus Flagship Takes High-Tech Ground". Wards Auto. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
- "LS460 Aerodynamics". Lexus.com.au. 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2009.
- "Lexus.com – LS Series". Lexus. 2007. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- Riches, Erin (31 January 2007). "LS 460 L Follow-Up Test, the Sleeper Phenomenon". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 5 March 2007.
- Vasilash, Gary (July 2006). "The Lexus LS 600H L: Not Just Another Production Car". Automotive Design and Production. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- Karube, Takuya. (19 November 2006) "Toyota launches flagship LS sedan for Lexus brand in Japan." Kyodo News.
- "U.S. Government fuel economy ratings". Retrieved 27 November 2007. Comparison data: LS 600h L 20/22/21; LS 460 L 16/24/19 (EPA 2008 MY)
- Comparison data: LS 600h: 9.5 L/100 km (24.8 mpg-US); LS 460: 11.1 L/100 km (21.2 mpg-US); Automobil Revue, catalogue edition 2007, p. 296.
- Voss, Arv (21 March 2008). "2008 Lexus LS 600h L Hybrid Sedan: Environmentally friendliness meets high performance". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- Ofria, Charles. "2008 Lexus LS600h L Road Test Review". FamilyCar.com. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
- "Six of the Best: Green cars – BMW Hydrogen 7, Lexus LS 600h, Toyota Prius, Ford Focus Green Car". Auto Trader. Retrieved 11 April 2010.
- "2008 Lexus LS 600h Sedan reviews – CNET Reviews". CNET. Retrieved 13 February 2009.
- ""LS460", multi-link suspension on new platform". Nikkei Business (in Japanese). 16 January 2006. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- "DENSO Develops New Advanced Products for Lexus LS460". Denso Corp. 25 September 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- Welch, David (9 January 2006). "A Lexus Aimed at Mercedes' S-Class". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- Maynard, Micheline (17 April 2006). "Lexus enters ultra-luxury arena". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 21 November 2007.
- Lexus sells 6,093 LS 600h Hybrids in 5 months
- "Lexus sells 6,093 LS 600h Hybrids in 5 months". eGMCarTech. 4 December 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- Madslien, Jorn (16 March 2008). "Lexus hybrid woos Sainsbury's chief". BBC News. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- "Le Prince Albert roule en LS 600" (in French). Motorlegend.com. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 28 September 2007.
- "Engin peningasóun" (in Icelandic). Visir.is. 7 July 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- Johansen, Magne (5 February 2008). "King gets fancy new car". Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- "Dronningen til Rungsted i ny miljøbil (Queen Rungsted in new automobile)". Lokalavisen.dk. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- Nagpal, Sahil (5 November 2008). "More luggage space for Lexus hybrid models". TopNews.in. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
- "Lexus Rolls Out LS 600h L Launch Edition Via Neiman Marcus". Edmunds.com. 4 January 2007. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- "Neiman Marcus will sell Lexus the LS 600h L Launch Edition". autoblog.com. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- "2009 Lexus LS 600h L Pebble Beach Edition joins sixth SC". Motor Trend. 17 August 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- "Lexus Introduces Pebble Beach Editions of LS 600h L & SC 430". worldcarfans.com. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- Bassoli, Filippo (7 April 2006). "700 chilometri di fibre nella nuova Lexus LS" (in Italian). Autoblog.it. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
- "Lexus L-Finesse Invisible Garden nuova installazione artistica". La Repubblica (in Italian). 21 April 2007. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
- Ewing, Steven (24 June 2011). "Lexus LS 600h L Landaulet for Monaco Royal Wedding blows our minds". Autoblog. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- "Lexus LF-Sh Concept". Automobile Magazine. 2005. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- Kageyama, Yuri (26 November 2007). "'World's biggest Playstation' tests safety systems". Motoring.co.za. Retrieved 28 May 2008.
- Lienert, Anita (19 February 2009). "Japanese Automakers Get Ready To Strut Advanced Safety Technology". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
- "Super Lexus LS has a name (and specs): TMG Edition".
- "LS460/LS460L：諸元表" (in Japanese). Lexus. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
- "LS600h/LS600hL：諸元表" (in Japanese). Lexus. Archived from the original on 3 September 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
- Hindes, Martha (6 January 2007). "2007 ICOTY Most Respected Luxury Car of the Year". Road & Travel. Retrieved 8 April 2007. Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "ICOTY" defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
- "2006–2007 Car of the Year Japan" (in Japanese). Car of the Year Japan. 18 November 2006. Retrieved 8 April 2007.
- "Lexus LS 460: AEI's Best Engineered Vehicle for 2007". Society of Automotive Engineers. April 2007. Retrieved 9 April 2007.
- "Lexus LS wins Best Luxury Car in Fleet World Honours". Easier Motoring UK. 18 May 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2007.
- "Top Gear Car of the Year: the final shortlist". Top Gear. 13 December 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2007.
- "New awards for Lexus LS". NewCarNet.co.uk. 14 May 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- "Assegnato a Milano il premio L'Automobile più Bella del Mondo 2007" (in Italian). Virtual Car. 9 November 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
- "Japanesque Modern Archives". Japanesque Modern Collection. 2007. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- "Motorweek 2008 Driver's Choice Awards". Motorweek. 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
- Joseph, Noah (10 April 2008). "Jag XJ and Lexus LS named Chauffeur CotY". Autoblog. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
- "Lexus awarded 2008 Pyramid Award for Innovation in Safety". Canadian Driver. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
- Gorzelany, Jim (2008). "Top 10 Cars That Pollute the Least". ForbesAutos. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lexus LS.|
- Lexus LS official sites for Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan, United Kingdom, United States.
- Lexus LS Hybrid official sites for Australia, Europe, UK, U.S.
- Lexus LS at DMOZ – additional links
|Lexus, a division of Toyota Motor Corporation, vehicle production timeline|