Lezgin alphabets

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The Lezgin language has been written in several different alphabets over the course of its history. These alphabets have been based on three scripts: Arabic script, Latin script, and Cyrillic script.

History[edit]

Lezgin Cyrillic alphabet of 1911

Until 1928, Lezgin was written in Arabic script, which was taught in religious schools. In the early 1920s, it was used in a few secular textbooks.

In parallel with the Arabic alphabet, as alphabet based on Cyrillic compiled by Baron Peter von Uslar in the 1860s was used. In 1911, a slightly modified version of this alphabet was published as a primer[1] used in secular schools.

In 1928, under the Soviet Union's process of Romanization, a Lezgin Latin alphabet was created and this was altered in 1932.

In 1938, as with most other Soviet languages, a new Cyrillic alphabet was created for Lezgin. Changes after its introduction include adding the letter Ё ё and replacing УӀ уӀ with Уь уь. This alphabet is still used in various publications.

Lezgin Arabic alphabet[edit]

The Lezgin Arabic alphabet was as follows:

آ ب چ ج ڃ د اه ا
ف گ غ ھ اى اي ک ل
م ن اۊ پ ڢ ۊ ر س
ص ش ت ط او و خ ݤ
څ ز ژ ڗ

Lezgin Latin alphabet 1928–32[edit]

The Latin alphabet of 1928–1932's displayed all phonemes in contrast to the current alphabet but did not differentiate aspirated and non-aspirated consonants (k and kʰ, p-pʰ, t-tʰ, q-qʰ, t͡ʃ-t͡ʃʰ, and t͡s-t͡sʰ). The alphabet was as follows:

а b c сс є ç d е
ə f g ƣ h i j k
kk l m n о ɵ p
pp q r s ş t
tt u v x ҳ ӿ y
z ƶ s ss '

Lezgin Latin alphabet 1932–38[edit]

The first Latin alphabet was changed in 1932. A comparison of the two alphabets follows:

Lezgin Latin alphabets (1928–1938)[2][3]

Lezgin Cyrillic alphabet[edit]

There are 54 consonants in Lezgin. Aspiration is not normally indicated in the orthography, despite the fact that it is phonemic. The current Lezgin Cyrillic alphabet is as follows:[4]

А Б В Г Гъ Гь Д Е Ё Ж З И Й К Къ Кь КӀ Л М Н О П ПӀ Р С Т ТӀ У Уь Ф Х Хъ Хь Ц ЦӀ Ч ЧӀ Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э Ю Я
а б в г гъ гь д е ё ж з и й к къ кь кӀ л м н о п пӀ р с т тӀ у уь ф х хъ хь ц цӀ ч чӀ ш щ ъ ы ь э ю я
А а Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Гь гь Д д Е е
Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Къ къ Кь кь
КӀ кӀ Л л М м Н н О о П п ПӀ пӀ Р р
С с Т т ТӀ тӀ У у Уь уь Ф ф Х х Хъ хъ
Хь хь Ц ц ЦӀ цӀ Ч ч ЧӀ чӀ Ш ш Щ щ Ъ ъ
Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Notes:

  • щ is used only in words borrowed from Russian language but is pronounced ш
  • ё is used in only one word, ёъ (IPA: [joʔ])
  • ы (IPA: [ə]) is very common in Lezgin dialects
  • ь (the soft sign) is only used in Lezgin appended to other letters to form different phonemes (гь, хь, уь, кь). Lezgin has no soft phonemes and the ь is not used to denote palatalization, even in borrowed words (where it is not written; e.g., автомобил, мултфилм).

Comparative table of Lezgin alphabets[edit]

Arabic Latin
1932–1938
Cyrillic IPA
آ A a А а a
ب B в Б б b
و V v В в w/v
گ G g Г г g
غ Ƣ ƣ Гъ гъ ʁ
ھ H h Гь гь h
د D d Д д d
اه E e Е е je/e
- - Ё ё
ژ Ƶ ƶ Ж ж ʒ
ز Z z З з z
اى I i И и i
ي J j Й й j
ک K k К к kʰ/k
ڠ Q q Къ къ q
ۊ Ꝗ ꝗ Кь кь q'
گ Ⱪ ⱪ КӀ кӀ k'
ل L l Л л l
م M m М м m
ن N n Н н n
او O o О о o
پ P p П п pʰ/p
ڢ P̡ p̡ ПӀ пӀ p'
ر R r Р р r
س S s С с s
ت T t Т т tʰ/t
ط T̨ t̨ ТӀ тӀ t'
او U u У у u
اۊ Y y Уь уь y
ف F f Ф ф f
خ X x Х х χ
څ Ӿ ӿ Хъ хъ
ݤ Ҳ ҳ Хь хь x
ص S̷ s̷ Ц ц t͡sʰ/t͡s
ڗ Ⱬ ⱬ ЦӀ цӀ t͡s'
چ C c Ч ч t͡ʃʰ/t͡ʃ
ج Ç ç ЧӀ чӀ t͡ʃ'
ش Ş ş Ш ш ʃ
- - Щ щ -
- - ъ ʔ
- - Ы ы -
- ь -
اه E e Э э e
- Ю ю ju/y
- Я я ja

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ќу̇ре ჭалан елифарни аҳпа гw æниз қелдаj. Tiflis, 1911.
  2. ^ Alqcdar a.q. z̨iji lezgi ilifar-ni sifte қeldaj ktab. Mahac-qala, 1928.
  3. ^ Alqadarskij A.Q. Bukvar. Mahacqala, 1937.
  4. ^ Талибов Б. Б., Гаджиев М. М. Лезгинско-русский словарь. Moscow, 1966.

External links[edit]