Lithium iron phosphate battery

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Lithium iron phosphate battery
Specific energy 90–110 Wh/kg (320–400 J/g or kJ/kg)
Energy density 220 Wh/L (790 kJ/L)
Specific power around 200 W/kg[1]
Energy/consumer-price 3.0–24 Wh/US$[2]
Time durability > 10 years
Cycle durability 2,000 cycles
Nominal cell voltage 3.2 V

The lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO
) battery
, also called LFP battery (with "LFP" standing for "lithium ferrophosphate"), is a type of rechargeable battery, specifically a lithium-ion battery, which uses LiFePO
as a cathode material, and a graphitic carbon electrode with a metallic current collector grid as the anode. LiFePO
batteries have somewhat lower energy density than the more common lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO
) design found in consumer electronics, but offer longer lifetimes, better power density (the rate that energy can be drawn from them) and are inherently safer. LiFePO
is finding a number of roles in vehicle use and backup power.


is a natural mineral of the olivine family (triphylite). Its use as a battery electrode which was first described in published literature by John B. Goodenough's research group at the University of Texas in 1996,[3][4] as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Because of its low cost, non-toxicity, the natural abundance of iron, its excellent thermal stability, safety characteristics, electrochemical performance, and specific capacity (170 mA·h/g, or 610 C/g) it gained some market acceptance.[5][6]

The chief barrier to commercialization was its intrinsically low electrical conductivity. This problem was overcome by reducing the particle size, coating the LiFePO
particles with conductive materials such as carbon, or both. This approach was developed by Michel Armand and his coworkers.[7] Another approach by Yet Ming Chiang's group consisted of doping[5] LFP with cations of materials such as aluminium, niobium, and zirconium. Products are now in mass production and are used in industrial products by major corporations including Black and Decker's DeWalt brand, the Fisker Karma, Daimler AG, Cessna and BAE Systems.[citation needed]

MIT introduced a new coating that allows the ions to move more easily within the battery. The "Beltway Battery" utilizes a bypass system that allows the lithium ions to enter and leave the electrodes at a speed great enough to fully charge a battery in under a minute. The scientists discovered that by coating lithium iron phosphate particles in a glassy material called lithium pyrophosphate, ions bypass the channels and move faster than in other batteries. Rechargeable batteries store and discharge energy as charged atoms (ions) are moved between two electrodes, the anode and the cathode. Their charge and discharge rate are restricted by the speed with which these ions move. Such technology could reduce the weight and size of the batteries. A small prototype battery cell has been developed that can fully charge in 10 to 20 seconds, compared with six minutes for standard battery cells.[8]

Negative electrodes (anode, on discharge) made of petroleum coke were used in early lithium-ion batteries; later types used natural or synthetic graphite. [9]

Advantages and disadvantages[edit]

The LiFePO
battery uses a lithium-ion-derived chemistry and shares many advantages and disadvantages with other Lithium-ion battery chemistries. However, there are significant differences.

LFP chemistry offers a longer cycle life than other lithium-ion approaches.[10]

Like nickel-based rechargeable batteries (and unlike other lithium ion batteries),[11] LiFePO
batteries have a very constant discharge voltage. Voltage stays close to 3.2 V during discharge until the cell is exhausted. This allows the cell to deliver virtually full power until it is discharged. And it can greatly simplify or even eliminate the need for voltage regulation circuitry.

Because of the nominal 3.2 V output, four cells can be placed in series for a nominal voltage of 12.8 V. This comes close to the nominal voltage of six-cell lead-acid batteries. And, along with the good safety characteristics of LFP batteries, this makes LFP a good potential replacement for lead-acid batteries in many applications such as automotive and solar applications, provided the charging systems are adapted not to damage the LFP cells through excessive charging voltages (beyond 3.6 volts DC per cell while under charge), temperature-based voltage compensation, equalisation attempts or continuous trickle charging. The LFP cells must be at least balanced initially before the pack is assembled and a protection system also needs to be implemented to ensure no cell can be discharged below a voltage of 2.5 V or severe damage will occur in most instances.

The use of phosphates avoids cobalt's cost and environmental concerns, particularly concerns about cobalt entering the environment through improper disposal,[10] as well as the potential for the thermal runaway characteristic of cobalt-content rechargeable lithium cells manifesting itself.

has higher current or peak-power ratings than LiCoO

The energy density (energy/volume) of a new LFP battery is some 14% lower than that of a new LiCoO
battery.[13] Also, many brands of LFPs, as well as cells within a given brand of LFP batteries, have a lower discharge rate than lead-acid or LiCoO
.[citation needed] Since discharge rate is a percentage of battery capacity a higher rate can be achieved by using a larger battery (more ampere hours) if low-current batteries must be used. Better yet, a high current LFP cell (which will have a higher discharge rate than a lead acid or LiCoO
battery of the same capacity) can be used.

cells experience a slower rate of capacity loss (aka greater calendar-life) than lithium-ion battery chemistries such as LiCoO
cobalt or LiMn
manganese spinel lithium-ion polymer batteries (LiPo battery) or lithium-ion batteries.[14] After one year on the shelf, a LiFePO
cell typically has approximately the same energy density as a LiCoO
Li-ion cell, because of LFP's slower decline of energy density.[citation needed]


One important advantage over other lithium-ion chemistries is thermal and chemical stability, which improves battery safety.[10] LiFePO
is an intrinsically safer cathode material than LiCoO
and manganese spinel. The FePO bond is stronger than the CoO bond, so that when abused, (short-circuited, overheated, etc.) the oxygen atoms are much harder to remove. This stabilization of the redox energies also helps fast ion migration.[11]

As lithium migrates out of the cathode in a LiCoO
cell, the CoO
undergoes non-linear expansion that affects the structural integrity of the cell. The fully lithiated and unlithiated states of LiFePO
are structurally similar which means that LiFePO
cells are more structurally stable than LiCoO
cells.[citation needed]

No lithium remains in the cathode of a fully charged LiFePO
cell—in a LiCoO
cell, approximately 50% remains in the cathode. LiFePO
is highly resilient during oxygen loss, which typically results in an exothermic reaction in other lithium cells.[6]

As a result, lithium iron phosphate cells are much harder to ignite in the event of mishandling (especially during charge) although any fully charged battery can only dissipate overcharge energy as heat. Therefore, failure of the battery through misuse is still possible. It is commonly accepted that LiFePO
battery does not decompose at high temperatures.[10] The difference between LFP and the LiPo battery cells commonly used in the aeromodelling hobby is particularly notable.[citation needed]


  • Cell voltage
    • Minimum discharge voltage = 2.5 V[15]
    • Working voltage = 3.0 ~ 3.3 V
    • Maximum charge voltage = 3.65 V
  • Volumetric energy density = 220 Wh/dm3 (790 kJ/dm3)
  • Gravimetric energy density > 90 Wh/kg[16] (> 320 J/g)
  • 100% DOD cycle life (number of cycles to 80% of original capacity) = 2,000–7,000[17]
  • 10% DOD cycle life (number of cycles to 80% of original capacity) > 10,000[18]
  • Sony Fortelion: 74% capacity after 8,000 cycles with 100% DOD[19]
  • Cathode composition (weight)
  • Cell configuration
  • Experimental conditions:
    • Room temperature
    • Voltage limits: 2.0–3.65 V
    • Charge: Up to C/1 rate up to 3.6 V, then constant voltage at 3.6 V until I < C/24
  • According to the manufacturer BYD the lithium iron phosphate battery of the electric car e6 is charged at a fast charging station within 15 minutes to 80%, after 40 minutes at 100%.[20]



Higher discharge rates needed for acceleration, lower weight and longer life makes this battery type ideal for bicycles and electric cars.

This battery is used in the electric cars made by Aptera Motors[21] and Quicc!.[22]

KillaCycle, an electric motorcycle, uses lithium iron phosphate batteries.[23]

Roehr Motorcycle Company, uses a 5.8 kW·h capacity LFP battery pack to power its electric motorcycle.[citation needed]

LFP batteries are used by electric vehicles manufacturer Smith Electric Vehicles to power its products.[24]

Automaker BYD plans to use its LFP batteries to power its PHEV, the F3DM and F6DM (Dual Mode), which will be the first commercial dual-mode electric car in the world. It planned to mass-produce the cars in 2009.[25] In October 2014, BYD announced a 60-foot (18 m), 120-passenger battery-electric bus with a range of more than 170 miles (270 km) that uses lithium iron phosphate batteries.[26]

In May 2007 Lithium Technology Corp. announced a LFP battery with cells large enough for use in hybrid cars, claiming they are "the largest cells of their kind in the world.".[27]

The Super Lithium 1500 Brushless Electric Scooter uses a 48-volt LiFePO
60a battery in what is one of the fastest production electric scooters available.[28] The company site claims this LFP battery will propel the rider up to 40 miles per hour (64 km/h) with a riding distance of 25–35 miles (40–56 km) depending on rider weight, hills and other conditions. They also say this battery has an 18-pound (8.2 kg) weight reduction over their previously used lead-acid batteries and has a life expectancy of 1000 charge cycles.

Rimac Automobili have developed an advanced LFP battery system with integrated battery management and liquid cooling systems, primarily for their Concept One electric supercar which will enter production but also for commercial availability of the battery system.

ZBoard electric skateboards use LFP batteries, offering ranges up to 20 miles (32 km).[29]

Golf Skate Caddy electric single person golf vehicle uses LFP batteries, allowing a full 18 holes of golf.[30]

EV-Fleet electric pickup trucks use a 50 kW⋅h LFP battery for more than 100 miles (160 km) of range.[31]

eGen electric scooters use a variety of LFP batteries, allowing ranges of more than 80 miles (130 km) for their top model, the eG-X. The company also offers smaller removable LFP batteries in their eG3, eG5 and eG-D1 models.[32]

Solar garden and security light systems[edit]

Single "14500" (AA battery–sized) LFP cells are now used in some solar powered path lights instead of 1.2 V NiCd/NiMH.

LFP's higher (3.2 V) working voltage can allow a single cell to drive an LED without needing a step-up circuit. The increased tolerance to modest overcharging (compared to other Li cell types) means that LiFePO
could be connected to photovoltaic cells without complex circuitry. A single LFP cell also alleviates corrosion, condensation and dirt issues associated with battery holder and cell-to-cell contacts – such poor connections often especially plague outdoor systems using multiple removable NiMH cells.

More sophisticated LFP solar charged passive infrared security lamps are also emerging (2013).[1] As AA-sized LFP cells have a capacity of only 600 mA⋅h (while the lamp's bright LED may draw 60 mA) only 10 hours' run time may be expected. However – if triggering is only occasional – such systems may cope even under low-sunlight charging conditions, as lamp electronics ensure after dark "idle" currents of under 1 mA.

-powered solar lamps are visibly brighter than ubiquitous outdoor solar lights, and performance overall is considered more reliable.[citation needed]

Other uses[edit]

Many home EV conversions use the large format versions as the car's traction pack. With the efficient power-to-weight ratios, high safety features and the chemistry's refusal to go into thermal runaway, there are few barriers for use by amateur home "makers".

Some electronic cigarettes use these types of batteries.

Three torch/flashlight manufacturers (Imecs Corporation with wireless LiFePO
Battery Technology, Mag Instruments and LED Lenser) have products which utilise these batteries.

RC model cars may use these batteries, especially as RX and TX packs as a direct replacement of NiMh packs or LiPo packs without need for voltage regulator, as they provide 6.6 V nominal voltage over 7.4 V of LiPo packs, which is little higher and may require to be regulated down to 6.0 V.

Celestron has come out with a lightweight "PowerTank Lithium" battery that uses this chemistry to power their telescope drives. It weighs only 2.25 pounds (1.02 kg) and produces 84.6 W⋅h and 12 V DC. Additionally, the internal battery in some of their telescope mounts uses this chemistry.

See also[edit]


  1. ^,8-Volt-lithium-iron-phosphate-batteries-EN.pdf
  2. ^ "Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery Suppliers and Manufacturers". 
  3. ^ "LiFePO
    : A Novel Cathode Material for Rechargeable Batteries"
    , A.K. Padhi, K.S. Nanjundaswamy, J.B. Goodenough, Electrochimical Society Meeting Abstracts, 96-1, May, 1996, pp 73
  4. ^ A.K. Padhi; K.S. Nanjundaswamy & J.B. Goodenough (1997). "Phospho-olivines as positive-electrode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries". J. Electrochem. Soc. 144: 1188–1194. doi:10.1149/1.1837571. 
  5. ^ a b "Bigger, Cheaper, Safer Batteries: New material charges up lithium-ion battery work".
  6. ^ a b "Building safer Li ion batteries". 
  7. ^ Armand, Michel; Goodenough, John B.; Padhi, Akshaya K.; Nanjundaswam, Kirakodu S.; Masquelier, Christian (Feb 4, 2003), Cathode materials for secondary (rechargeable) lithium batteries, retrieved 2016-02-25 
  8. ^ New Battery Technology Charges in Seconds
  9. ^ David Linden (ed.), Handbook of Batteries 3rd Edition,McRaw Hill 2002, ISBN 0-07-135978-8, pages 35-16 and 35-17
  10. ^ a b c d "Rechargeable Lithium Batteries".  Electropaedia- Battery and Energy Technologies
  11. ^ a b "Harding Energy | Lithium Ion batteries | Lithium Polymer | Lithium Iron Phosphate". Harding Energy. Retrieved 2016-04-06. 
  12. ^ A Better Battery? The Lithium Ion Cell Gets Supercharged, Adam Hadhazy , Scientific American, 2009-03-11.
  13. ^ Guo, Y.; Hu, J.; Wan, L. "Nanostructured Materials for Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Devices. Adv Mater 2008; 20, 2878–2887
  14. ^ A123Systems "...Current test projecting excellent calendar life: 17% impedance growth and 23% capacity loss in 15 [fifteen!] years at 100% SOC, 60 deg. C..."
  15. ^ "CA40". CALB. 
  16. ^ "Large-Format, Lithium Iron Phosphate – After Gutenberg". Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  17. ^
  18. ^ GWL-Power: Winston 90Ah over 10.000 /13.000 cycles, PDF, 21. February 2012.
  19. ^ Sony Fortelion page 13, PDF, included at 3. January 2015.
  20. ^ Archived 2016-02-06 at the Wayback Machine. Website of BYD: 40(min) / 15(min 80%)
  21. ^ "Aptera unveils full specs for its flagship 2e".
  22. ^ "QUICC electric vehicles".
  23. ^ Bunch, Joey (2007-09-02). "Electric motorcycle fries gas-fired competitors". Denver Post. 
  24. ^ Smith Electric Vehicles
  25. ^ China Daily 2008-12-16 08:13 "BYD zooms past Toyota, GM in electric car race"
  26. ^ "World's Largest Battery-Electric Vehicle Unveiled by BYD". Sustainnovate Industry News. Retrieved 17 October 2014. 
  27. ^ "Next Generation Battery Technology Makes Hybrid and Electric Vehicles a Reality".
  28. ^ Super Cycles & Scooters
  29. ^ "ZBoard Electric Skateboard and Motorized Longboard". The ZBoard Electric Skateboard Store. Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  30. ^ Golf Skate Caddy
  31. ^ "EV Fleet, Inc. | Electric Pickup Trucks". Retrieved 2016-02-08. 
  32. ^ "Electric Scooters (Mopeds) in London". eGen Electric Scooters. Retrieved 2016-10-03.