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LiMux (logo).svg
DeveloperLiMux Project
OS familyUnix-like
Working stateCurrent
Source modelCombination of open source and closed source
Initial release2006 (2006)
Latest release5.0 / 2014-11
Available inGerman
Package managerdpkg
Kernel typeMonolithic (Linux)
Default user interfaceKDE SC 4.12
LicenseVarious free software licenses, plus proprietary
Official websiteProject Site

LiMux was a project by the city of Munich in Germany to migrate local government software systems from closed-source, proprietary Microsoft products to free and open-source software. The project ran from 2005 to 2013, migrating over 18,000 personal computers and laptops of public employees to a Linux-based software solution. LiMux is also the name of the Linux distribution used for the project as the operating system including LibreOffice and WollMux as the primary productivity software.[1] The project initially had used, but switched to LibreOffice.[2] The city reported that it gained freedom in software decisions and increased security and saved €11.7 million (US$16 million).[3] In November 2017 Munich City Council (Stadtrat) resolved to reverse the migration and return to Microsoft Windows-based software by 2020.[4][5]

LiMux is the first Linux desktop distribution certified for industry use (ISO 9241) by the Technical Inspection Association (German: Technischer Überwachungsverein).[6][need quotation to verify] It was first based on Debian, and later changed to Ubuntu, the most popular Debian derivative. Version 3 available from December 2010 is based on Ubuntu 8.10, version 4 available from August 2011 is based on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS,[7] although using KDE Desktop 3.5[8] and version 4.1 available from August 2012 is also based on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS.


In 2003 the impending end of Microsoft's support for Windows NT 4 led Munich City Council to commission a report on choices for a successor operating system to use on its office computers. The report yielded two main alternatives, either migration to Windows XP or a move to a free, open source operating system based on Linux with an accompanying emphasis on web browsers as OS-neutral application clients.[citation needed]

A majority of Council members voted for the Linux-based solution, which was dubbed LiMux, referencing the M on Munich vehicle registrations and MUC, the code of International Air Transport Association (IATA) for Munich airport.[citation needed]

On 16 May 2007, the TÜV confirmed by a comprehensive certification process, the usability of the LiMux-based client as a user interface for interactive computer systems according to the ISO standard 9241-110.

Objectives and implementation[edit]

The migration project in Munich is ongoing and not an overnight switch to free software on every desktop. The main goal is to achieve more independence from software distributors, concerning client/server and native client software. The decision in 2003 had two components, on the one hand to get free software running on most of the desktops, and on the other hand to buy and develop web-based and platform independent (e.g. Java-based) business applications. A core goal of the project is to reduce reliance of Microsoft-based software stacks and fund local developers to write replacement software.[9]

In October 2013, the city of Munich had migrated over 15,000 desktop PCs (of about 18,000 desktops) from Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000, and Microsoft Office to the Linux operating system and

The migration was interrupted in the summer of 2004, because the city would investigate the legal implications of software patents. In late 2006, the actual migration of desktops began.

In May 2009, 1800 workstations were converted to Linux, 12,000 took advantage of Open Office.

The AG usability of the project group interviewed the users regularly to achieve a good fit to the needs of employees. The plan is to make the software as simple as possible to use.

The conversion will be monitored carefully. A successful migration might cause other cities and communities to transform their IT infrastructure from Windows to Linux.

Switching to[edit]

A tool called Wollmux was developed to extend the OpenOffice suite's capabilities in areas required by Munich Council, including managing consistent letterheads, form templates, saved blocks of standard text, document versioning and merging. Wollmux was released in May 2008.


  • 28 May 2003 (2003-05-28): The city council of Munich votes to go ahead with planning.[10][11]
  • 16 June 2004 – The city council votes 50-29 in favor of migrating and to start an open competitive bidding within months.[12][13]
  • 5 August 2004 – The project is temporarily halted, due to legal uncertainties concerning software patents.[14][15]
  • 28 April 2005 – Debian is selected as a platform.[16]
  • 6 September 2005 – It is decided that the project needs an additional one-year pilot test, and migration slips one year.[17]
  • 22 September 2006 – The "soft" [migration begins, one year behind original schedule.[18]
  • November 2008 – 1200 out of 14,000 have migrated to the LiMux environment (9%; March 2008: 1000=7%), in addition 12000 workstations use 2 installed on Windows (March 2008: 6000) and more 100% use Mozilla Firefox 1.5 and Mozilla Thunderbird 1.5 (March 2008: 90%). 18,000 of 21,000 macros, templates and forms are changed into Linux-enabled.[19][need quotation to verify]
  • 29 May 2008 – The related WollMux-software, developed in-house to support personalised templates and forms in office textprocessing, is declared Open Source[20]
  • 31 December 2009 – The first step, the complete switch to enabling the Open Document Format as standard format is done[21]
  • June 2010 – "More than 3000" are LiMux-workplaces by now. Further 2000 shall migrate in 2010.[22]
  • In February 2011 – More than 5000 workplaces were based on LiMux.
  • In June 2011 –More than 6500 workplaces were based on LiMux.
  • 17 December 2011 – "9000" PCs are LiMux-workplaces now. With this they are 500 workplaces ahead of their goal for 2011.[23][24]
  • 28 March 2012 – In response to a request from the CSU the City reported that it has already saved about 4 million euros in licensing costs as well as reduced the number of support calls[25]
  • March 2012: The number of monthly complaints dropped from 70 to a maximum of 46 due to the LiMux migration[26]
  • July 2012 – About 10,500 LiMux PC-workstations[27]
  • 23 November 2012 – Report shows that the savings brought in using LiMux environment are over 10 million euros[28]
  • January 2013 – About 13,000 LiMux PC-workstations[29]
  • October 2013 – Over 15,000 LiMux PC-workstations (of about 18,000 workstations)
  • December 2013 – Munich open-source switch "completed successfully"[30]
  • August 2014 – Munich deputy mayor, Josef Schmid, and mayor, Dieter Reiter, considering going back to Windows due to productivity problems. Munich city council spokesman Stefan Hauf explained that the majority of issues stem from compatibility issues in OpenOffice, something a switch to LibreOffice could solve.[31] In addition, the city council and Karl-Heinz Schneider, head of municipal IT services, said that most things are fine, they saved €10 million (more than US$13 million), and there is no serious reason to come back. He added that the number of complaints and malfunctions would not exceed the usual number for an administration of this size.[32] Microsoft wants to move German headquarters to Munich in 2016, helped by Reiter who describes himself as a "Microsoft fan".[33][34][35][36]
  • October 2014 – In response to inquiries by the Green Party, mayor Dieter Reiter revealed that a transition back to Microsoft Windows would cost millions of euros.[37]
  • August/September 2015 – Jan-Marek Glogowski of LiMux presents about the project status during the "Debian Success Stories" track of the Debian conference[38] and at the LibreOffice conference.[39]
  • February 2017 - Politicians discuss proposals to replace the Linux-based OS used across the council with a Windows 10-based client.[40]
  • October 2017 - Once seen as a stalwart supporter of open source, the city council last week said that running a Linux-based operating system on its PCs would not be cost efficient in the long run.[41]
  • November 2017 - The city council decided that LiMux will be replaced by a Windows-based infrastructure by the end of 2020. The costs for the migration are estimated to be around 90 million Euro. [42]

Limux client software[edit]

The LiMux Client 4.0 was based on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS with KDE desktop 3.5. It included, Mozilla Thunderbird and Mozilla Firefox and other free software products.[citation needed]

Version 5.0 of the LiMux Client was released in November 2014, based on Ubuntu 12.04 LTS with KDE SC 4.12 as the desktop. The default office suite is LibreOffice 4.1. Mozilla Firefox and Mozilla Thunderbird are included in their Extended Support Release versions.[citation needed]

Current status[edit]

In November 2017 Munich city council decided to revert to Windows by 2020 with all systems being replaced by Windows 10 counterparts.[43] Reasons cited were adoption and users being unhappy with the lack of software available for Linux. A report commissioned by Munich and undertaken by Accenture found the most important issues were organizational.[41]

In 2018, journalistic group Investigate Europe released a video documentary via German public television network ARD, wherein it is claimed that the majority of city workers were satisfied with the operating system, with council members insinuating that the reversal was a personally motivated decision by lord mayor Dieter Reiter. Reiter denied that he had initiated the reversal in gratitude for Microsoft moving its German headquarters from Unterschleißheim back to Munich.[44][need quotation to verify]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Switching to Linux saves Munich over €11 million". IT World. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  2. ^ "Libre Office für München". Münchner IT-Blog. 15 October 2012. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  3. ^ "Linux: City of Munich ditches Microsoft moves to Linux and open source". GiraffeDog IT support services. 23 December 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  4. ^ Krempl, Stefan (23 November 2017). "Endgültiges Aus für LiMux: Münchener Stadtrat setzt den Pinguin vor die Tür". Heise Online (in German). Heise Medien. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  5. ^ Heath, Nick (8 November 2017). "Linux pioneer Munich supports Windows 10 rollout from 2020 in key vote". TechRepublic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  6. ^ "TÜV zertifiziert Münchens LiMUX-Client" (in German). 16 May 2007. Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  7. ^ "LiMux Desktop Retrospective" (PDF). 8 August 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  8. ^ "München bringt neues Release 4.0 des LiMux Clients heraus". 18 August 2011. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Munich breaks with Windows for Linux". Retrieved 16 January 2008.
  11. ^ "Munich to Use Linux". Center for Digital Government. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2008. Until spring 2004, a detailed concept of implementation and migration will be developed. Based on the results of this evaluation, the city council will decide how the migration to Linux will take place.
  12. ^ "Limux – the IT-Evolution". IDABC. Archived from the original on 16 December 2007.
  13. ^ Encz, Philipp; Bass, Dina. "Microsoft Loses Munich Contract for 14,000 PCs to Linux Program". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014.
  14. ^ "Munich halts biggest-ever Linux migration". Retrieved 16 January 2008.
  15. ^ "Patent fears halt Munich Linux migration". The Register. Retrieved 16 January 2008.
  16. ^ "Debian wins Munich Linux deal". Retrieved 16 January 2008.
  17. ^ "Munich's Linux migration slips to 2006". Retrieved 16 January 2008.
  18. ^ "Munich fires up Linux at last". Retrieved 16 January 2008.
  19. ^ Florian Schießl; deputy project manager (22 April 2008). "Zwei Jahre freie Software in München" (PDF).[permanent dead link](in German)
  20. ^ "Munich's WollMux will be free software". 29 May 2008.
  21. ^ Florian Schießl; Communications manager free software; open standards (30 December 2009). "LiMux review 2009". Archived from the original on 10 January 2010.
  22. ^ "Projekt LiMux: Die IT-Evolution geht weiter". 30 June 2010.
  23. ^ Kirsten Böge (17 December 2011). "München hat den 9.000. PC-Arbeitsplatz auf den LiMux Client migriert". Archived from the original on 13 January 2012.
  24. ^ Reed, Michael (2 January 2012). "Munich Linux Migration Project LiMux Reports Success". Linux Journal. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
  25. ^ Jörg Thoma (28 March 2012). "München spart mit Limux Geld und hat weniger Störungen".
  26. ^ Loek Essers (2 April 2012). "Munich mayor says switch to Linux is much cheaper and has reduced complaints". The maximum number of complaints was 70 per month before the beginning of the switch to LiMux. After the number of LiMux workplaces increased from 1,500 to 9,500, the maximum number of complaints per month dropped to 46. This leaves Ude to conclude that the decline in complaints was due to the migration to LiMux.
  27. ^ Jutta Kreyss, IT Architect, LiMux (Munich, Germany) (10 June 2012). "LiMux - the IT-Evolution, Status of Migration" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 September 2014.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  28. ^ Anika Kehrer (23 November 2012). "Linux brings over €10 million savings for Munich". Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
  29. ^ Presse- und Informationsamt der Landeshauptstadt München (22 January 2013). "Rathaus Umschau - HP-Studie untersucht im Auftrag von Microsoft LiMux-Umstellung" (PDF).[permanent dead link]
  30. ^ Loek Essers (13 December 2013). "Munich open-source switch 'completed successfully'". Archived from the original on 13 October 2014.
  31. ^ Joey-Elijah Sneddon (22 August 2014). "Munich Council: LiMux Demise Has Been Greatly Exaggerated". Hauf also confirms that council staff have, and do, complain about LiMux, but that the majority of issues stem from compatibility issues in OpenOffice, something a potential switch to LibreOffice could solve.
  32. ^ LiMux: Linux in München unter politischem Beschuss, Heise online, 2014-07-15
  33. ^ Nick Heath (19 August 2014). "Ditching Linux for Windows? The truth isn't that simple, says Munich". Suggestions the council has decided to back away from Linux are wrong, according to council spokesman Stefan Hauf.
  34. ^ Silviu Stahie (19 August 2014). "Munich Switching to Windows from Linux Is Proof That Microsoft Is Still an Evil Company". He said that people were unhappy with Linux, but he didn't actually provide any kind of proof to this matter.
  35. ^ Simon Sharwood (19 August 2014). "Munich considers dumping Linux for ... GULP ... Windows!".
  36. ^ Peter Bright (18 August 2014). "Linux-on-the-desktop pioneer Munich now considering a switch back to Windows".
  37. ^ Nick Heath (15 October 2014). "Munich sheds light on the cost of dropping Linux and returning to Windows". The mayor of Munich has revealed the cost of reversing its move to Linux from Windows will run into millions of euros in hardware alone.
  38. ^ "Debian Success Stories".
  39. ^ "LibreOffice conference 2015, schedule, Sept. 24th. Thursday".
  40. ^ Heath, Nick (10 February 2017). "Linux pioneer Munich poised to ditch open source and return to Windows". Tech Republic. Retrieved 12 February 2017 – via
  41. ^ a b "Ditching Windows for Linux led to 'major difficulties' says open-source champion Munich". TechRepublic. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  42. ^ "Linux pioneer confirms switch to Windows 10".
  43. ^ "Munich council: To hell with Linux, we're going full Windows in 2020". The Register. 13 November 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
  44. ^ "Das Microsoft-Dilemma" (in German). ARD Mediathek. 8 April 2018. Archived from the original on 10 April 2018.

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