|Part of a series on|
Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances, especially on economic and social issues, or a brand of political conservatism strongly influenced by liberalism. It is a political position which incorporates support for civil liberties and capitalism, along with some social-conservative positions.
Overview, definitions and usage
As both "conservatism" and "liberalism" have had different meanings over time and across countries, the term "liberal conservatism" has been used in quite different ways. It usually contrasts with aristocratic conservatism, which rejects the principle of equality as something in discordance with human nature, and emphasizes instead the idea of natural inequality. As conservatives in democratic countries have embraced typical liberal institutions such as the rule of law, private property, the market economy, and constitutional representative government, the liberal element of liberal conservatism became consensual among conservatives. In some countries (e.g. the United Kingdom and the United States) the term "liberal conservatism" came to be understood simply as "conservatism" in popular culture, prompting some conservatives who embraced more strongly classical liberal values to call themselves "libertarians".
Nevertheless, the liberal-conservative tradition in the United States often combines the economic individualism of classical liberals with a Burkean form of conservatism that emphasizes the natural inequalities between men, the irrationality of human behavior as the basis for the human drive for order and stability, and the rejection of natural rights as the basis for government. However, from a different perspective, American conservatism, a "hybrid of conservatism and classical liberalism", has exalted three tenets of Burkean conservatism, namely the diffidence toward the power of the state, the preference of liberty over equality and patriotism, while rejecting the three remaining tenets, namely loyalty to traditional institutions and hierarchies, scepticism regarding progress and elitism. Consequently, in the United States the term "liberal conservatism" is not used and American modern liberalism happens to be quite different from the European brand. The opposite is true in Latin America, where economically liberal conservatism is often labelled under the rubric of neoliberalism both in popular culture and academic discourse.
For their part, European liberal conservatives, in their embracement of liberal and free-market principles, are clearly distinguishable from those conservatives who have embraced national-conservative views, more socially conservative stances and/or outright populism, let alone a right-wing populist posture. In much of central and northwestern Europe, especially in Germanic and traditionally Protestant countries, a divide between conservatives, including Christian democrats, and liberals persists. On the contrary, in those countries where liberal-conservative movements have more recently entered the political mainstream, such as Italy and Spain, the terms "liberal" and "conservative" may be understood as synonymous. Often this involves stressing free-market economics and the belief in individual responsibility together with the defense of civil rights, and support for a limited welfare state. Compared to traditional centre-right politics, such as those proposed by Christian democrats, liberal conservatism is less traditionalist and more right-libertarian economically, favouring low taxes and minimal state intervention in the economy. In the modern European discourse, "liberal conservatism" usually encompasses centre-right political outlooks that reject, at least to some extent, social conservatism. This position is also associated with support for moderate forms of social safety net and environmentalism. In this sense, "liberal conservatism" has been expoused, for instance, by nordic conservative parties (the Moderate Party in Sweden, the Conservative Party in Norway and the National Coalition Party in Finland), which have seen right-wing populist parties emerge to their right and do not comprise Christian democrats who form separate parties, and the British Conservative Party under David Cameron, who, in an interview shortly after taking office as Prime Minister in 2010, said that he had always described himself as a "liberal conservative". In his first speech to a Conservative Party's conference in 2006, Cameron had defined this as believing in individual freedom and human rights, but being skeptical of "grand schemes to remake the world."
Classical conservatism and economic liberalism
Historically, in the 18th and 19th centuries, "conservatism" comprised a set of principles based on concern for established tradition, respect for authority, and religious values. This form of traditionalist or classical conservatism is often considered to be exemplified by the writings of Joseph de Maistre and the Pope in the post-Enlightenment age. Contemporaneous "liberalism" – now recalled as classical liberalism – advocated both political freedom for individuals and a free market in the economic sphere. Ideas of this sort were promulgated by John Locke, Montesquieu, Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, who are respectively remembered as the fathers of classical liberalism, the separation of church and state, economic liberalism, utilitarianism and social liberalism.
The maxim of liberal conservatism, according to scholar Andrew Vincent, is "economics is prior to politics". Others emphasize the openness of historical change and a suspicion of tyrannical majorities behind the hailing of individual liberties and traditional virtues, by authors such as Edmund Burke and Alexis de Tocqueville, as the basis of current liberal conservatism, as seen both in the works of Raymond Aron and Michael Oakeshott, and the ideological outlook of centre-right parties. There is general agreement however, that the original liberal conservatives were those who combined conservative social attitudes with an economically liberal outlook, adapting a previous aristocratic understanding of natural inequalities between men to the rule of meritocracy – without, however, directly criticizing privileges of birth as long as individual liberties were guaranteed. Over time, the majority of conservatives in the western world came to adopt free-market economic ideas as the Industrial Revolution progressed and the aristocracy lost its power, to the extent that such ideas are now generally considered as part of conservatism. Nonetheless, in most countries the term "liberal" is used to describe those with free-market economic views. This is the case, for example, in continental Europe, Australia and Latin America.
Liberal-conservative parties or parties with liberal-conservative factions
- Åland: Moderates of Åland
- Albania: Democratic Party of Albania
- Argentina: Union of the Democratic Centre, Republican Proposal
- Armenia: Prosperous Armenia
- Australia: Liberal Party of Australia, Liberal National Party of Queensland, Country Liberal Party
- Bahamas: Free National Movement
- Belarus: United Civic Party of Belarus
- Belgium: New Flemish Alliance
- Bolivia: Social Democrat Movement
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Party of Democratic Progress
- Brazil: Democrats
- Bulgaria: Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria, Union of Democratic Forces[unreliable source?]
- Canada: Conservative Party of Canada, British Columbia Liberal Party, Saskatchewan Party, Yukon Party
- Chile: National Renewal
- Costa Rica: Libertarian Movement
- Cyprus: Democratic Rally
- Czech Republic: Civic Democratic Party, TOP 09
- Denmark: Conservative People's Party
- Dominican Republic: National Progressive Force
- Estonia: Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica
- Faroe Islands: People's Party
- Finland: National Coalition Party
- France: The Republicans, Union of Democrats and Independents
- Georgia: United National Movement, New Rights
- Germany: Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CDU/CSU)
- Ghana: New Patriotic Party
- Greece: New Democracy
- Greenland: Feeling of Community, Association of Candidates
- Honduras: National Party of Honduras
- Hong Kong: Liberal Party
- Hungary: Modern Hungary Movement
- Iceland: Independence Party
- Ireland: Fine Gael, Fianna Fáil
- Israel: Likud
- Italy: Forza Italia, New Centre-Right, Conservatives and Reformists
- Jamaica: Jamaica Labour Party
- Japan: Liberal Democratic Party
- Kosovo: Democratic League of Kosovo
- Latvia: Unity
- Lithuania: Homeland Union
- Malta: Nationalist Party
- Moldova: Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova
- Montenegro: Movement for Changes
- New Zealand: New Zealand National Party
- Nicaragua: Alliance for the Republic
- Norway: Conservative Party
- Philippines: Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino
- Poland: Civic Platform
- Portugal: Social Democratic Party
- Russia: Right Cause
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: New Democratic Party
- Serbia: United Regions of Serbia, Serbian Progressive Party
- Slovakia: Slovak Democratic and Christian Union – Democratic Party, Ordinary People, Most–Híd
- Slovenia: Slovenian Democratic Party
- South Africa: Freedom Front Plus
- South Korea: Saenuri Party
- Spain: People's Party
- Sri Lanka: United National Party
- Sweden: Moderate Party
- Switzerland: Civic Democratic Party
- Ukraine: Petro Poroshenko Bloc, All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland"
- United Kingdom: Conservative Party
- United States: Republican Party (see also: Conservatism in the United States)
- Uruguay: National Party
- Bolivia: Popular Consensus
- Canada: Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
- Chile: National Party
- France: National Centre of Independents and Peasants, Union for the New Republic, Independent Republicans, Perspectives and Realities Clubs, Union of Democrats for the Republic, Republican Party, Rally for the Republic, Union for French Democracy, Liberal Democracy, Independent Republican and Liberal Pole, Union for a Popular Movement, New Centre
- Gibraltar: Progressive Democratic Party
- Hungary: Hungarian Democratic Forum
- Israel: General Zionists, Liberal Party, Kadima
- Italy: Forza Italia, The People of Freedom, Tyrolean Homeland Party
- Latvia: New Era Party, Civic Union
- Romania: Democratic Party, Democratic Liberal Party
- Russia: Union of Right Forces
- Serbia: G17 Plus, Together for Šumadija
- Nordsieck, Wolfram. "Parties and Elections in Europe".
- Johnston, Larry: Politics: An Introduction to the Modern Democratic State. University of Toronto Press, 2007. p.155
- Grigsby, Ellen: Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. Cengage Learning, 2011.
- Grigsby, Ellen: Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. Cengage Learning, 2011. p.106-112
- Wooldridge, Adrian; Micklethwait, John (21 December 2011). "The Right Nation: Why America is Different". Penguin Books Limited – via Google Books.
- Bethell, Leslie: The Cambridge History of Latin America: Latin America since 1930. Cambridge University Press, 1991.
- Cameron, David. "I am a Liberal Conservative". BBC. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Full text of David Cameron's speech to the Conservative Party conference", BBC, October 2006
- Vincent, Andrew (2009). "Conservatism". Modern Political Ideologies. Chichester, U.K. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 65–66. ISBN 978-1-4051-5495-6.
- Lakoff, Sandoff: Tocqueville, Burke, and the Origins of Liberal Conservatism. The review of politics; 60, pp 435–464. Notre Dame, 1998. doi:10.1017/S003467050002742X
- Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics - Hans Slomp - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. pp. 106–108.
- Goldfarb, Michael (20 July 2010). "'Liberal? Are we talking about the same thing?'". BBC News. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- MacLean, James. ""The Two Meanings of "Liberalism"". Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- Nicole A. Thomas; Tobias Loetscher; Danielle Clode; Michael E. R. Nicholls (May 2, 2012). "Right-Wing Politicians Prefer the Emotional Left". 7 (5). PLOS ONE: 4.
The Liberal Party of Australia has an ideology in line with liberal conservatism and is therefore right of centre.
- Janusz Bugajski (2002). Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era. M.E. Sharpe. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-56324-676-0.
- Paul Lewis (4 January 2002). Political Parties in Post-Communist Eastern Europe. Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-134-63437-8.
- Sanchez, María Isabel (2 February 2014), "No clear frontrunner as Costa Ricans vote for new president", Digital Journal
- "Liberal and conservative ideologies clashed in first official presidential debate", Inside Costa Rica, 6 January 2014
- John Nagle; Alison Mahr (1999). Democracy and Democratization: Post-Communist Europe in Comparative Perspective. SAGE Publications. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-7619-5679-2.
- Elizabeth Bakke (2010). "Central and Eastern European party systems since 1989". In Sabrina P. Ramet. Central and Southeast European Politics since 1989. Cambridge University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-139-48750-4.
- José María Magone (1 January 2003). The Politics of Southern Europe: Integration Into the European Union. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-275-97787-0.
- Christina Bergqvist (1 January 1999). Equal Democracies?: Gender and Politics in the Nordic Countries. Nordic Council of Ministers. p. 319. ISBN 978-82-00-12799-4.
- Kerstin Hamann; John Kelly (2010). Parties, Elections, and Policy Reforms in Western Europe: Voting for Social Pacts. Routledge. p. 1980. ISBN 978-1-136-94986-9.
- Amnon Rapoport (1990). Experimental Studies of Interactive Decisions. Kluwer Academic. p. 413. ISBN 0792306856.
Likud is a liberal-conservative party that gains much of its support from the lower and middle classes, and promotes free enterprise, nationalism, and expansionism.
- Karan, Pradyumna P. (2005), Japan in the 21st century: environment, economy, and society, University Press of Kentucky
- Janusz Bugajski (2002). Political Parties of Eastern Europe: A Guide to Politics in the Post-Communist Era. M.E. Sharpe. p. 141. ISBN 978-1-56324-676-0.
- Jean-Michel De Waele; Anna Pacześniak (2011). "The Europeanisation of Poland's political parties and party system". In Erol Külahci. Europeanisation and Party Politics. ECPR Press. p. 131.
- André Krouwel (20 November 2012). Party Transformations in European Democracies. SUNY Press. p. 348. ISBN 978-1-4384-4483-3.
- Alfio Cerami (2006). Social Policy in Central and Eastern Europe: The Emergence of a New European Welfare Regime. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-3-8258-9699-7.
- Inmaculada Egido (2005). Transforming Education: The Spanish Experience. Nova Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59454-208-4.
- Peter Viggo Jakobsen (2006). Nordic Approaches to Peace Operations: A New Model in the Making?. Taylor & Francis. pp. 184–. ISBN 978-0-415-38360-8.
- Hariz Halilovich (15 January 2013). Places of Pain: Forced Displacement, Popular Memory and Trans-local Identities in Bosnian War-torn Communities. Berghahn Books. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-85745-777-6.
- David Hanley (1999). "France: Living with Instability". In David Broughton. Changing Party Systems in Western Europe. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-85567-328-1. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Ruth Wodak; John E. Richardson (2013). Analysing Fascist Discourse: European Fascism in Talk and Text. Routledge. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-415-89919-2.
- Donatella M. Viola (2015). "Italy". In Donatella M. Viola. Routledge Handbook of European Elections. Routledge. p. 117. ISBN 978-1-317-50363-7.
- Pallaver, Günther (2008). Jens Woelk; Francesco Palermo; Joseph Marko, eds. South Tyrol's Consociational Democracy: Between Political Claim and Social Reality. Tolerance Through Law: Self Governance and Group Rights In South Tyrol. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 309. ISBN 978-90-04-16302-7.