Liberation Day (Italy)
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|Official name||Anniversario della liberazione d'Italia|
|Also called||Festa della liberazione, anniversario della Resistenza, 25 aprile|
|Significance||Celebrates the end of the fascist regime and the end of the Nazi occupation of Italy|
Italy's Liberation Day (Festa della liberazione), also known as the Anniversary of the Liberation (Anniversario della liberazione d'Italia), Anniversary of the Resistance (anniversario della Resistenza), or simply 25 April is a national Italian holiday commemorating the end of the Italian Civil War and the end of Nazi occupation of the country during World War II. This is distinct from the Republic Day (Festa della Repubblica) which takes place on 2 June.
The date was chosen by convention, as it was the day of the year 1945 when the National Liberation Committee of Upper Italy (CLNAI) officially proclaimed the insurgency in a radio announcement, propounding the seizure of power by the CLNAI and proclaiming the death sentence for all fascist leaders (including Benito Mussolini, who was shot three days later).
By 1 May, all of northern Italy was liberated, including Bologna (21 April), Genoa (23 April), Milan and Turin (25 April), and Venice (28 April). The liberation put an end to twenty-three years of fascist dictatorship and five years of war. It symbolically represents the beginning of the historical journey which led to the referendum of 2 June 1946, when Italians opted for the end of the monarchy and the creation of the Italian Republic, which was followed by the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic in 1948.
Institutionalization of the date
The actual date was chosen in 1946, and in most Italian cities, marches and parades are organised to commemorate the event. On 22 April 1946, the Disposizioni in materia di ricorrenze festive ("Provisions on festive occasions") decree created the national holiday. The bill states that Per celebrare la totale liberazione del territorio italiano, il 25 aprile 1946 è dichiarato festa nazionale ("In celebration of the total liberation of the Italian territory, 25 April 1946 is declared a national holiday"). On 27 May 1949, bill 260 made the anniversary a permanent, annual national holiday.
- Prefettura – Ufficio Territoriale del Governo di Parma (ed.). ""La Repubblica neonata e la sua identità". Relazione di Giorgio Vecchio, Docente di Storia contemporanea dell'Università degli Studi di Parma". Retrieved 2011-05-24.