Liberation Day (Italy)
Anti-fascist demonstration for 25 April in Milan in 2013
|Official name||Italian: Anniversario della liberazione d'Italia|
|Also called||Anniversary of the Liberation,|
Anniversary of the Resistance,
|Significance||Celebrates the end of the fascist regime and the end of the Nazi occupation of Italy|
|Next time||25 April 2021|
|First time||25 April 1946|
|Related to||Anniversary of the Unification of Italy, Festa della Repubblica, National Unity and Armed Forces Day and Tricolour Day|
Italy's Liberation Day (Italian: Festa della liberazione), also known as the Anniversary of Italy's Liberation (Anniversario della liberazione d'Italia), Anniversary of the Resistance (Anniversario della Resistenza), or simply 25 April (25 aprile) is a national Italian holiday commemorating the end of the fascist regime and of Nazi Germany occupation during World War II and the victory of the Resistance in Italy. This is distinct from the Republic Day (Festa della Repubblica), which takes place on 2 June.
The date was chosen by convention, as it was the day of the year 1945 when the National Liberation Committee of Upper Italy (CLNAI) officially proclaimed the insurgency in a radio announcement, propounding the seizure of power by the CLNAI and proclaiming the death sentence for all fascist leaders (including Benito Mussolini, who was shot three days later).
By 1 May, all of northern Italy was liberated, including Bologna (21 April), Genoa (23 April), Milan (25 April), Turin  and Venice (28 April). The liberation put an end to twenty-three years of fascist dictatorship and five years of war. It symbolically represents the beginning of the historical journey which led to the referendum of 2 June 1946, when Italians opted for the end of the monarchy and the creation of the Italian Republic, which was followed by the adoption of the Constitution of the Republic in 1948.
Institutionalization of the date
The actual date was chosen in 1946, and in most Italian cities, marches and parades are organised to commemorate the event. On 22 April 1946, the Disposizioni in materia di ricorrenze festive ("Provisions on festive occasions") decree created the national holiday. The bill states that Per celebrare la totale liberazione del territorio italiano, il 25 aprile 1946 è dichiarato festa nazionale ("In celebration of the total liberation of the Italian territory, 25 April 1946 is declared a national holiday").
On 27 May 1949, Law 260 made the anniversary a permanent, annual national holiday.
- Anniversary of the Unification of Italy
- History of Italy
- Liberation Day
- National Unity and Armed Forces Day
- Public holidays in Italy
- Tricolour Day
- "Fondazione ISEC - cronologia dell'insurrezione a Milano - 25 aprile" (in Italian). Retrieved 28 September 2019.
- Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p. 1047 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
- "DECRETO LEGISLATIVO LUOGOTENENZIALE 22 aprile 1946, n. 185" (in Italian). Retrieved 28 April 2015.
- "L. 27 maggio 1949, n. 260. "Disposizioni in materia di ricorrenze festive"" (PDF) (in Italian). Retrieved 24 May 2011.