Liberian Declaration of Independence

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Liberian Declaration of Independence
Ratified July 16, 1847
Author(s) Hilary Teage
Signatories 12 delegates to the Liberian Constitutional Convention
Purpose To announce and explain independence from the American Colonization Society.

The Liberian Declaration of Independence is a document adopted by the Liberian Constitutional Convention on July 16, 1847 to announce that the Commonwealth of Liberia, a colony founded and controlled by the private American Colonization Society, was now an independent state known as the Republic of Liberia. The Declaration was written by Hilary Teague and adopted simultaneously with the first Constitution of Liberia. The anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration and accompanying Constitution is celebrated as Independence Day in Liberia.

The Declaration articulates the history of the Americo-Liberians that settled the Commonwealth and sets out the aspiration of Liberia to be accepted as a free and independent state within the "comity which marks the friendly intercourse of civilized and independent communities." Listing the injustices committed against African Americans as a result of slavery in the United States, the Declaration notes the foundation of the colony by the American Colonization Society, as well as their gradual withdrawal from governance in favor of increasing self-governance by the immigrated colonists. The noted goal of Liberia is declared to be both to establish a state built upon the structure and principles of the law of nations and the Christianization and modernization of the indigenous peoples of the region.

The Declaration partially relied upon the United States Declaration of Independence, in particular its discussion of natural law:

We recognize in all men certain inalienable rights; among these are life, liberty, and the right to acquire, possess, enjoy, and defend property.

Furthermore, its listing of injustices perpetrated by the United States parallels the charges set forth in the United States Declaration of Independence against King George III. However, the Liberian Declaration asserts no right of revolution, but instead frames its independence as the inevitable and planned purpose of the colony by the American Colonization Society. The Society, having surrendered all control of the colony in January 1846, had fully encouraged the independence of Liberia. The Commonwealth of Liberia declared its independence from the American Colonization Society on July 26, 1847 as the Republic of Liberia and Liberia became the first African nation on the African continent to gain its independence. On January 3, 1848 Joseph Jenkins Roberts an African-American from Norfolk, Virginia, United States of America, he was elected and became Liberia's first Black American president.

The Liberian constitution and flag was modeled after the Constitution of United States and the American flag because Liberia was the only African nation on the African continent that was a colony for the United States and Liberia was founded, colonized, established and controlled by freed American slaves and ex-caribbean slaves as settlers from the United States and the Caribbean islands with the help and support from the American Colonization Society, a private organization establishment.

On February 5, 1862 the United States finally accepted and recognized Liberia's Independence. From January 7, 1822 until the Liberian Declaration of Independence from the American Colonization Society, Liberia was the only African nation that was a colony for the United States and a protectorate. With the backing and support from the United States Liberia kept its independence during the colonial era. Liberia was never colonized or controlled by European powers making Liberia Africa's oldest republic nation on the African continent.


Twelve delegates representing the three counties of Liberia signed the Declaration along with the Constitution of Liberia: