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Beliefs and size
Opposition to the use of the term libertarian Republican comes from the libertarian adherence to the non-aggression principle, advocating that the initiation of force against the life, liberty or property of an individual is immoral, and to which the Republican Party platform and its ideological base of neoconservative partisans do not adhere.
The Republican Party is divided into factions. In a 2014 Pew Research Center survey on political typology and polarization survey, 12% of Republicans described themselves as libertarian. The libertarian branch of the party is smaller than other branches, including "Main Street" voters (pragmatic, establishment-supporting, open to more compromise), Tea Party voters (radical right-wing populists with "a deep mistrust of experts, elites and even the G.O.P. establishment"), and Christian conservatives (dominated by white evangelical voters, mostly from the South). However, the libertarian bloc in the party is larger in size than several other groups, such as former Northeastern moderate Republicans (which have almost disappeared) and hawkish "national security" voters who favor neoconservativism. Compared to other Republican factions, libertarian Republicans have relatively little party loyalty.
According to a 2012 New York Times analysis, libertarian Republicans have a variety of motivating issues. On economic and domestic policy, they favor cutting taxes and regulations, repealing the Affordable Care Act, and protecting gun rights. On social issues, they favor privacy and oppose the USA Patriot Act, support abortion rights, and oppose the War on Drugs. On foreign and defense policy, libertarian Republicans are "fiercely isolationist." Two-thirds of libertarian Republicans are males.
The Republican Liberty Caucus, which describes itself as "the oldest continuously operating organization in the Liberty Republican movement with state charters nationwide," was founded in 1991. Among the group's past chairs are Chuck Muth.
The House Liberty Caucus is a congressional caucus formed by Representative Justin Amash, Republican of Michigan. In 2014, the group "consisted of about 30 libertarian-inclined Republicans (and occasional Democratic visitors like Jared Polis)." The group is a rival to the conservative Republican Study Committee, which favors high military spending.
- Representative Justin Amash of Michigan
- Representative Jimmy Duncan of Tennessee
- Representative Thomas Massie of Kentucky
- Representative Raúl Labrador of Idaho
- Representative Tom McClintock of California
- Representative Dana Rohrabacher of California
- Representative Mark Sanford of South Carolina (also a former governor of South Carolina) - often described as a figure with libertarian views; claimed to have turned down an offer from Libertarian Party presidential nominee Gary Johnson to be his vice presidential running mate in the 2016 election.
- Former Representative Bob Barr of Georgia
- Former Representative Kerry Bentivolio of Michigan
- Former Representative Connie Mack IV of Florida — described as "a staunch fiscal conservative...with libertarian tendencies."
- Former Representative Ron Paul of Texas — longstanding Libertarian Republican icon; unsuccessfully ran for president in 1988 as a Libertarian nominee.
- Former Representatives Howard H. Buffett of Nebraska, Ralph W. Gwinn of New York, Frederick C. Smith of Ohio, and H.R. Gross of Iowa — members of the House described by Murray Rothbard as "extreme right ... solidly isolationist and opposed to foreign wars and interventions, and roughly free-market and libertarian in domestic affairs."
- Senator Jeff Flake of Arizona—Nick Gillespie of Reason magazine described as a "hard-core free-marketer and libertarianish legislator," while the Washington Post described him as sticking "to his free-market, often libertarian principles even as the [Republican] party has hardened around other positions."
- Senator Mike Lee of Utah — described as an economic and civil libertarian.
- Former Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona
- Former Senator George Frisbie Hoar of Massachusetts
- Governor Butch Otter of Idaho
- Governor Mike Pence of Indiana (until 2016)
- Former Governor Gary Johnson of New Mexico (until 2011)[disputed ]
- Former Governor William Weld of Massachusetts (until 2016)
- Richard Tisei, former Massachusetts state senator and state Senate minority leader; identifies as a "traditional Northeast libertarian" in the social and fiscal senses.
- Kurt Bills, former Minnesota state representative; describes himself as a "libertarian-leaning constitutional conservative"; Reason magazine writes that "most of his positions align with mainstream libertarian ideas. He is hostile to the drug war, favors a non-interventionist foreign policy, and embraces Austrian economics."
- Laura Ebke, Nebraska state senator (switched to Libertarian Party in 2016) 
- Michael Baumgartner, Washington state senator
Authors and scholars
- Nobel Prize–winning economist Milton Friedman
- Author Zora Neale Hurston
- Wall Street Journal writer Stephen Moore
- Economist and philosopher Murray Rothbard (until the 1950s)
- Economist Mark Skousen
- Jerry Doyle, radio talk show host
- Clint Eastwood, actor, filmmaker - describes himself as a libertarian and says that he has "always been a libertarian," but is associated with the Republican Party. Eastwood spoke at the 2012 Republican National Convention, and voted for Republican nominee John McCain in 2008.
- Jack Hunter, Charleston, South Carolina radio talk show host ("The Southern Avenger"), political commentator, former aide to Rand Paul, editor of Rare Politics - has written of his "attraction to libertarianism." Hunter was a longtime defender of the Confederate flag and expressed neo-Confederate views, which libertarian commentator and law professor Ilya Somin criticized in 2013 as inconsistent with libertarianism. In 2015, Hunter stated that he was wrong about the flag.
- Kennedy, TV commentator and former MTV VJ
- Dennis Miller, television personality - described himself as a "conservative libertarian" in the 1990s, although "his commentary always contained a streak of right-wing populism." After the September 11 attacks, Miller's views, particularly on foreign and defense policy, drifted further to the right.
- Grover Norquist, anti-tax activist and Republican figure; economic libertarian identified with "support for supply-side economics and skepticism about climate science."
- P. J. O'Rourke, humorist, author - longtime libertarian-conservative Republican, although he endorsed Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton in the 2016 presidential campaign.
- Wayne Allyn Root, businessman
- Peter Schiff, investment broker - described as "libertarian" or "libertarian-leaning"; unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for the 2010 election for U.S. Senate in Connecticut.
- Mark Spitznagel, hedge fund manager
- Peter Thiel, Silicon Valley businessman, Paypal co-founder - a registered Republican and self-described libertarian.
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- Mike DeBonis, Why this lone Republican accompanied Kerry, Washington Post (August 14, 2016).
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- Bill Weld Drops out of New York Gubernatorial Race. Fox News, 6-6-2006. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
- Garrett Quinn, Libertarian(ish) Candidates: If you want to find a few liberty-loving politicos, look lower on the ballot, Reason (November 2012).
- Milton Friedman on the Charlie Rose Show Archived February 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. PBS, November 2005. Retrieved April 16, 2011.
- Beito, David T. and Linda Royster Beito. Isabel Paterson, Rose Wilder Lane, and Zora Neale Hurston on War, Race, the State, and Liberty. The Independent Institute, The Independent Review, Spring-08. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
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- Dirty Harry comes clean (Clint Eastwood interview with Jeff Dawson], The Guardian (June 6, 2008).
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- Ilya Somin, Former "Southern Avenger" Jack Hunter Resigns from Rand Paul's Staff, Volokh Conspiracy (July 22, 2013).
- Jack Hunter, The 'Southern Avenger' Repents: I Was Wrong About the Confederate Flag, Daily Beast (June 22, 2015).
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- Dennis Miller, Los Angeles Times (2016): "Miller's generally libertarian politics took a sharp right turn shortly after Sept. 11. Now with his material falling on the consistently conservative side, Miller makes regular appearances on Fox News staples..."
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- Jonathan Chait, Should Liberals Be More Grateful to Grover Norquist?, New Republic (February 28, 2011): "[L]ibertarianism has many variations. Grover Norquist is a libertarian, and he has also decided to work entirely through the Republican Party and the conservative movement...The Kochs, like Norquist, define libertarianism primarily in economic terms. And they define economic libertarianism as support for supply-side economics and skepticism about climate science."
- PJ O'Rourke, Satirist and Journalist (interview with Matt Wordsworth), Lateline ABC News (Australia) (July 28, 2016): "What drives a libertarian Republican to endorse a big government Democrat?"
- P.J. O'Rourke on why Trump will collapse, Ann Coulter's a fraud, and how National Lampoon created modern comedy, Salon (interview with Andrew O'Hehir) (September 24, 2015): "Since at least the mid-'80s, O'Rourke has tried to stake out a zone on the libertarian-conservative wing of the Republican Party."
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- Christine Mai-Duc, Silicon Valley tech mogul Peter Thiel to make history as he declares he's proud to be gay on the RNC stage, Los Angeles Times (July 22, 2016).
- Ben Smith (September 14, 2012). "They're gay, conservative and proud". Politico.
Thiel ... [is] a prominent supporter of libertarian causes.