Libertarianism in the United Kingdom
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Libertarianism in the United Kingdom can either refer to a political movement synonymous with anarchism, left-libertarianism and libertarian socialism, or to a political movement concerned with the pursuit of propertarian right-libertarian ideals in the United Kingdom which emerged and became more prominent in British politics after the 1980s neoliberalism and the economic liberalism of the premiership of Margaret Thatcher, albeit not as prominent as libertarianism in the United States in the 1970s and the presidency of Republican Ronald Reagan during the 1980s.
Currently, the most explicitly libertarian party in the United Kingdom is the Libertarian Party.[according to whom?] However, there has also been a long-standing right-libertarian faction of the mainstream Conservative Party that espouses Thatcherism. UK voters have tended to vote more in line with their position along the traditional 'left-right’ division rather than along libertarian-authoritarian lines, and so libertarians in the United Kingdom have supported parties across the political spectrum.
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The Libertarian Party is the main libertarian party within the United Kingdom describing itself as being a "Classically Liberal, Regionalist and Minarchist organisation". The Liberal Party was formed in 1989 from those opposed to the merger between the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party. The Scottish Libertarian Party was formed as a separate party in 2012 and officially registered in 2014.
Relationship with the Conservative Party
Libertarianism, and particularly right-libertarianism, became more prominent in British politics after the promotion of neoliberalism and economic liberalism under the premiership of Margaret Thatcher. Since the 1980s, a number of Conservative MPs have been considered to have libertarian leanings, and libertarian groups have been perceived to exert considerable influence over the Party.
However, in her first Conservative Party conference speech as leader, Theresa May attacked the "libertarian right" and argued for a more pro-state communitarian conservatism. In recent years, Conservative Party policy has appeared to move further away from libertarianism,  and a smaller proportion of their support has come from voters with libertarian attitudes.
Relationship with the Green Party of England and Wales
Sociologist Chris Rootes stated that the Green Party took "the left-libertarian" vote, while Dennison and Goodwin characterised it as reflecting "libertarian-universalistic values". The party wants an end to big government – which they see as hindering open and transparent democracy – and want to limit the power of big business – which, they argue, upholds the unsustainable trend of globalisation, and is detrimental to local trade and economies. There have been allegations of factionalism and infighting in the Green Party between liberal, socialist, and anarchist factions.
Relationship with the UK Independence Party
As leader of the Eurosceptic UK Independence Party (UKIP), Nigel Farage sought to broaden the public perception of the UKIP beyond being a party solely seeking to withdraw the United Kingdom from the European Union to one of being a party broadly standing for libertarian values and reductions in government bureaucracy. The party describes itself as a "libertarian, non-racist Eurosceptic party".
UKIP's original activist base was largely "libertarian", supporting an economically liberal approach. Its "economic libertarian" views have been influenced by classical liberalism and Thatcherism, with Thatcher representing a key influence on UKIP's thought. Farage has characterised UKIP as "the true inheritors" of Thatcher, claiming that the party never would have formed had Thatcher remained Prime Minister of the UK throughout the 1990s. Winlow, Hall, and Treadwell suggested that a UKIP government would pursue "hard-core Thatcherism" on economic policy. UKIP presents itself as a "libertarian party", and the political scientists David Deacon and Dominic Wring described it as articulating "a potent brand of libertarian populism". However, commentators writing in The Spectator, The Independent, and the New Statesman have all challenged the description of UKIP as libertarian, highlighting its socially conservative and economically protectionist policies as being contrary to a libertarian ethos.
Prominent British libertarians have included:
- Bill Etheridge (born 1970) defected from the UK Independence Party to the Libertarian Party in 2018, becoming Deputy Chair, before defecting to the Brexit Party in 2019
- Sean Gabb (born 1960) director of the Libertarian Alliance from 2006–2017
- Peter Thomas Bauer (1915–2002), developmental economist and 2002 winner of the Cato Institute's Milton Friedman Prize
- Alan Duncan (born 1957), Conservative politician
- Daniel Hannan (born 1971), Conservative politician
- Andrew Marr (born 1959), journalist and political commentator
- Friedrich Hayek (1899–1992), economist and author
- Herbert Spencer (1820–1903), philosopher
- Chris Tame (1949–2006), co-founder of the Libertarian Alliance
- Douglas Carswell (born 1971), UK Independence Party politician
- David Davis (born 1948), Brexit Secretary and Conservative politician
- Walsh, Jason (7 April 2006). "Libertarianism limited". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 February 2008.
- Heppell, Timothy (June 2002). "The ideological composition of the Parliamentary Conservative Party 1992–97". British Journal of Politics and International Relations. 4 (2): 299–324. doi:10.1111/1467-856X.t01-1-00006. S2CID 144304577.
- Curtice, John; Simpson, Ian. "British Social Attitudes 35: Voting: The 2017 Election: New divides in British politics?" (PDF). NatCen Social Research. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- "Home Page". Libertarian Party UK. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
- "View registration". Electoral Commission. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- Wallace, Mark (11 Feb 2014). "Are 2010 intake MPs really more libertarian than their predecessors?". ConservativeHome. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- Lawrence, Felicity; Evans, Rob; Pegg, David; Barr, Caelainn; Duncan, Pamela (29 Nov 2019). "How the right's radical thinktanks reshaped the Conservative party". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- "Full text: Theresa May's conference speech". The Spectator. 5 Oct 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- "Leader: Against the Brexit libertarians". New Statesman. 9 March 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- Cowley, Jason (29 May 2019). "Theresa May was a 1950s Conservative: resolute but charmless, and will be remembered for failure". New Statesman. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- Shackleton, Len (6 Oct 2016). "The 'libertarian right', Mrs May? What 'libertarian right'?". Institute of Economic Affairs. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- Asthana, Anushka; Stewart, Heather (5 Oct 2016). "Theresa May draws line under Cameron era with return to small-c conservatism". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- Norris, Pippa (13 Nov 2019). "On dealigning and realigning elections: Is Britain about to experience a Westminster earthquake?". LSE British Politics and Policy Blog. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- Timothy, Nick (24 Nov 2019). "The Tory manifesto is a first step on the road to political realignment". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
- Rootes 1995, p. 76.
- Dennison & Goodwin 2015, p. 185.
- Hanif, Faisal (15 January 2015). "What are the Green party's policies?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
- Harris, John (15 December 2013). "Have the Greens blown it in Brighton?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
- Robinson 2010, p. 203.
- Woodward 2007.
- Ruddick 2009.
- Ford & Goodwin 2014, p. 277.
- Tournier-Sol 2015, p. 145.
- Winlow, Hall & Treadwell 2017, p. 43.
- Ford & Goodwin 2014, p. 7; Tournier-Sol 2015, p. 145; Lynch & Whitaker 2013, p. 296.
- Deacon & Wring 2016, p. 170.
- Alex Massie (27 November 2012). "UKIP is not a libertarian party". The Spectator. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015.
- Tim Wigmore (18 December 2012). "Ukip are by no means libertarian". The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
- Tim Wigmore (19 November 2014). "Is Ukip the most divided party in British politics?". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015.
- Chakrabarti, Shami (19 January 2010). "Freedom must apply to all faiths and none". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- "Bill Etheridge MEP quits UKIP and joins the Libertarian Party four days later".
- "Peter Bauer, 86; Economist Fought Foreign Aid". Los Angeles Times. Tribune Company. 19 May 2002. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- "Alan Duncan". BBC News. 16 October 2002. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Marr, Andrew (28 March 2007). "Britain could be in for some turbulent times". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- "Friedrich August Hayek". Library of Economics and Liberty. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Sciabarra, Chris Matthew (August 1999). "The First Libertarian". Liberty. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- "Chris Tame". The Daily Telegraph. London. 7 April 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
- "Clacton by-election: 12 facts about Ukip's new MP Douglas Carswell". The Independent. 10 October 2014. Archived from the original on 2022-06-14. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- "David Davis: British 'intellectually lazy' about defending liberty". theguardian.com. 8 November 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
- Robinson, Chris (2010). Electoral Systems and Voting in United Kingdom. Politics Study Guides. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 9780748627509.
- Woodward, Will (11 April 2007). "UKIP trebles candidates for local elections". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- Ruddick, Siân (13 June 2009). "What lies behind UKIP's success?". Socialist Worker. No. 2155.
- Rootes, Chris (1995). "Britain: Greens in a Cold Climate". The Green Challenge: The Development of Green Parties in Europe. Dick Richardson and Chris Rootes. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 66–90.
- Dennison, James; Goodwin, Matthew (2015). "Immigration, Issue Ownership and the Rise of UKIP". Parliamentary Affairs. 68: 168–187. doi:10.1093/pa/gsv034.
- Tournier-Sol, Karine (2015). "Reworking the Eurosceptic and Conservative Traditions into a Populist Narrative: UKIP's Winning Formula?". Journal of Common Market Studies. 53 (1): 140–56. doi:10.1111/jcms.12208. S2CID 142738345.
- Lynch, Philip; Whitaker, Richard (2013). "Rivalry on the Right: The Conservatives, the UK Independence Party (UKIP) and the EU Issue". British Politics. 8 (3): 285–312. doi:10.1057/bp.2012.29. hdl:2381/31946. S2CID 154926119.
- Winlow, Simon; Hall, Steve; Treadwell, James (2017). The Rise of the Right: English Nationalism and the Transformation of Working-Class Politics. Bristol: Policy Press. ISBN 978-1447328483.
- Deacon, David; Wring, Dominic (2016). "The UK Independence Party, Populism and the British News Media: Competition, Collaboration or Containment?". European Journal of Communication (Submitted manuscript). 31 (2): 169–84. doi:10.1177/0267323115612215. S2CID 147206873.
- Ford, Robert; Goodwin, Matthew (2014). Revolt on the Right: Explaining Support for the Radical Right in Britain. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-66150-8.