National World War I Museum and Memorial
|Location||Kansas City, Missouri, United States|
|Nearest parking||On site (no charge)|
National WWI Museum and Memorial
Aerial photo of the National WWI Museum and Memorial with the Kansas City skyline.
|Location||Kansas City, Missouri|
|Architect||Harold Van Buren Magonigle, Westlake Construction Company|
|Architectural style||Beaux Arts Classicism, Egyptian Revival|
|NRHP Reference #||00001148|
|Added to NRHP||September 20, 2006|
|Designated NHL||September 20, 2006|
The National World War I Museum and Memorial of the United States is located in Kansas City, Missouri. Opened to the public as the Liberty Memorial museum in 1926, it was designated in 2004 by the United States Congress as America's official museum dedicated to World War I. The Museum and Memorial are managed by a non-profit organization in cooperation with the Kansas City Board of Parks and Recreation Commissioners. The museum re-opened to the public in December 2006 with an expanded, award-winning facility to exhibit an artifact collection that began in 1920. The National World War I Museum tells the story of the Great War and related global events from their origins before 1914 through the 1918 Armistice and 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Visitors enter the exhibit space within the 32,000-square-foot (3,000 m2) facility across a glass bridge above a field of 9,000 red poppies, each one representing 1,000 combatant deaths.
The declared mission of the museum and memorial is to be "dedicated to remembering, interpreting and understanding the Great War and its enduring impact on the global community." 
Liberty Memorial Association
Soon after World War I ended, a group of 40 prominent Kansas City residents formed the Liberty Memorial Association (LMA) to create a memorial to those who had served in the war. They chose lumber baron and philanthropist Robert A. Long, who had personally given a large sum of money, as president. Others included:
- James Madison Kemper was treasurer of the association. For a short time in 1919 he was President of City Center Bank that was founded by his father, William T. Kemper. His brother, Rufus Crosby Kemper Sr., became president when he left to take over as president of Commerce Bancshares, also controlled by his father.
- Jesse Clyde Nichols (J.C.), a real estate developer, was a lead proponent of the Liberty Monument.
- William Volker, businessman and philanthropist, helped the city acquire the land for the memorial.
- George Kessler, designer of the landscaping at the memorial.
In 1919, the LMA spearheaded a fund drive that included 83,000 contributors and collected more than $2.5 million in less than two weeks, driven by what museum curator Doran Cart has described as "complete, unbridled patriotism". There would not be the monetary problems that plagued the Bunker Hill Monument in Boston a century earlier.
Groundbreaking and dedication
In attendance at the groundbreaking ceremony on November 1, 1921, were 200,000 people, including then-Vice President Calvin Coolidge, Lieutenant General Baron Jacques of Belgium, Admiral Earl Beatty of Great Britain, General Armando Diaz of Italy, Marshal Ferdinand Foch of France, and General John Pershing of the United States, along with sixty thousand members of the American Legion. The local veteran chosen to present flags to the commanders was a Kansas City haberdasher, Harry S Truman, who would later serve as President of the United States. The finished monument was dedicated on November 11, 1926, by President Coolidge, in the presence of Queen Marie of Romania. Coolidge announced that the memorial “...has not been raised to commemorate war and victory, but rather the results of war and victory which are embodied in peace and liberty…. Today I return in order that I may place the official sanction of the national government upon one of the most elaborate and impressive memorials that adorn our country. The magnitude of this memorial, and the broad base of popular support on which it rests, can scarcely fail to excite national wonder and admiration.”
- In 1935, bas reliefs by Walker Hancock of Jacques, Beatty, Diaz, Foch and Pershing were unveiled.
- In 1981-1982, corresponding to its 60th anniversary, the building revealed new exhibits under improved lighting sources.
- The memorial was closed in 1994 due to safety concerns, after aging revealed problems with drainage and the original construction. Local shopping malls voluntarily helped to put part of the museum collection on display while the memorial was unavailable. When the poor condition of the building became an embarrassment for the city, Kansas City voters in 1998 passed a limited-run sales tax to support the restoration. Plans were also made at this time to expand the site with a museum to accommodate the LMA's growing collection. Local, national and international support provided more than $102 million for this undertaking.
- In 2004, Congress named the museum the nation's official World War I Museum, and construction started on a new 80,000 square foot, expansion and the Edward Jones Research Center underneath the memorial. The year this was completed, Liberty Memorial was designated a National Historic Landmark (September 20, 2006).
- Another substantial renovation, with a cost estimate of $5 million was undertaken beginning in December 2011. They included $170,000 in energy efficiency upgrades to the building as well as improvements to the artificial flame atop the tower. After several months of dormancy the flame was "relit" on February 1, 2013. Other portions of the overall renovation included security upgrades along with repairs to certain limestone sections and brush removal.
- An addition planned for completion in 2018 is the Wylie Gallery, which will occupy existing unused space on the east side of the museum building. It is part of a 6.4 million dollar upgrade made possible by a fundraising campaign coinciding with the tenth anniversary of the museum's 2006 reopening. The gallery will house traveling exhibits from around the world.
On December 19, 2014, President Barack Obama signed legislation recognizing it as a national memorial, which effectively redesignated the entire site as the National World War I Museum and Memorial.
The national design competition was managed by Thomas R. Kimball, a former president of the American Institute of Architects (AIA). After discord within the organization locally, the design contract was finally awarded to New York architect Harold Van Buren Magonigle.[n 1]
The main doors at the bottom of a large set of stairs are made from ornamental bronze, and the walls of the first floor lobby are finished in Kasota stone, which was quarried in Kasota, Minnesota. The first floor corridor and the grand stairway are finished in travertine that was imported from Italy. The floors of the corridors and stairway treads are made from terrazzo and Kasota marble, and the balusters and railing are made from Italian travertine and Italian tavernelle clairemarble. At night, the top of the 217-foot (66 m) tall memorial tower emits a "flame effect", steam illuminated by bright red and orange lights. This effect creates the illusion of a burning pyre and can be seen for some distance.[n 2] Overall, the memorial rises 265 feet (81 m) above the surrounding area.
The tower and buildings are designed in the classical Egyptian Revival style of architecture with a limestone exterior. The foundation was constructed using sawed granite, and the exterior ground level walls are made of Bedford stone. On opposite sides of the main deck of the Liberty Memorial are Exhibition Hall and Memory Hall. Memory Hall includes murals originally painted for the Panthéon de la Guerre in Paris, and adapted by LeRoy Daniel MacMorris[incomplete short citation] in the 1950s. Between each hall and the tower, above the museum entrance, sit two stone Assyrian sphinxes, named "Memory" and "Future," covering their faces with their wings. Memory faces East, hiding its face from the horrors of the European battlefields. Its counterpart faces West and a sheilds its eyes from a future yet unseen.
Main Museum Building
The subterranean portion was designed by Ralph Appelbaum Associates and greatly expands the original facilities. The west side of the museum, opposite the main entrance and below the Liberty tower, contains a large work of art upon its wall, which can be plainly seen from Union Station across Pershing Road from Penn Valley Park:
The grounds were designed by George Kessler who is also famous for his City Beautiful design for the Kansas City park and boulevard system. The road on the west side of the Memorial is Kessler Road.
The primary museum consists of:
- Two main galleries containing exhibitions with period artifacts. The first focuses on the beginning of the Great War prior to U.S. involvement, while the second focuses on the United States' military and civilian involvement in the war and efforts for peace. Items in these collections include:
- A Renault FT tank
- Uniforms such as Paul von Hindenburg’s Model 1915 Field Jacket
- A 1917 Harley-Davidson Model J motorcycle
- A 1918 Ford Model T ambulance
- General John J. Pershing's Headquarter flag
- Maps & photographs
- International Propaganda posters
- Replica trenches
- State-of-the-art interactive displays
- Sound booths with audio recordings of the period
- Two theaters that provide visitors with an educational narrative. One precedes the first gallery, and a larger one is passed through to enter the second gallery.
- The Edward Jones Research Center, carrying 75,000 archival documents, 9,500 library titles, and additional objects.
- R.A. Long Education Center: A multi-purpose conference room and classroom
- J.C. Nichols Auditorium for special events
- The Over There Café featuring flags, music, artwork, and menu items inspired by "the people and places of the Great War." 
- A museum store
- National Civil War Museum
- National World War II Museum
- List of National Historic Landmarks in Missouri
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Jackson County, Missouri: Downtown Kansas City
- A disagreement between members of the Kansas City Chapter of AIA and Kimball over the rules, caused almost half of the local members to resign in April 1922. They immediately went on to form the Architectural League of Kansas City, which was merged back into the AIA in the early 1930s. Unlike the AIA at the time, the Architectural League of Kansas City provided membership to less experienced architects and draftsmen and provided social and educational opportunities as well. Regardless of the controversy, many local architects submitted entries including those who resigned from the AIA. The jury, however, was unanimous in their decision to award the contract to Magonigle.
- See image under Note 2, below.
- National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
- "Liberty Memorial". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- "Partners". theworldwar.org. National World War I Museum and Memorial. January 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "National World War I Museum". SEGD.org. Society for Experiential Graphic Design. 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
- Bernard, Murrye (July 2010). "Names in the News". Main.AIANY.org. American Institute of Architects. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
- "Main Gallery". theworldwar.org. National World War I Museum and Memorial. January 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "About Us: Our Mission". theworldwar.org. National World War I Museum and Memorial. 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- Coleman, Daniel (2008). "Robert A. Long (1850-1934), Lumberman". kchistory.org. Kansas City Public Library. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Roe, Jason (February 9, 2015). "Monumental Undertaking". kclibrary.org. The Kansas City Public Library. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Christian, Shirley (March 31, 1998). "World War I Museum's New Drive on the Home Front". The New York Times. New York, NY. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- "Bunker Hill Monument: About the Monument". A View on Cities. Van Ermengem BVBA. 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
[I]t took seventeen years to build the 221 foot (67 meter) granite monument because the supporters of the project kept running out of funds. As a matter of fact, the monument committee had to eventually sell 10 of the 15 acres they had purchased for the monument...
- McCullough, David (1992). Truman. New York, New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. p. 150. ISBN 0-671-86920-5.
- Donovan, Derek (2001). "Marie, Queen of Romania Visits Kansas City's Liberty Memorial". tkinter.org. Kansas City Star Books. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Coolidge, Calvin (November 11, 1926). Address at the Dedication of the Liberty Memorial at Kansas City, Missouri (Speech). Dedication of the Liberty Memorial. Kansas City, MO. Retrieved November 25, 2014.
- Millstein, Cydney (January 13, 2006). "National Historic Landmark Nomination" (PDF). NPS.gov. National Park Service. p. 10. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- Donovan, Derek (2001). Lest the Ages Forget: Kansas City's Liberty Memorial. Kansas City, Missouri: Kansas City Star Books. p. 142. ISBN 0-9712920-1-9.
- Hanc, John (November 3, 2015). "A World War I Memorial in Kansas City Is a Tribute to Giving". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- Millstein 2006, p. 62.
- "Renovation begins at National World War I museum at Liberty Memorial". kshb.com. Scripps Media, Inc. December 27, 2011. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- "Flame returns to Liberty Memorial". kctv5.com. Meredith Corp. February 2, 2013. Retrieved February 2, 2013.
- Campbell, Matt (December 24, 2016), World War I Museum To Gain New Exhibit Space, The Kansas City Star, retrieved January 29, 2017
- "KC Philanthropic Leaders Heed the "Call to Duty" Raising More than $5 Million to Construct New Exhibition Gallery at the National World War I Museum and Memorial". Vocus PRW Holdings, LLC. May 6, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Campbell, Matt (December 22, 2014). "Liberty Memorial is Officially the National Memorial to World War I". The Kansas City Star. Mi-Ai Parrish. Retrieved December 30, 2014.
- Ehrlich, George (Autumn 1999). "The Rise and Demise of the Architectural League of Kansas City". Kawsmouth, A Journal of Regional History. 1 (2): 64–73.
- "Elements of the Museum and Memorial". theworldwar.org. National World War I Museum. 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- Donovan 2001, p. 99-111.
- "Featured Historic Place: Liberty Memorial Kansas City, MO". nps.gov/nr. National Park Service. 2007. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Wilson, William H. (1964). The City Beautiful Movement in Kansas City. University of Missouri Press.
- Map & Gallery Guide (Map) (leaflet). National World War I Museum at Liberty Memorial. 2015. §§ The Years 1917-1919; The Years 1914-1917.
- Paul, R. Eli (2009). National World War I Museum at Liberty Memorial. Marceline, MO: Donner Company Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57864-569-5.
- McNair, Doug (November 2007). "Report from the Road: The National World War One Museum". Avalanche Press. Avalanche Press Ltd. Retrieved February 2, 2017.
- "Edward Jones Research Center". theworldwar.org. National World War I Museum. 2017. Retrieved January 31, 2017.
- "Private Events". theworldwar.org. National World War I Museum. 2017. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
- Marsh, Hannah. "Memory in World War I American Museum Exhibits" (MA thesis, Kansas State University, 2015, online)
- Yost, Mark (November 29, 2006). "Why Kansas City: The Great War Gets an Official Museum of Its Own". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Archived from the original on May 5, 2008. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
- Official website
- National World War I Museum and Memorial at Google Cultural Institute
- Aber, Sarajane Sandusky, "An Architectural History of the Liberty Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri". University of Missouri-Kansas City, 1918-1935.
- Millstein, Cydney, "Historic American Buildings Survery of Liberty Memorial". Architectural and Historical Research, April 1, 2000.
- Yoho, Carol, "National World War I Museum at Liberty Memorial", Washburn University, 2009.