Library Company of Philadelphia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 39°56′52″N 75°09′47″W / 39.94779°N 75.16306°W / 39.94779; -75.16306

Library Company of Philadelphia
Library Company of Philadelphia seal.jpg
Established 1731
Location Philadelphia
Collection
Size 500,000 books; 70,000 other items
Access and use
Circulation Non-circulating collection
Population served Free and open to the public
Other information
Director Richard S. Newman
Staff 28
Website http://www.librarycompany.org/

The Library Company of Philadelphia (LCP) is a non-profit organization based in Philadelphia. Founded in 1731 by Benjamin Franklin as a library, the Library Company of Philadelphia has accumulated one of the most significant collections of historically valuable manuscripts and printed material in the United States.

The current collection size is about 500,000 books and 70,000 other items, including 2,150 items that once belonged to Franklin, the Mayflower Compact, major collections of 17th century and Revolution-era pamphlets and ephemera, maps, and whole libraries assembled in the 18th and 19th centuries. The collection also includes first editions of Moby-Dick and Leaves of Grass.[1]

Early history[edit]

The Library Company was an offshoot of the Junto, a discussion group in colonial Philadelphia, that gravitated around Benjamin Franklin. On July 1, 1731, Franklin and a number of his fellow members among the Junto drew up articles of agreement to found a library, for they had discovered that their far-ranging conversations on intellectual and political themes foundered at times on a point of fact that might be found in a decent library. In colonial Pennsylvania at the time there were not many books; Books from London booksellers were expensive to purchase and slow to arrive. Franklin and his friends were mostly of moderate means, and none alone could have afforded a representative library such as a gentleman of leisure might expect to assemble. By pooling their resources in pragmatic Franklinian fashion, as the Library Company's historian wrote, "the contribution of each created the book capital of all."

The first librarian they hired was Louis Timothee, America's first. He only held the position for a brief time. Until another librarian was found to replace him, Benjamin Franklin took over his duties. Franklin's stint as librarian ended in 1734. He was replaced by William Parsons. He was the librarian for 12 years. Robert Greenway was the fourth librarian, and his tenure lasted until 1763.[2]

The articles of association specified that each member after the first fifty must be approved by the directors, sign the articles, and pay the subscription. Admitting new members and selecting new books were the directors’ ordinary duties.

In the back of the library's catalog from 1741, Franklin mentioned that the library was accessible to people who were not members. Those who were not members were allowed to borrow books. However, they had to leave enough money to cover the cost of the book. Apparently, their money was given back upon returning the book. The privilege of being a member meant that books could be borrowed for free.[3]

On November 10, 1731, at Nicholas Scull's Bear Tavern ten persons paid their forty shillings: Robert Grace (share no. 1), Thomas Hopkinson (share no. 2),2 Benjamin Franklin (share no. 3), John Jones, Jr. (4), Joseph Breintnall (5), Anthony Nicholas (6), Thomas Godfrey (7), Joseph Stretch (8), Philip Syng, Jr. (9), and John Sober (10). It was a disappointing turnout: all but John Sober and the hatter Joseph Stretch (son of Peter Stretch), who later became a Pennsylvania assemblyman, were officers. The library now had eleven paid-up members.[4] Joseph Stretch and his brothers provided half of the original capital to build Pennsylvania Hospital,[5] another of Benjamin Franklin's projects.

Over time, fifty subscribers invested 40 shillings each and promised to pay ten shillings a year thereafter to buy books and maintain a shareholder's library. Therefore, "the Mother of all American subscription libraries" was established, and a list of desired books compiled in part by James Logan, "the best Judge of Books in these parts," was sent to London and by autumn the first books were on the shelves.

Earlier libraries in the Thirteen Colonies belonged to gentlemen, members of the clergy, and colleges. Members of the Library Company soon opened their own book presses to make donations: A Collection of Several Pieces, by John Locke; Logic: or, the Art of Thinking, by the Port Royalists Antoine Arnauld and Pierre Nicole, which Franklin in his autobiography said he had read at the age of 16; Plutarch's Moralia translated by Philemon Holland; Lewis Roberts' Merchants Mappe of Commerce, and others. A bit later William Rawle added a set of Spenser's Works to the collection and Francis Richardson gave several volumes, among them Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum, but on the whole books in Latin were few.

Overtures to the proprietor of Pennsylvania, John Penn at Pennsbury at first elicited no more than a polite response, but an unsolicited gift of 34 pound sterling arrived in the summer of 1738 from Walter Sydserfe, a Scottish-born physician and planter of Antigua.

The earliest surviving printed catalogue of 1741 gives the range of readers' tastes, for the members' requirements shaped the collection. Excluding gifts, a third of the holdings of 375 titles were historical works, geographies and accounts of voyages and travels, a category the Library Company has collected energetically throughout its history. A fifth of the titles were literature, mostly in the form of poetry and plays, for the prose novel was still in its infancy: as late as 1783, in the first orders from London after the war years, the directors thought "we should not think it expedient to add to our present stock, anything in the novel way." Another fifth of the titles were devoted to works of science. Theology and sermons, however, accounted for only a tenth of the titles, which set the Free Library apart from collegiate libraries at Harvard and Yale. The Company's agent in London was Peter Collinson, Fellow of the Royal Society, the Quaker mercer-naturalist of London, who corresponded with John Bartram.

The Library Company's example was soon imitated in other cities along the Atlantic coast, from Salem to Charleston. The Library soon became a repository of other curiosities: antique coins, including a gift of Roman coins from a Tory Member of Parliament, fossils, natural history specimens, minerals. When John Penn, making up for his slow start, sent an air-pump to the learned society in 1739, the directors, to house it commissioned a glazed cabinet, the earliest extant example of American-made Palladian architectural furniture. Rooms on the second floor of the newly finished west wing of the State House (now Independence Hall) housed the Library and its collections: there Franklin and his associates performed their first experiments in electricity during the 1740s. Later Benjamin West sent the mummified hand of an Egyptian princess.

Library and Surgeon's Hall, Fifth-street Engraving, 1800, by William Russell Birch

A charter was issued for the Company from the Penn proprietors, March 24, 1742, that included a plot of land, issued in their name by Governor George Thomas. Collinson, who had faithfully executed the Company's requests for books over the years, sent windfalls in 1755 and in 1758 in the form of boxes of his own copies of a score of 17th-century accounts of the newly established British colonies in America, among them such classics as Strachey's Lawes, Mourt's Relation and John Smith's Generall Historie of Virginia.

The Library Company's microscope and telescope were frequently borrowed. In 1769 Owen Biddle used the telescope to observe the transit of Venus from Cape Henlopen. On May 9 of that year Sarah Wistar became the first woman to be voted a library share.

Legal challenges to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act[edit]

Since the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, there have been numerous actions in federal courts to challenge the legality of the legislation The information below tries to describe the legal challenges by date and case number of every case mounted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Format is date, case number, court, Constitutional Challenge [Y/N] All references should include date filed, actual government case number designations and status. There have been over 100 lawsuits filed against Obamacare, but that information is being actively censored because it is failing[6][7][8][9]

May 17, 2016[edit]

On May 17, 2016, (1:16-cv-00587) United States Court of Federal Claims District of Columbia. Constitutional Challenge [N] Highmark Inc., First Priority Life Insurance Company et al v. United States The case challenges if Obama can decline to pay via the Health Insurance Risk Corridors programs in violation of Tucker Act 223 million dollars.[10][11][12]

October 22, 2015[edit]

On October 22, 2015, (7:15-cv-00151) United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas. Constitutional Challenge [Y] Texas, Kansasand the State of Loisiana. v. US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Burwell et al. The case challenges if the federal government can tax States via the Health Insurance Providers Fee programs in violation of the federal medicaid law.[13][14]

April 28, 2015[edit]

On April 28, 2015, (3:15-cv-00193-RS-CJK) United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida. Constitutional Challenge [N] Rick Scott and the State of Florida. et al v. US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Burwell et al. The case challenges if the federal government can coerce States into dramatically expanding their Medicaid programs in violation of the Supreme Court ruling held just three years ago that the Constitution prohibits it from doing. The government is threatening to cut off federal funding for unrelated programs unless they "agree" to do so by expanding Medicaid programs via Obamacare.[12][15]

January 26, 2015[edit]

On January 26, 2015, (2:15-cv-00321-ALM-NMK) United States District Court for the Southern District of Ohio. Constitutional Challenge [Y]The State of Ohio. et al v. United States of America. Attorney General Mike DeWine on behalf of the state of Ohio et al challenges the "Transitional Reinsurance Program" of the ACA of 2010 to collect mandatory monetary "contributions" from State and local governments. [12][16][17][18]

November 21, 2014[edit]

On November 21, 2014, (1:14-cv-01967-RMC)United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. The United States House of Representatives v. Burwell,et al was filed by the House of Representatives which challenges the "Payment of Funds to insurance companies" and other constitutional violations of the law. Jonathan Turley acted as the lawyer for this lawsuit and was paid by a contract with the House of Representatives . He is the third lawyer hired to do the lawsuit, since the first 2 lawyers dropped out due to political or other conflicts. As of May 29, 2015 the question of valid “standing” still had not been determined.[19][20][21] On May 12, 2016 U.S. District Judge Rosemary Collyer ruled against the government use of funds to pay insurers. She also stayed her ruling to allow the administration an opportunity to appeal.[22]

July 29, 2014[edit]

On July 29, 2014, (1:14-cv-01287-RBW)United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. The State of West Virginia v United States HHS,et al was filed by the office of Attorney General Patrick Morrisey which challenges the "Administrative Fix" and other constitutional violations of the law. State of West Virginia has filed a Motion for Summary Judgment. Defendant (HHS) has requested an extension of time to respond until October 17, 2014. In April the AG office of Patrick Morrisey filed a motion for a ruling on Summary Judgment. On October 30, 2015 the case was dismissed. Notice of Appeal was filed on November 6, 2015, the same day the Supreme Court of the United States decided it will review the Contraceptive mandate of Obamacare by combining 7 similar challenges to the contraceptive mandate.[23][24] The case is titled Zubik v. Burwell and the 6 other challenges include Priests for Life v. Burwell, Southern Nazarene University v. Burwell, Geneva College v. Burwell, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Washington v. Burwell, East Texas Baptist University v. Burwell and Little Sisters of the Poor Home for the Aged v. Burwell.[12][23][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33] [34][35]

July 04, 2014[edit]

On July 4, 2014, (1:14-cv-01143-RBW)United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. American Freedom Law Center, v. Obama et al was filed by the American Freedom Law Center which challenges that Obama has violated his constitutional duty to “faithfully execute” the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare). The State of West Virginia and Patrick Morrisey have filed a notice of related case on July 29, 2014. On June 3, 2015 a notice of appeal was filed[36][37]

January 6, 2014[edit]

On January 6, 2014(1:14-cv-00009-WCG/14-2723), United States District Court Eastern District Of Wisconsin, Constitutional Challenge [N] Senator Ron Johnson & Brooke Ericson v. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, et al. challenged that the government violates Section 1312(d)(3)(D), which was passed so Members of Congress and their staffs would be subject to the ACA in the same way as constituents and not get extra subsidies. 38 lawmakers joined the lawsuit by the senator. The court ruled the Senator did not have standing and dismissed the case. The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago said Johnson also lacked legal standing by a unanimous three-judge panel in April 2015.[38][39][40][41][42][43]

December 31, 2013[edit]

On December 31, 2013, (1:13-cv-02066-CKK/14-5183) United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. Cutler v. United States Department of Health and Human Services, et al. Cutler challenges the constitutionality of the Act, both on its face and as applied to him and his constituents. Cutler asserts that the provision requiring individuals to obtain health insurance coverage or face monetary penalties violates the religion clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution and a previous Supreme Court Decision, "1947 Everson v Board of Education", and allows the government to favor one religion over another religion. The process of empowering the United States Government to Certify that applicable individual is part of EXEMPT RELIGION or SECT, Cutler seeks a declaration that the Act is unconstitutional, invalid, and unenforceable. Cutler also seeks to "rollback" the law to the status it had prior to 2014 on various grounds, arguing that the law NOW violates the Constitution by allowing unequal protection under the law.(If You Like Your Plan, You Can Keep Your PLAN till October 1, 2016, but only if the insurance commissioner of your state agrees with the president[44]). Notice of Appeal was filed on July 25, 2014. On August 11, 2014 a notice of related case was filed for the case of State of West Virginia v United States HHS,et al (1:14-cv-01287-RBW). Lawyers David Yerushalmi and Robert Muise from the American Freedom Law Center are handling the appeal. On October 16, 2014 an injunction pending appeal was filed based on "unequal treatment under the law". Oral argumentss by Robert Muise May 12, 2015 of the American Freedom Law Center. The American Freedom Law Center also represents Pamela Geller. The event sponsored by Pamela Geller was attacked by 2 terrorists on May 4, 2015 in Garland Texas. C, a free speech rally outside the Phoenix mosque allegedly attended by Elton Simpson and Nadir Soofi, the two gunmen who were killed at the Garland, Texas, event hosted by Pamela Geller. On August 14, 2015 the DC court of appeals reversed the lower court on standing to sue over violations of the establishment clause, but stated essentially that since Social Security is legal the ACA is legal. On November 11, 2015 a petition was filed at the Supreme Court for the case [15-632]. On January 11, 2016 the Supreme Court announced it will decline to hear the case, even though the United States Government declined to respond to the petition. On June 15, 2016 the petition was inserted as part of case 1:16-cv-1159, but the case was remanded back to Lancaster County by judge Sylvia Rambo. On July 18, 2016 a notice of appeal was filed for case 1:16-cv-1159, USCA case 16-3164. On July 28, 2016 a motion for partial summary judgement was filed in Philadelphia for , USCA case 16-3164 which among other things requests the court to “Order the United States Government to stop collecting or accessing penalties FOR FAILURE to comply with established tenets or teachings of such sect or division of ANY religion in violation of the U.S. Constitution amendment 1”.[16][45][46][47][48][48][49][50] [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58]

October 30, 2013[edit]

On October 30, 2013, (1:13-cv-01214-WCG/14-2123). United States District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. Association of American Physicians & Surgeons and Robert T. McQueeney, MD v IRS. On September 22, 2014, the 7th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago affirmed a Wisconsin federal judge's decision to dismiss a lawsuit filed last October by the Association of American Physicians and Surgeons, Inc., and Robert T. McQueeney, who treat patients on a cash basis, and want to prevent everyone from being required to be covered by health insurance. The plaintiffs had sought an injunction blocking the IRS from collecting the penalty in 2014, on the argument that it would violate the Tenth Amendment and separation of powers.[59][60]

September 24, 2013[edit]

On September 24, 2013, (1:13-cv-02611-WJM-BNB/13-1540) United States District Court for the District of Colorado. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. Little Sisters of the Poor v. United States Department of Health and Human Services, et al. Christian Brothers Employee Benefit Trust and others through their lawyers, the the Becket Fund for Religious Liberty challenges the constitutionality of the law requiring organizations to provide health insurance which provides coverage for contraceptive methods that they feel violates their religious freedom or face monetary penalties violates the Religious Freedom Restoration Act., a class action lawsuit. The case was part of the newest Supreme Court challenge to the Contraceptive mandate of Obamacare called Zubik v. Burwell. The case ended with all appeals court decisions vacated and all 7 cases being sent back to district court by an 8 to 0 decision in the Supreme Court.[61][62]

August 19, 2013[edit]

On August 19, 2013, (1:13-cv-01261-EGS) United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. Priests for Life v. United States Department of Health and Human Services, et al. Father Frank Pavone and others through their lawyers, the American Freedom Law Center challenges the constitutionality of the law requiring organizations to provide health insurance which provides coverage for contraceptive methods that they feel violates their religious freedom or face monetary penalties violates the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. The case was part of the newest Supreme Court challenge to the Contraceptive mandate of Obamacare called Zubik v. Burwell. The case ended with all appeals court decisions vacated and all 7 cases being sent back to district court by an 8 to 0 decision in the Supreme Court.[61][62]

December 4, 2012[edit]

On December 4, 2012 (12-cv-06744/13-1144)United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Constitutional Challenge [N]., Conestoga Wood Specialties Corporation et al v. Sebelius et al was filed which challenged regulations by the Department of Health and Human Services requiring employers to provide their female employees with no-cost access to contraception which violates the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. This amounted to an objection to 4 out of over 19 types of contraception. Case lost but was eventually combined with Hobby Lobby case and sent to the Supreme Court as Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc.. The Supreme Court found in favor of the company.[63][64][65][66][67]

September 12, 2012[edit]

On September 12, 2012 (12-CV-01000-HE/12-6294), United States District Court For The Western District Of Oklahoma, Constitutional Challenge [N] Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc et al v. Sebelius et al was filed which challenged regulations by the Department of Health and Human Services requiring employers to provide their female employees with no-cost access to contraception which violates the Religious Freedom Restoration Act. This amounted to an objection to 4 out of over 19 types of contraception. Case won but was eventually combined with Conestoga Wood Specialties Corporation case and sent to the Supreme Court as Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc.. The Supreme Court found in favor of the company.[64][66][67]

July 26, 2010[edit]

On July 26, 2010, (1:10-cv-01263-RJL/13-5202)United States District Court for the District of Columbia. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. Sissel v United States HHS,et al was filed which challenges the "Individual Mandate" and other constitutional violations of the law. The case was amended to challenge the constitutionality as a violation of the "Origination Clause" of the constitution . On July 29, 2014 the court rejected plaintiff's argument that the fact that Section 5000A may have been enacted solely pursuant to the taxing power brought it within the ambit of the Origination Clause, noting that many exercises of taxing power have a primary purpose other than raising of revenue and thus are not governed by the Origination Clause at all.[12][68]

June 9, 2010[edit]

On June 9, 2010, (1:10-cv-00950-GK/11-5047) United States District Court for the District of Columbia Constitutional Challenge [Y]. Mead v. Holder, Margaret Peggy Lee Mead and four other individuals, On March 11, 2011 Margaret Peggy Lee Mead withrew from the case and it became Seven-Sky v. Holder. Susan Seven-Sky became the lead plaintiff in the case. The American Center for Law & Justice ("ACLJ") represented the plaintiffs. The case was eventually heard by the Supreme Court and the Supreme Court found in favor of the government.[12][69][70]

March 23, 2010[edit]

On March 23, 2010, (6:10-cv-00015-nkmb/10-2347)United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. Liberty University, et al. v Timothy Geithner, et al was filed which challenges the "the requirement to have insurance that will pay for elective abortion" and violation of Article I and the First, Fifth, and Tenth Amendments of the United States Constitution. Appeal was started August 6, 2013[71][72][73][74]

March 23, 2010[edit]

On March 23, 2010(3:10-cv-00091-RV-EMT)United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida Constitutional Challenge [Y]Florida et al v. United States Department of Health and Human Services, 20 states (a figure that grew to 26 states following the mid-term elections), the National Federation of Independent Businesses (NFIB), and two uninsured individuals similarly argue that the individual requirement to purchase health insurance coverage exceeds the authority granted to the federal government under the U.S. Constitution.[5] The Florida suit also challenges other provisions of the law, including the tax penalty associated with the individual requirement, the Medicaid expansions and the establishment of state health insurance exchanges, the insurance market reforms, and the employer responsibility provisions of the ACA.[70][75][76]

March 23, 2010[edit]

On March 23, 2010(3:10-cv-00188/HEH) United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. Constitutional Challenge [Y]Commonwealth of Virginia, Kenneth Cuccinelli v. Kathleen Sebelius, et al. In Commonwealth of VA v. Sebelius, Virginia Attorney General Kenneth Cuccinelli argues that Congress exceeded its Constitutional authority granted to it under the U.S. Constitution by requiring individuals to maintain health insurance. In addition, Attorney General Cuccinelli argues that because the federal law is an unlawful exercise of congressional authority, the law violates Virginia’s sovereignty because it invalidates a Virginia law protecting individuals from being forced to purchase health insurance.[75][77][77]

March 23, 2010[edit]

On March 23, 2010, (2:10-cv-11156-GCS/RSW/10-2388)United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan. Constitutional Challenge [Y]. Thomas More Law Center, et al. v Barack Hussein Obama, United States HHS,et al was filed by Robert Muise and Richard Thompson, which challenges the "Individual Mandate" and other constitutional violations of the law. Lawyers Robert Muise and David Yerushalmi became the lawyers of record on the case for the plaintiffs. On October 21, 2010 the court rejected plaintiff's arguments. This is considered the first legal challenge to Obamacare[12][78][79][80][81][82][83]

Expansion[edit]

The Library absorbed smaller lending libraries and outgrew its rooms, renting larger space on the second floor of the new Carpenters' Company hall in 1773. "The Books (inclosed within Wire Lattices) are kept in one large Room," Franklin was informed in London, "and in another handsome Apartment the [scientific] Apparatus is deposited and the Directors meet." On September 5, 1774, the First Continental Congress met on the first floor of Carpenters' Hall, and the Library Company extended members' privileges to all the delegates. The offer was renewed when the Second Continental Congress met the following spring, and again when the delegates to the Constitutional Convention met in 1787. Nine signers of the Declaration of Independence — Benjamin Franklin, Benjamin Rush, Francis Hopkinson, Robert Morris, George Clymer, John Morton, James Wilson, Thomas McKean, and George Ross — owned shares, some of them serving as directors. The Library Company served virtually as the Library of Congress until the national capital was established in 1800.

Virtually every significant work on political theory, history, law, and statecraft (and much else besides) could be found on the Library Company's shelves, as well as numerous tracts and polemical writings by American as well as European authors. And virtually all of those works that were influential in framing the minds of the Framers of the nation are still on the Library Company's shelves.[1]

The former Ridgway Library at 901 S. Broad Street, built in 1873–78, is now occupied since 1997 by the Philadelphia High School for the Creative and Performing Arts

In 1785 the Company purchased a collection of Revolutionary broadsheets pamphlets and other ephemera that had been assiduously collected by Pierre Eugène Du Simitière, of which no other copies have survived.

Permanent quarters were established for the Library Company in 1789 with the purchase of a lot on Fifth Street near Chestnut across from State House Square. A competition for the design of a building was won by an amateur of architecture, Dr. William Thornton, with a plan for a Palladian red-brick structure with white pilasters and a pediment interrupting a balustraded roof. A curving double flight of steps led up to the arched door under an arched niche containing a gift from William Bingham — a marble statue of Franklin in a classical toga sculpted in Italy by Francesco Lazzarini. Member's shares were extended to carpenters and bricklayers in partial payment for work on the new building. The new quarters were opened on New Year's Day, 1791. For the new library Samuel Jennings, an expatriate Philadelphian living in London, painted a large picture, "Liberty Displaying the Arts and Sciences."

In 1792 the Loganian Library, which had been housed across the square, was transferred to the Library Company, complementing its collection with the 2600 books (chiefly in Latin and Greek) that had been collected by James Logan. This collection was supplemented by the medical library of James Logan's younger brother, a physician in Bristol, England, the best medical library then in North America. Thornton's new building immediately required a new wing.

19th century[edit]

The collections went from strength to strength in the 19th century. In mid-century it was considered one of the "five great libraries" in the United States, along with the Harvard University Library, Yale University Library, Library of Congress, and Boston Athenæum.

The new Ridgway Library, home of the Library Company of Philadelphia, at 1314 Locust Street in Philadelphia

The Library Company's collections were physically split in the mid-19th century. A large bequest from Dr. James Rush resulted in a new building at Broad and Christian streets in South Philadelphia. The Ridgway Library, as it was called, was controversial because it was both physically and socially removed from the homes and businesses of the members. A new, more centrally located, library designed by Frank Furness opened its doors in 1880 at Juniper and Locust Street.

20th century[edit]

The Library Company suffered financial troubles during the Great Depression and was forced to sell the Locust Street building and consolidate the collections in the Ridgway Library on South Broad Street. As its fortunes improved after the war, the institution focused on its mission as a scholarly research library. In the second half of the 20th century, under the direction of Edwin Wolf, an energetic program of renewal brought the Library Company once more into a busy and vital center of national importance for research and education. The Library Company completed a new building on Locust Street, also named the Ridgway Library, in 1965, and opened it to the public in April 1966.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Wolf, Edwin (1976). At the Instance of Benjamin Franklin: A Brief History of the Library Company of Philadelphia (PDF). Philadelphia: The Library Company of Philadelphia. ISBN 0-914076-73-6. 
  2. ^ "At the Instance of Benjamin Franklin: A Brief History of the Library Company of Philadelphia" (PDF). The Library Company of Philadelphia. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  3. ^ "At the Instance of Benjamin Franklin: A Brief History of The Library Company of Philadelphia" (PDF). The Library Company of Philadelphia. Retrieved 26 October 2014. 
  4. ^ Lemay, J. A. Leo (2005). The Life of Benjamin Franklin. Vol II: Printer and Publisher, 1730-1747. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 93–128. ISBN 978-0-8122-3855-6. 
  5. ^ "Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia." (Vol III, 1888-1891): 196–8. 
  6. ^ http://www.nwlc.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/contraceptive_coverage_litigation_status_8-4-15_final.pdf
  7. ^ http://www.forbes.com/sites/sallypipes/2016/05/30/obamacare-is-failing-on-purpose/#75f9409c3edd
  8. ^ http://www.investors.com/politics/editorials/obamacare-is-failing-exactly-the-way-critics-said-it-would/
  9. ^ http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2016/07/obamacare_is_failing_from_behind.html
  10. ^ http://www.post-gazette.com/business/healthcare- business/2016/05/17/Highmark-takes-government-to-court-over-Obamacare-losses/stories/201605170204
  11. ^ http://www.wsj.com/articles/insurer-highmark-sues-u-s-over-affordable-care-act-1463515485
  12. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.pacer.gov
  13. ^ https://www.texasattorneygeneral.gov/files/epress/Affordable_Care_Act_Medicaid_Tax_Complaint.pdf
  14. ^ http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/barbara-hollingsworth/three-states-sue-federal-govt-over-unconstitutional-obamacare-tax
  15. ^ http://www.tampabay.com/news/politics/stateroundup/florida-gov-rick-scott-suing-obama-administration-over-health-care-funding/2225790
  16. ^ a b http://www.breitbart.com/big-government/2015/02/04/could-this-be-the-case-that-ends-obamacare/
  17. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/ohio-sues-over-obamacare-taxes-state-local-governments-181949498.html?bcmt=comments-postbox
  18. ^ http://www.cincinnati.com/story/news/courts/2015/01/26/ohio-warren-co-sues-feds-over-obamacare-fees/22354337/
  19. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/u-judge-grills-lawyer-defending-obamas-healthcare-law-165533045.html?bcmt=1432835606056-5192889a-1cd9-4ede-b3e4-316bca350c32&bcmt_s=u#mediacommentsugc_container
  20. ^ https://jonathanturley.files.wordpress.com/2014/11/house-v-burwell-d-d-c-complaint- filed.pdf
  21. ^ http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2014/01/barack-obama-constitution-legal-end-run-around-congress-102231.html#.VWefNFIoHTQ
  22. ^ http://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-judge-rules-for-house-republicans-in-health-care-case-1463074018
  23. ^ a b http://www.scotusblog.com/2015/11/court-to-hear-birth-control-challenges/
  24. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2015/11/06/politics/supreme-court-obamacare-contraception-mandate/index.html
  25. ^ http://www.goodreads.com/author_blog_posts/9429815-court-grants-all-seven-nonprofit-petitions-in-contraceptive-coverage-cas
  26. ^ http://balkin.blogspot.com/2015/11/who-is-zubik-in-zubik-v-burwell-and-why.html
  27. ^ http://blogs.findlaw.com/supreme_court/2015/11/scotus-will-hear-all-the-obamacare-contraception-exemption-cases.html
  28. ^ http://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/cases/zubik-v-burwell/
  29. ^ http://www.supremecourt.gov/Search.aspx?FileName=/docketfiles/14-1418.htm/
  30. ^ http://www.supremecourt.gov/Search.aspx?FileName=/docketfiles/14-1453.htm
  31. ^ http://www.supremecourt.gov/Search.aspx?FileName=/docketfiles/15-110.htm
  32. ^ http://www.supremecourt.gov/Search.aspx?FileName=/docketfiles/14-1505.htm
  33. ^ http://www.supremecourt.gov/Search.aspx?FileName=/docketfiles/15-101.htm
  34. ^ http://www.supremecourt.gov/Search.aspx?FileName=/docketfiles/15-105.htm
  35. ^ http://washington.cbslocal.com/2014/07/30/west-virginia-attorney-general-suing-white-house-over-obamacare/
  36. ^ http://www.americanfreedomlawcenter.org/case/american-freedom-law-center-v-obama/
  37. ^ http://rightedition.com/2014/11/05/obama-sued-changing-obamacare/
  38. ^ http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2014/07/23/implementing-health-reform-senator-rebuffed-in-challenge-to-congressional-participation-in-aca-exchanges/
  39. ^ "U.S. senator sues over healthcare subsidy for Congress". Reuters. January 6, 2014. 
  40. ^ "Appeals Court Rejects GOP Senator's Obamacare Challenge". Huffington Post. April 14, 2015. 
  41. ^ http://watchdog.org/122537/obama-lawsuit-obamacare/
  42. ^ http://wsau.com/news/articles/2015/apr/14/wisconsin-senator-loses-appeal-of-obamacare-lawsuit/
  43. ^ O'Keefe, Ed (April 22, 2014). "38 GOP lawmakers join Ron Johnson's Obamacare lawsuit". The Washington Post. 
  44. ^ http://www.cms.gov/CCIIO/Resources/Regulations-and-Guidance/Downloads/transition-to-compliant-policies-03-06-2015.pdf
  45. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mgCle8F_zUk
  46. ^ http://www.americanfreedomlawcenter.org/case/jeffrey-cutler-v-u-s-dept-of-health-human-services/
  47. ^ http://humanevents.com/2015/05/13/the-most-important-obamacare-case-youve-never-heard-of/?utm_source=hedaily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=nl
  48. ^ a b http://thenewrevere.com/2015/07/exclusive-consensus-is-the-new-word-for-censorship/
  49. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/aug/14/jeffrey-cutler-pa-man-loses-court-bid-keep-obamaca/?page=all
  50. ^ https://www.cadc.uscourts.gov/internet/opinions.nsf/0/0FCDDBFAFAED9D9185257EA10052EE3B/$file/14-5183-1567865.pdf??/
  51. ^ http://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2015/11/obamacare_and_the_courts.html
  52. ^ http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2015/05/steyn_on_garland_texas_terror_attack.html
  53. ^ "Terror attack in Garland, Texas, had ties overseas". CNN. 
  54. ^ "Garland, Texas, gunmen left terror trail on Internet before opening fire on police". CBS News. May 6, 2015. 
  55. ^ http://freedomoutpost.com/2015/05/guns-the-difference-between-the-garland-texas-jihad-and-charlie-hebdo-attacks/
  56. ^ http://www.theodoresworld.net/archives/2015/05/2_muslim_terrorists_killed_pol.html
  57. ^ http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2015/05/29/protest-at-phoenix-mosque//
  58. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2015/aug/14/jeffrey-cutler-pa-man-loses-court-bid-keep-obamaca/?page=all/
  59. ^ http://www.jsonline.com/blogs/news/275834801.html
  60. ^ http://apps.americanbar.org/ababoards/blog/blogpost.cfm?threadid=30967&catid=14929
  61. ^ a b http://www.plainsite.org/dockets/uent3shp/district-of-columbia-district-court/priests-for-life-et-al-v-united-states-department-of-health-and-human-services-et-al/
  62. ^ a b http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/05/the-supreme-courts-non-sensical-ruling-in-zubik/482967/
  63. ^ http://freedomoutpost.com/2013/09/family-owned-conestoga-wood-specialties-files-lawsuit-against-obamacare
  64. ^ a b http://www.lambdalegal.org/in-court/cases/conestoga-v-sebelius-and-sebelius-v-hobby-lobby
  65. ^ http://lancasteronline.com/news/conestoga-wood-case-goes-to-supreme-court/article_5c6e27f3-91bc-5931-917d-02b940a0a500.html
  66. ^ a b https://prospect.org/article/affordable-care-act-v-supreme-court-round-2
  67. ^ a b http://www.scotusblog.com/case-files/cases/conestoga-wood-specialties-corp-v-sebelius/
  68. ^ http://www.forbes.com/sites/m.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  69. ^ http://www.healthcarelawsuits.org/detail.php?c=2262998&t=Mead-v.-Holder
  70. ^ a b http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publications/supreme_court_preview/briefs/11-393_petitioneramcuaclj-117congressmbrs-andacljsupporters.authcheckdam.pdf
  71. ^ http://www.clearinghouse.net/chDocs/public/FA-VA-0001-0001.pdf
  72. ^ https://www.ropesgray.com/files/upload/20120207_HRRC_37.pdf
  73. ^ http://dockets.justia.com/docket/virginia/vawdce/6:2010cv00015/76425/
  74. ^ http://www.lc.org/media/9980/attachments/pr_4th_appeals_obamacare_staying_mandate_080613.pdf
  75. ^ a b http://www.healthreformgps.org/resources/health-reform-and-the-constitutional-challenges/
  76. ^ http://myfloridalegal.com/webfiles.nsf/WF/JDAS-8ED2PB/$file/FLMemoOppositiontoMotionToClarify2-23-11.pdf
  77. ^ a b http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/doj/legacy/2014/09/15/cuccinelli-v-sebelius-order.pdf
  78. ^ http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/doj/legacy/2014/09/15/thomas-more-v-obama-surreply.pdf
  79. ^ http://www.justice.gov/sites/default/files/doj/legacy/2014/09/15/thomas-more-v-obama-order-denying-motion.pdf
  80. ^ http://www.thomasmore.org/sites/default/files/TMLCReplyBriefinSupportofMotionforPI--revised.pdf
  81. ^ The Wall Street Journal (PDF) http://online.wsj.com/public/resources/documents/102110TMLCdismissal.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  82. ^ http://www.americanbar.org/newsletter/publications/aba_health_esource_home/aba_health_law_esource_1107_nelson.html
  83. ^ http://media.aclj.org/pdf/michigan-6th-cta-filed-amicus-brief20101215.pdf

Further reading

  • Abbot, G. M. A Short History of the Library Company of Philadelphia; Compiled from the Minutes, Together with Some Personal Reminiscences. Philadelphia: Published by order of the Board of Directors, 1913.
  • Edmunds, A. J. "The First Books Imported by America's First Great Library: 1732 " Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 30 (1906): 300–308
  • Gray, A. K. Benjamin Franklin's Library: A Short Account of the Library Company of Philadelphia, 1731–1931, Foreword by Owen Wister. New York: Macmillan, 1937.
  • Grimm, D. F. "A History of the Library Company of Philadelphia, 1731–1835." Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1955.
  • Korty, M. B. "Benjamin Franklin and Eighteenth Century American Libraries." Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 55 (1965): 1–83.
  • Library Company of Philadelphia. A Catalogue of Books Belonging to the Library Company of Philadelphia: A Facsimile of the Edition of 1741 Printed by Benjamin Franklin, with an Introduction by Edwin Wolf 2nd Philadelphia: Library Company of Philadelphia 1956
  • Packard, F. R. Charter Members of the Library Company. Philadelphia: Library Company of Philadelphia, 1942.
  • Peterson, C. E. "The Library Hall: Home of the Library Company of Philadelphia, 1790–1880." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 95 (1951): 266–85.
  • Smith, J. J. "Notes for a History of the Library Company of Philadelphia." Hazard's Register of Pennsylvania 16 (26 September 1835): 201–08.
  • Wolf, E. "At the Instance of Benjamin Franklin"—A Brief History of The Library Company of Philadelphia, 1731–1976. Philadelphia: Library Company of Philadelphia, 1976.
  • Wolf, E. "Library Company of Philadelphia." ELIS 15 (1975): 1–19.
  • Wolf, E. "Some Books of Early English Provenance in the Library Company of Philadelphia." Book Collector 9 (1960): 275–84.
  • Wolf, E. "The Early Buying Policy of the Library Company of Philadelphia [1735–70]." Wilson Library Bulletin 30 (1955): 316–18.
  • Wolf, E. "The First Books and Printed Catalogues of the Library Company of Philadelphia." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 78 (1954): 45–70.
  • Wolf, E. "The Library Company of Philadelphia, America's First Museum." Antiques [U.S.A.] 120 (1981): 348–60.
  • "Early Documents of the Library Company of Philadelphia, 1733–1734." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 39 (1915): 450–53.
  • "Public Library in Philadelphia." American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge 2 (November 1835): 91.
  • "The Library Company of Philadelphia, and the Loganian Library." Norton's Literary Gazette 2 (15 July 1852): 127.

External links[edit]