Librem

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Librem
DeveloperPurism (company)
ManufacturerPurism
TypeLaptop/Netbook, Desktop, Smartphone, Server
Release date2014 (2014)
Operating systemPureOS, QubesOS
CPUIntel Core
GraphicsIntel HD Graphics
Marketing targetComputer security purpose
Websitepuri.sm

Librem is a line of computers manufactured by Purism, SPC featuring free (libre) software.[1][2] The laptop line is designed to protect privacy and freedom by providing no non-free (proprietary) software in the operating system or kernel,[3][4][5][6] avoiding the Intel Active Management Technology,[7] and gradually freeing and securing firmware.[8][9] Librem laptops feature hardware kill switches for the microphone, webcam, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.[1][2]

Models[edit]

Laptops[edit]

Librem 13, Librem 15 and Librem 14[edit]

In 2014 Purism launched a crowdfunding campaign on Crowd Supply to fund the creation and production of the Librem 15 laptop,[10] conceived as a modern alternative to existing open-source hardware laptops, all of which used older hardware.[11][12][13] The 15 in the name refers to its 15-inch screen size. The campaign succeeded after extending the original campaign,[14] and the laptops were shipped to backers.[15] In a second revision of the laptop, hardware kill switches for the camera, microphone, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth were added.

After the successful launch of the Librem 15, Purism created another campaign on Crowd Supply for a 13-inch laptop called the Librem 13,[16] which also came with hardware kill switches similar to those on the Librem 15v2.[17] The campaign was again successful and the laptops were shipped to customers.[18]

Purism announced in December 2016 that it would start shipping from inventory rather than building to order with the new batches of Librem 15 and 13.[19]

As of April 2022 Purism has one laptop model in production, the Librem 14 (version 1, US$1,370[20]).

Comparison of laptops[edit]

Librem model Coreboot version CPU Intel ME Release Max RAM (GB)
15 v1[21] Intel Core i7 5557U Enabled July 2015 32
13 v1[22] 4.16 (2022)[23] Intel Core i5 5200U Enabled September 2015 16
15 v2[24] 4.16 (2022)[25] Intel Core i7-5557U Enabled September 2015 32
13 v2[26] 4.16 (2022)[27] Intel Core i5 6200U Disabled June 14, 2017 16
15 v3[26] 4.16 (2022)[28] Intel Core i7 6500U Disabled June 28, 2017 32
13 v3[29] 4.6 (2017)[30] Intel Core i7 6500U Disabled October 2017 16
15 v4 4.16 (2022)[31] Intel Core i7 7500U Disabled[32] January 2019 32
13 v4[33] 4.16 (2022)[34] Intel Core i7 7500U Disabled[32] January 2019 16
14 v1[35] 4.16 (2022)[36] Intel Core i7 10710U Disabled (but not "neutralized") early Q4 2020 64

Librem Mini[edit]

The Librem Mini is a small form factor desktop computer,[37] which began shipping in June 2020.[38]

Librem 5[edit]

Phosh, the GNOME mobile shell that runs on the Librem 5.

On August 24, 2017, Purism started a crowdfunding campaign for the Librem 5, a smartphone aimed to run 100% free software, which would "[focus] on security by design and privacy protection by default". Purism claimed that the phone would become "the world's first ever IP-native mobile handset, using end-to-end encrypted decentralized communication."[39] Purism cooperated with KDE and GNOME in its development of Librem 5.[40]

Security features of the Librem 5 include separation of the CPU from the baseband processor,[41] which, according to Linux Magazine, makes the Librem 5 unique in comparison to other mobile phones.[40] The Librem 5 also features hardware kill switches for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth communication and the phone's camera, microphone, and baseband processor.[42]

The default operating system for the Librem 5 is Purism's PureOS, a Debian GNU/Linux derivative. The operating system uses a new user interface called Phosh, based on Wayland, wlroots, GTK and GNOME middleware.[43] It is planned that Phosh/Plasma Mobile,[40] Ubuntu Touch,[44] and postmarketOS can also be installed on the phone.

The release of the Librem 5 has been postponed several times. In September 2018, Purism announced that the launch date of Librem 5 would be moved from January to April 2019, because of two hardware bugs and the holiday season in Europe and North America.[45] The Librem 5's DevKits for software developers were shipped in December 2018. The launch date was later postponed to the third quarter because of the necessity of further CPU tests.[46] and on September 24, 2019, Purism announced that the first batch of Librem 5 phones had started shipping.[47] The finished version of the Librem 5, known as "Evergreen", was finally shipped on November 18, 2020.[48]

Librem Server[edit]

The Librem server is a rack mounted server, released to the public in December 2019.[49]

Librem Key[edit]

Announced on 20 September 2018, the Librem Key is a hardware USB security token with multiple features, including integration with a tamper-evident Heads BIOS, that ensures a Librem laptop Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) was not maliciously altered since the last laptop launch.[50] Also a one-time password storage with 3x HMAC-based One-time Password algorithm (HOTP) (RFC 4226) and 15 x Time-based One-time Password algorithm (TOTP) (RFC 6238) and an integrated password manager (16 entries), 40 kbit/s true random number generator, and a tamper-resistant smart card. The key supports type A USB 2.0, has dimensions of 48 x 19 x 7 mm, and weights 6 g.[51]

Operating system[edit]

Initially planning to preload its Librem laptops with the Trisquel operating system,[52] Purism eventually moved off the Trisquel platform to rebase onto Debian for the 2.0 release of its PureOS Linux operating system.[53] As an alternative to PureOS, Librem laptops are purchasable with Qubes OS preinstalled.[54] In December 2017 the Free Software Foundation added PureOS to its list of endorsed GNU/Linux distributions.[55][56]

BIOS[edit]

In 2015, Purism began research to port the Librem 13 to coreboot[57][58][59] but the effort was initially stalled. By the end of the year, a coreboot developer completed an initial port of the Librem 13 and submitted it for review.[60] In December 2016, hardware enablement developer Youness Alaoui joined Purism and was tasked to complete the coreboot port for the original Librem 13 and prepare a port for the second revision of the device.[61] Since summer 2017, new Librem laptops are shipped with coreboot as their standard BIOS, and updates are available for all older models.[62]

Purism calls a collection of below mentioned six components, involved in the boot process, as PureBoot:[63]

  1. Neutralized and Disabled Intel Management Engine.
  2. The coreboot.
  3. A Trusted Platform Module (TPM) chip.
  4. Heads, which tamper-evident features to detect when the BIOS or important boot files have been modified.
  5. Librem Key, Purism's USB security token
  6. Multi-factor authentication that unlocks disk encryption using the Librem Key

PureBoot protects the users from various attacks like theft, BIOS Malware and Kernel Rootkits, vulnerabilities and malicious code in the Intel Management Engine and interdiction.[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Miller, Paul; Krales, Amelia Holowaty (2017-08-23). "Librem 13 laptop review: physical security for the paranoid". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2018-10-21. Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  2. ^ a b Wallen, Jack (2018-03-26). "Purism Librem 13 review: This Linux-based laptop takes your privacy to the next level". TechRepublic. Archived from the original on 2018-09-25. Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  3. ^ Kyle Rankin. "Purism Librem 15 Review". Linux Journal. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
  4. ^ IEEE Consumer Electronics, Vol 5, Number 1, 2016 January, "Veillance Integrity by Design A new mantra for CE devices and services", pp. 33-143, By Steve Mann
  5. ^ Purism Aims To Build A Philosophically Pure Laptop, TechCrunch, Jan 23, 2015 by John Biggs (@johnbiggs)
  6. ^ Bridgwater, Adrian (2015-01-26). "Purism Librem: 100% open source crowdsourced 'high-end' laptop". Computer Weekly. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  7. ^ Armasu, Lucian (2016-08-29). "Purism Explains Why It Avoids Intel's AMT And Networking Cards For Its Privacy-Focused 'Librem' Notebooks". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  8. ^ Ung, Gordon. "Purism discovered how to make open-source software laptops even more open". PCWorld. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  9. ^ Armasu, Lucian (2017-04-12). "Purism Laptops To Use 'Heads' Firmware To Protect Against Rootkits, Tampering". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  10. ^ "Librem 15: A Laptop That Respects Your Rights". Crowd Supply. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  11. ^ "Purism Librem 15". Linux Journal. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  12. ^ "Purism Aims To Build A Philosophically Pure Laptop". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  13. ^ "Purism Librem 15 Linux laptop blends high-end hardware with totally free software". PCWorld. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  14. ^ "Purism's high-end, open software-stuffed Librem 15 laptop hits crowdfunding goal". PCWorld. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  15. ^ "Librem 15 Laptop: Shipping Update". Crowd Supply. 2015-06-09.
  16. ^ "Librem 13: A Laptop That Respects Your Rights". Crowd Supply. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  17. ^ "Purism Puts Physical Kill Switches on Latest Laptop". Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  18. ^ "Purism Librem 13 Review". Linux Journal. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  19. ^ Weaver, Todd (2016-12-15). "Growing to Ship from Inventory in 2017". Purism. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
  20. ^ "Librem 14 version 1 – Purism". Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  21. ^ "Librem 15: A Laptop That Respects Your Rights". CrowdSupply.com. Archived from the original on 30 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  22. ^ "Librem 13: A Laptop That Respects Your Rights". CrowdSupply.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  23. ^ "librem_13v1 · master · firmware / releases". GitLab. 2022-01-27. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  24. ^ "Librem 15: A Laptop That Respects Your Rights". CrowdSupply.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  25. ^ "librem_15v2 · master · firmware / releases". GitLab. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  26. ^ a b "Products - Purism". puri.sm. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  27. ^ "librem_13v2 · master · firmware / releases". GitLab. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  28. ^ "librem_15v3 · master · firmware / releases". GitLab. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  29. ^ "Products - Purism". puri.sm. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  30. ^ "Coreboot". wiki.puri.sm. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  31. ^ "librem_15v4 · master · firmware / releases". GitLab. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  32. ^ a b "The Purism Freedom Roadmap: Road to FSF endorsement, and Beyond". Purism. 2018-04-04. Retrieved 2019-02-18.
  33. ^ "Librem 13 version 4". puri.sm. Archived from the original on 24 January 2019. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  34. ^ "librem_13v4 · master · firmware / releases". GitLab. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  35. ^ "Purism- Librem 14". puri.sm. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  36. ^ "librem_14 · master · firmware / releases". GitLab. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  37. ^ "Purism Librem Mini is a FOSS-Focused Linux PC". OMG! Ubuntu!. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  38. ^ "Librem Mini is Shipping". Purism. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  39. ^ Holwerda, Thom (2017-08-24). "Librem 5: a security and privacy focused GNU/Linux smartphone". OSNews. Archived from the original on 2018-08-29. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  40. ^ a b c Byfield, Bruce (2018). "Librem 5 and the Challenge of the Free Phone". Linux Magazine. Archived from the original on 2018-08-28. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  41. ^ Rankin, Kyle (11 March 2019). "Lockdown Mode on the Librem 5: Beyond Hardware Kill Switches". Purism.
  42. ^ "Purism Librem5 modem revealed, will provide LTE and GPS support". TuxPhones. 2 April 2019.
  43. ^ "Phosh". developer.puri.sm.
  44. ^ Verma, Ardash (2018-04-25). "Open Source Smartphone Librem 5 Will Officially Support Ubuntu Touch". Fossbytes. Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  45. ^ Faerber, Nicole (2018-09-04). "Progress update from the Librem 5 hardware department". Purism, SPC. Archived from the original on 2018-10-14. Retrieved 2018-10-13.
  46. ^ Weaver, Todd (21 February 2019). "Massive Progress, Exact CPU Selected & Minor Shipping Adjustment". Purism.
  47. ^ PurismBeautiful; Secure; Laptops, Privacy-Respecting; Phones (2019-09-24). "First Librem 5 Smartphones are Shipping". Purism. Retrieved 2019-10-20. {{cite web}}: |first3= has generic name (help)
  48. ^ Hamner, David (November 18, 2020). "Librem 5 Mass Production Phone Has Begun Shipping" (Press release). Retrieved December 19, 2020.
  49. ^ "Librem Server". Purism. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  50. ^ "Introducing the Librem Key". Purism. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  51. ^ "Librem Key". Purism. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  52. ^ Rahl, Jon (2015-05-17). "Production and Shipping Update". Purism. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
  53. ^ Weaver, Todd (2015-09-18). "Weekly Update on Librem Production 2015-09-18". Purism. Retrieved 2017-01-26.
  54. ^ "Best Qubes Laptop is the Secure Librem 14". Purism. Retrieved 2022-02-13.
  55. ^ "FSF adds PureOS to list of endorsed GNU/Linux distributions". Free Software Foundation. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  56. ^ "OpenNews: Фонд СПО признал PureOS полностью свободным дистрибутивом". www.opennet.ru. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  57. ^ Moberg, Larry (2015-07-20). "Freeing the BIOS: Memory Init". Purism. Archived from the original on 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  58. ^ Moberg, Larry (2015-08-14). "2015-08-14: Librem 13: Weekly BIOS Progress Update". Purism. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  59. ^ Moberg, Larry (2015-08-21). "2015-08-21 Librem 13: Weekly BIOS Progress Update". Purism. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  60. ^ Laurie, Duncan (2015-12-22). "Gerrit Code Review". review.coreboot.org. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  61. ^ Alaoui, Youness (2017-01-05). "Diving back into coreboot development". Purism. Archived from the original on 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2017-01-12.
  62. ^ "Downloading and installing coreboot on Purism Librem devices". Purism. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  63. ^ a b "PureBoot, the High Security Boot Process". Purism. Retrieved 2022-06-10.