Demographics of Libya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Libyan)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Demographics of Libya
Libya single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Libya in 2020
Population7,137,931 (2022 est.)
Growth rate1.65% (2022 est.)
Birth rate21.56 births/1,000 population
Death rate3.45 deaths/1,000 population
Life expectancy77.18 years
 • male74.94 years
 • female79.53 years
Fertility rate3.09 children
Infant mortality rate11.22 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-1.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population
Sex ratio
Total1.04 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.05 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityLibyan
Major ethnicBerber and Arab - 97%
Language
OfficialArabic
Libyans
ليبيون (Libiūn)
Flag of Libya.svg
Total population
c. 8 million
Regions with significant populations
 Libya6,992,701 (2021)[1]
 Tunisia350,000 (2016)[2]
 Egypt350,000 (2016)[3]
 Morocco190,000 (2015)
 Algeria150,000 (2018)
 Israel50,600 (2019)[4]
 Italy20,000 (2017)
 United Kingdom16,000[5]
 Germany14,827[5]
 Canada5,515[6][7]
 Malta3,622 (2017)
 United States2,979 (2000)[8]
 Serbia2,269[9]
Languages
Libyan, Berber (Nafusi, Tamasheq, Awjila), Teda, Greek, Turkish, Italian and English (main foreign)
Religion
Sunni Islam, Christianity and others

This article is about Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, and religious affiliations, as well as other aspects of the Libyan population. No complete population or vital statistics registration exists in Libya.[citation needed]

Demographics of Libya, Data of Our World in Data, year 2021; Number of inhabitants in millions.

The Libyan population resides in the country of Libya, a territory located on the Mediterranean coast of North Africa, to the west of and adjacent to Egypt. Most Libyans live in Tripoli. It is the capital of the country and first in terms of urban population, as well as Benghazi, Libya's second largest city.

History[edit]

Cave art at the Germa Museum

Historically Berber, over the centuries, Libya has been occupied by the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and Italians. The Phoenicians had a big impact on Libya. Many of the coastal towns and cities of Libya were founded by the Phoenicians as trade outposts within the southern Mediterranean coast in order to facilitate the Phoenician business activities in the area. Starting in the 8th century BC, Libya was under the rule of the Phoenician Carthage.[clarification needed] After the Romans defeated Carthage in the Third Punic War, Libya became a Roman province under the name of Tripolitania until the 7th century AD when Libya was conquered by the Arab Muslims as part of the Arab conquest of North Africa. Centuries after that, the Ottoman Empire conquered Libya in 1551. It remained in control of its territory until 1911 when the country was conquered by Italy. In the 18th century Libya was used as the base for various pirates.the story of the Awlad Sulayman, an Arab group from present-day Libia who dominated northern Lake Chad in the 19th century,. Since the Middle Ages, the populations of this region have shared close political, economic and social ties maintained by the mobility specific to the nomadic way of life. These relationships, fluid due to the difficulties of surviving in this difficult environment, have always been structured in turn, through conflict and cooperation, both of which produced rapidly changing alliances. In the middle of the 18th century, the Awlad Sulayman carved out a vast area of influence for themselves in Sirte and Fezzan by force of arms and by their alliances with neighboring peoples and the Libian administration. Defeated by the Ottoman administration in Tripoli at the end of the 1830s, the survivors of the Awlad Sulayman took refuge in the Lake Chad basin where they reconstituted the conditions for their success in Libia; they controlled trans-Saharan trade and maintained their links with Libian society. Despite the limits imposed on their action by the French colonization of Chad and the Italian colonization of Libia; the Awlad Sulayman retained regional influence during colonial times and appear to maintain it today. In the Second World War Libya was one of the main battlegrounds of North Africa. During the war, the territory was under an Anglo-French military government until it was overrun by the Axis Powers, who, in turn, were defeated by the Allies in 1943.

In 1951, the country was granted independence by the United Nations, being governed by King Idris. In 1969, a military coup led by Muammar Gaddafi resulted in the overthrow of King Idris I. Gaddafi then established an anti-Western leadership. In 1970, Gaddafi ordered all British and American military bases closed.

The Libyan population has increased rapidly after 1969. They were only 2 million in 1968, and 5 million in 2006.[citation needed]. Many migrant workers came to Libya since 1969. Among the workers were construction workers and laborers from Tunisia, teachers and laborers from Egypt, teachers from Palestine, and doctors and nurses from Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. 1,000,000 workers, mainly from other neighboring African countries like Sudan, Niger, Chad and Mali, migrated to Libya in the 1990s, after changes were made to Libya's Pan-African policies.[10]

Gaddafi used money from the sale of oil to improve the living conditions of the population and to assist Palestinian guerrillas in their fight against the Israelis. In 1979, Libya fought in Uganda to assist the government of Idi Amin in the Ugandan Civil War, and in 1981, fought in the Libyan-Chadian War. Libya had occupied the Aozou Strip; however, in 1990 the International Court of Justice submitted the case and allowed the full recuperation of territory to Chad.

In September 2008, Italy and Libya signed a memorandum by which Italy would pay $5 billion over the next 20 years to compensate Libya for its dominion over Libya for its reign of 30 years.[11]

Since 2011, the country is swept by Libyan Civil War, which broke out between the Anti-Gaddafi rebels and the Pro-Gaddafi government in 2011, culminating in the death and overthrow of Gaddafi. Nevertheless, even today Libya still continues to generate problems within the area and beyond, greatly affecting its population and the migrant route to Europe.

Population[edit]

Population pyramid for Libya in 2011
Libyan young men in Bayda. In 2019, about 28 % of the population was under the age of 15.

Libya has a small population residing in a large land area. Population density is about 50 persons per km² (130/sq. mi.) in the two northern regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica, but falls to less than one person per km² (2.7/sq. mi.) elsewhere. Ninety percent of the people live in less than 10% of the area, primarily along the coast. About 90%[12] of the population is urban, mostly concentrated in the four largest cities, Tripoli, Benghazi, Misrata and Bayda. As of 2019, twenty-eight percent of the population is estimated to be under the age of 15, but this proportion has decreased considerably during the past decades.[13]

Total population (x 1000) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1801 ~ 3 000 -- -- --
1825 ~ 3 059 -- -- --
1850 ~ 2 700 -- -- --
1870 ~ 2 400 -- -- --
1910 ~ 1 600 -- -- --
1950 1 029 41.9 53.4 4.7
1955 1 126 43.0 52.7 4.3
1960 1 349 43.3 52.7 4.0
1965 1 623 43.4 53.0 3.6
1970 1 994 45.2 52.1 2.7
1975 2 466 46.5 51.3 2.2
1980 3 063 47.0 50.7 2.2
1985 3 850 47.3 50.5 2.3
1990 4 334 43.5 53.9 2.6
1995 4 775 38.3 58.8 2.9
2000 5 231 32.4 64.2 3.4
2005 5 770 30.6 65.6 3.8
2010 6 355 30.4 65.3 4.3

[citation needed]

Age distribution[edit]

Data taken from United Nations Demographic Yearbook 2020 [14]

Population Estimates by Sex and Age Group (1.VII.2015):

Age Group Male Female Total %
0–4 316 497 299 059 615 556 9.99
5–9 297 303 280 602 577 905 9.38
10–14 284 318 270 831 555 149 9.01
15–19 268 106 257 009 525 115 8.52
20–24 278 875 267 533 546 408 8.87
25–29 289 113 282 117 571 230 9.27
30–34 287 480 281 354 568 834 9.23
35–39 279 699 271 907 551 606 8.95
40–44 235 088 231 285 466 373 7.57
45–49 180 029 180 796 360 825 5.86
50–54 126 799 126 848 253 647 4.12
55–59 87 135 86 625 173 760 2.82
60–64 56 199 59 834 116 033 1.89
65–69 51 782 50 863 102 645 1.67
70–74 38 750 33 736 72 486 1.18
75-79 26 942 25 616 52 558 0.85
80-84 15 038 15 233 30 271 0.49
85+ 9 873 11 973 21 846 0.35
Total 3 129 026 3 033 221 6 162 247 100
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0–14 898 118 850 492 1 748 610 28.38
15–64 2 088 523 2 045 308 4 133 831 67.08
65+ 142 385 137 421 279 806 4.54

Population History[edit]

Population census[edit]

Eight population censuses have been carried out in Libya, the first in 1931 and the most recent one in 2006.[15][16] The population multiplied sixfold between 1931 and 2006.

Year Males (thousands) Females (thousands) Total population (thousands) Average annual growth rate (%)
1931 704
1936 463 386 849 3.8
1954 564 524 1,089 1.4
1964 (July 31) 813 751 1,564 3.7
1973 (July 31) 1,192 1,057 2,249 4.1
1984 (July 31) 1,954 1,689 3,643 4.5
1995 (August 11) 2,237 2,168 4,405 1.7
2006 (April 15) 2,934 2,723 5,658 2.3

Vital statistics[edit]

During the past 60 years the demographic situation of Libya changed considerably. Since the 1950s, life expectancy increased steadily and the infant mortality rates decreased. As the fertility rates remained high until the 1980s (the number of births tripled between 1950–55 and 1980–85), population growth was very high for three decades. However, after 1985 a fast decrease in fertility was observed from over 7 children per woman in the beginning of the 1980s to less than 3 in 2005-2010.[citation needed] Because of this decrease in fertility the population growth slowed down and also the proportion of Libyans under the age of 15 decreased from 47% in 1985 to 30% in 2010.[citation needed]

Births and deaths[edit]

Period Births Deaths Difference CBR* CDR* NC* IMR* TFR*
1950–1955 52,000 24,000 28,000 48.0 22.5 25.5 185.0 6.9
1955–1960 60,000 25,000 35,000 48.5 19.9 28.6 170.0 7.0
1960–1965 73,000 27,000 46,000 49.0 18.3 30.7 150.0 7.2
1965–1970 90,000 30,000 60,000 49.5 16.8 32.7 125.0 7.5
1970–1975 109,000 33,000 76,000 49.0 14.8 34.2 105.0 7.6
1975–1980 131,000 35,000 96,000 47.3 12.7 34.6 68.0 7.4
1980–1985 158,000 38,000 120,000 45.6 10.9 34.7 50.0 7.2
1985–1990 123,000 22,000 101,000 29.9 5.3 24.6 38.0 5.7
1990–1995 113,000 20,000 93,000 24.7 4.5 20.2 28.3 4.1
1995–2000 115,000 20,000 95,000 23.0 4.0 19.0 20.5 3.3
2000–2005 134,000 22,000 112,000 24.3 4.0 20.3 17.7 3.0
2005–2010 145,000 24,000 121,000 24.0 4.0 20.0 15.0 2.7

Births and deaths[17]

Year Population Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
1977 2,371,370 110,743 14,677 96,066 46.7 6.2 40.5
1978 2,472,018 112,724 14,326 98,398 45.6 5.8 39.8
1979 2,574,955 115,358 15,609 99,749 44.8 6.1 38.7
1980 2,682,970 108,392 14,689 93,703 40.4 5.5 34.9
1981 2,793,573 112,581 15,428 97,153 40.3 5.5 34.8
1982 2,912,602 143,300 20,235 123,065 49.2 6.9 42.3
1983 3,038,697 149,200 21,770 127,430 49.1 7.2 41.9
1984 3,209,052 148,900 22,660 126,240 46.4 7.1 39.3
1985 3,250,546 154,726 23,540 131,186 47.6 7.2 40.4
1986 3,341,975 160,749 24,460 136,289 48.1 7.3 40.8
1987 3,436,626 167,020 25,529 141,491 48.6 7.4 41.2
1988 3,613,432 173,530 26,410 147,120 49.1 7.5 42.6
1989 3,715,901 180,255 27,440 152,815 49.6 7.5 43.1
1990 3,821,276 187,300 28,510 158,790 50.1 7.6 42.5
1991 3,929,641 177,810 29,621 148,189 46.3 7.7 38.6
1992 4,041,081 182,530 32,977 149,553 46.2 8.3 37.9
1993 4,153,682 102,918 13,241 89,677 25.3 3.3 22.0
1994 4,273,535 98,423 14,036 84,387 23.6 3.4 20.2
1995 4,389,739 88,779 13,538 75,241 20.3 3.1 17.2
1996 4,429,305 90,428 12,281 78,147 20.5 2.8 17.7
1997 4,510,406 85,358 14,660 70,698 19.0 3.3 15.7
1998 4,592,539 91,722 14,895 76,827 20.1 3.3 16.8
1999 4,676,398 93,775 16,293 77,482 20.1 3.5 16.6
2000 4,762,025 96,773 16,865 79,908 20.4 3.6 16.8
2001 4,848,740 99,187 18,334 80,853 20.6 3.8 16.8
2002 4,937,281 109,084 18,770 90,314 22.2 3.8 18.4
2003 5,027,438 110,488 20,418 90,070 22.1 4.1 18.0
2004 5,119,497 119,633 15,765 103,868 23.5 3.1 20.4
2005 5,212,984 120,999 16,425 104,574 23.3 3.2 20.1
2006 5,298,152 124,541 17,975 106,566 23.3 3.4 19.9
2007 5,408,381 128,337 20,044 108,293 23.7 3.7 20.0
2008 5,504,918 132,826 21,481 111,345
2009 5,607,675 134,682 22,859 111,823 22.0 3.7
2010 5,687,248 148,385 26,426 121,959
2011 5,788,481 150,448 29,890 120,558
2012 202,265
2013 230,715
2014 234,006
2015 208,978
2019 6,777,452 ~125,000 ~34,500 18.5 5.1 2.2

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

  • 1950-1955: 42.85 years
  • 1955-1960: 45.4 years
  • 1960-1965: 48.1 years
  • 1965-1970: 50.5 years
  • 1970-1975: 52.8 years
  • 1975-1980: 56.45 years
  • 1980-1985: 60.2 years
  • 1985-1990: 63.5 years
  • 1990-1995: 65.85 years
  • 1995-2000: 67.2 years
  • 2000-2005: 68.8 years
  • 2005-2010: 69.9 years

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[18]

Vital statistics[edit]

Population

6,754,507 (July 2018 est.)

Age structure

0-14 years: 25.53% (male 882,099/ female 842,320)
15-24 years: 16.81% (male 582,247/ female 553,004)
25-54 years: 47.47% (male 1,684,019/ female 1,522,027)
55-64 years: 5.77% (male 197,196/ female 192,320)
65 years and over: 4.43% (male 147,168/ female 152,107) (2018 est.)

Median age

total: 29.4 years
male: 29.5 years
female: 29.2 years (2018 est.)

Population growth rate

1.45% (2018 est.)

Birth rate

17.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)

Death rate

3.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)

Net migration rate

0.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)

Total fertility rate

3.71 children born/woman (2000 est.)
3.01 children born/woman (2010 est.)
2.12 children born/woman (2012 est.)
2.03 children born/woman (2018 est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 80.1% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.68% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0–14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15–24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25–54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55–64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 1.07 male(s)/female (2017 est.)

Infant mortality rate

total: 10.5 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 11.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 9.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 76.9 years
male: 75.1 years
female: 78.7 years (2018 est.)

Ethnic and tribal groups[edit]

Ethnic composition of the Libyan population in 1974 (CIA map)
  Berber
  Tuareg
  Toubou
  Uninhabited

Ethnic groups[edit]

Although the CIA World Factbook claims that Libya's population is 97% Arab and Berber,[19] the 1936 census, which allowed citizens to declare their ethnicity, showed a more diverse population:

Resident native population of Libya (1936 census)[20]
Ethnic group Population % of Libya's total population
Arab 2,316,902 34%
Arab-Berber 1,585,902 28%
Berbers 1,170,174 26.4%
Turks 15,062 1.7%
Black Libyans 30,079 4%
Italians 22,530 3%
Others 29,634 4%
Libya, Total 5,150,851 100%

The population of Libya is primarily of Arab and Berber ancestral origin.[21] Among the non-Arabized Berber groups are the nomadic Tuareg, who inhabit the southern areas as well as parts of Algeria, Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. A few other tribal groups that still speak the native Berber languages are concentrated in the northwestern portion of Tripolitania. In the southeast, there are small populations of Toubou (Tibbu). They occupy between a quarter and a third of the country and also inhabit Niger and Chad. Among foreign residents, the largest groups are from other African nations, including citizens of other North African nations (primarily Egyptians) and West Africans.

Tribal groups[edit]

Libyan society is to a large extent structured along tribal lines, with more than 20 major tribal groups.[22]

The major tribal groups of Libya in 2011 were listed:[22]

Some of the ancient Berber tribes include: Adyrmachidae, Auschisae, Es'bet, Temeh'u, Teh'nu, Rebu, Kehek, KeyKesh, Imukehek, Meshwesh, Macetae, Macatutae, Nasamones, Nitriotae, and Tautamaei.[10]

As of 2012 the major tribal groups of Libya, by region, were as follows:[23]

  • Tripolitania: alawana-Souk El Joma'a, AL-Mahameed, Warfalla, Tarhona, Misurata tribes, Al-Jawary, Siyan Tribe, The Warshfana tribes, Zawia Groups, Ghryan Tribes, AL-Asabea, Al-Fwatir, Awlad Busayf, Zintan, Al-jbalya, Zwara, Alajelat, Al-Nawael tribe, Alalqa tribe, Al-Rijban, al Mashashi, Amaym.
  • Cyrenaica: AJ-JWAZY, Al-Awagir, Magharba, Al-Abaydat, Drasa, Al-Barasa, Al-Fawakhir, Zuwayya, Majabra, Awama, Minfa, Taraki, alawana, Shwa'ir and in Kufra Zuwayya; Toubou.
  • Sirte: Awlad-Suleiman, Qadhadhfa, Magharba, Al-Hosoon, Ferrjan
  • Fezzan: Awlad Suleiman, Al-Riyyah, Magarha, Al-Zuwaid, Al-Hutman, Al-Hassawna; Toubou, Tuareg.
  • Kufra: Zuwayya; Toubou.

Foreign population[edit]

Migrant workers from Sub-Saharan Africa

The foreign population is estimated at 3%, most of whom are migrant workers in the oil industry from Tunisia and Egypt, but also including small numbers of Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Pakistanis, Palestinians, Turks, Indians, and people from former Yugoslavia. Due to the Libyan Civil War, most of these migrant workers have returned to their homelands or simply left the country for a different one, however a good minority still work in Libya. According to news accounts in Allafrica.com, and the Libya Herald, between 1 million and 2 million Egyptians are resident in Libya with Sudanese and Tunisians numbering in the hundreds to thousands. There's also up to a million undocumented migrants mainly from sub-saharan africa residing in Libya, usually waiting to smuggle themselves to Europe.

Genetics[edit]

Y-chromosome[edit]

Analysis of Y-chromosome have found three Y-chromosome lineages (E1b1b-M81, J-M267 and E1b1b-M78) at high frequency in Libya like in other North African populations. Some studies suggest a Paleolithic component for E-M81 and E-M78, while other studies point to a Neolithic origin. E1b1b-M78 has probably emerged in the Egypt/Libya area and is today widely distributed in North Africa, East Africa, and West Asia. E1b1b-M81 show high frequencies in Northwestern Africa and a high prevalence among Berbers (it is sometimes referred to as a genetic "Berber marker"). Its frequency declines towards Egypt and the Levant. On the other hand, E-M78 and E-M123 are frequent in the Levant and Egypt and decline towards Northwest Africa. Another common paternal lineage in Libya and North Africa is haplogroup J through its subtypes J1 (M267) and J2 (M172). J1 is prevalent in some North African and all Levantine groups and found at high frequencies in the Arabian Peninsula. It has been previously associated with the Islamic expansion. J2 is sporadically detected in North Africa and Iberia and is very frequent in the Levant/Anatolia/Iran region. Its spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550 BC- 300 BC). E-M2 is the predominant lineage in Western Africa.

Listed here are the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups in Libya.[24]

Hg Libya (n=215)
E-M81 35.88%
J-M267 30.53%
E-M78 11.07%
E-M2 8.78%
G-M201 4.20%
J-M172 3.44%
R* 3.43%
E-M123 1.53%
E* 0.76%
R-M17 0.38%

Religions[edit]

Religions of Libya[19]
Religions percent
Sunni Islam (Official)
96.6%
Christian
2.7%
Folk religion
0.1%
Unspecified
0.2%
Other
0.1%

The vast majority Libyans are nominally Sunni Muslim. Almost 3% of the population is Christian, with some local Christian church adherents in Eastern Libya - the Copts. A small Jewish community historically lived in Libya since antiquity (see History of the Jews in Libya), but the almost the entire Jewish community in Libya eventually fled the country for Italy, Israel, or the United States, particularly after anti-Jewish riots in the wake of the 1967 Six-Day War between Arab countries and Israel. The final Jew in Libya, Esmeralda Meghnagi, died in 2002 ending the several millennia long Jewish ancestral body in Libya.[25]

Culture[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

Libyan cuisine is heavily influenced by Mediterranean, Arabic and North African (Berber cuisine) traditions. Notable dishes include Shorba Arabiya, or Arabian soup, which is a thick, highly spiced soup.[26] Like other Maghrebi countries, couscous and tajine are traditional of Libya. Bazeen is a traditional Libyan food, made from a mix of barley flour and a small amount of plain flour.

Music[edit]

Libyan origin instruments are the Zukra (a bagpipe), a flute (made of bamboo), the tambourine, the oud (a fretless lute) and the darbuka (a goblet drum held sideways and played with the fingers). Bedouin poet-singers had a great influence on the musical folklore of Libya, particularly the style of huda, the camel driver's song.

Language[edit]

The official language of Libya is Standard Arabic, while the most prevalent spoken language is Libyan Arabic. Berber is also common, spoken by about 300,000 Libyans. Arabic varieties are partly spoken by immigrant workers and partly by local Libyan populations. These varieties include Egyptian, Tunisian, Sudanese, Moroccan, Ta'izzi-Adeni, Hassaniyya and South Levantine Arabic.

Berber languages are primarily still spoken by the Tuareg, a rural Berber population inhabiting Libya's south.[27]

Indigenous minority languages in Libya:[28]

Non-Arabic languages had largely been spoken by foreign workers (who had been massively employed in Libya in various infrastructure projects prior to the 2011 civil war), and those languages with more than 10,000 speakers included Punjabi, Urdu, Mandarin, Cantonese, Korean, Sinhala, Bengal, Tamil, Tagalog, French, Italian, Ukrainian, Serbian, and English.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Libya". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  2. ^ "الشؤون الاجتماعية : هذا عدد الليبيين المقيمين بتونس". Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Libyans in Egypt losing hope of returning home". Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  4. ^ "Jews, by Country of Origin and Age" (PDF). Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Migration Facts Libya April 2013" (PDF). EU Migration Policy Centre. Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  6. ^ Statistics Canada (8 May 2013). "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  7. ^ "Libyan Canadians cast ballots in first post-Gadhafi election - iPolitics". ipolitics.ca. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-07-23. Retrieved 2018-02-18.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Serbian Government. "MMIGRATION PROFILE OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA FOR 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  10. ^ a b http://www.temehu.com/Libyan-People.htm Temehu. Libyan people and Ethnic tribes. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
  11. ^ http://www.hejleh.com/countries/libya.html The Country & People of Libya. Posted 2003. Retrieved January 4, 2012, to 23:53 pm.
  12. ^ "Save BIG with $9.99 .COMs from GoDaddy!". Go Daddy. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  13. ^ "Population ages 0-14 (% of total population) - Libya | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
  14. ^ "UNSD — Demographic and Social Statistics".
  15. ^ B.R. Mitchell. International historical statistics: Africa, Asia & Oceania 1750-2000.
  16. ^ "United nations. Demographic Yearbooks 1948-2008". un.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  17. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - Demographic and Social Statistics". un.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  18. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  19. ^ a b "Africa :: LIBYA". CIA The World Factbook. 19 April 2022.
  20. ^ Pan, Chia-Lin (1949), "The Population of Libya", Population Studies, 3 (1): 100–125, doi:10.1080/00324728.1949.10416359
  21. ^ "Population of Libya". Fanack.com. Archived from the original on 2021-02-26. Retrieved 2019-06-27.
  22. ^ a b "UPDATE 1-FACTBOX-Tribal ties key to Gaddafi rule". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  23. ^ Souhail Karam, Jon Hemming, Tribal ties key to Gaddafi rule, Reuters (2011)[1]
  24. ^ Karima Fadhlaoui-Zid et al. (2013) Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11): e80293. See Table S2
  25. ^ "Jews of Libya".
  26. ^ Served as "starter", the soup is mentioned in the New York Times
  27. ^ "Libyan People". www.libyaweb.com. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  28. ^ (in English) Ethnologue report for Libya, Languages of Libya