Second Libyan Civil War
|Second Libyan Civil War|
|Part of the Arab Winter and the Libyan Crisis|
Military situation in Libya on 11 June 2020
|Commanders and leaders|
Aguila Saleh Issa|
(President of House of Representatives)
FM Khalifa Haftar
(High Commander of the LNA)
Gen. Abdulrazek al-Nadoori (Chief of the General Staff of the LNA)
Col. Wanis Abu Khamada
(Commander of Libyan Special Forces)
Brig. Gen. Almabrook Suhban
(Chief of Staff of the Libyan Ground Forces)
Brig. Gen. Saqr Geroushi
(Chief of Staff of the Libyan Air Force) (LNA-aligned)
Adm. Faraj al-Mahdawi
(Chief of Staff of the Libyan Navy) (LNA-aligned)
Saif al-Islam Gaddafi
(Candidate for President of Libya)
(Chairman of the Presidential Council and Prime minister)
(Minister of Interior)
Salah Eddine al-Namrush
(Minister of Defence)
Gen. Mohammad Ali al-Haddad
(Chief of the General Staff of the Libyan Army)
Abdul Hakim Abu Hawliyeh (Chief of the Libyan Navy) (GNA-aligned)
Col. Rida Issa (Commander of Libyan Navy) (GNA-aligned)
Maj. Gen. Osama Juwaili
(Commander of the Western Military Zone)
Maj. Gen. Abubaker Marwan
(Commander of Tripoli Military Zone)
Maj. Gen. Mohamed Elhadad
(Commander of the Central Military Zone)
Gen. Ali Kanna
(Commander of the Southern Military Zone)
Mohamed al-Zahawi †
(Former Ansar al-Sharia Leader)
Ateyah Al-Shaari DMSC / DPF leader
Wissam Ben Hamid †
(Libya Shield 1 Commander)
Salim Derby †
(Commander of Abu Salim Martyrs Brigade)
Abu Nabil al-Anbari † (Top ISIL leader in Libya)|
Abu Hudhayfah al-Muhajir
(ISIL governor of Wilayat Tripolitania)
|Casualties and losses|
The Second Libyan Civil War was a multi-sided civil war that lasted from 2014 to 2020 in the North African country of Libya fought between different armed groups, mainly the House of Representatives and the Government of National Accord.
The General National Congress, based in western Libya and backed by various militias with some support from Qatar and Turkey, initially accepted the results of the 2014 election, but rejected them after the Supreme Constitutional Court nullified an amendment regarding the roadmap for Libya's transition and HoR elections. The House of Representatives (or Council of Deputies) is in control of eastern and central Libya and has the loyalty of the Libyan National Army, and has been supported by airstrikes by Egypt and the UAE. Due to controversy about constitutional amendments, HoR refused to take office from GNC in Tripoli, which was controlled by armed Islamist groups from Misrata. Instead, HoR established its parliament in Tobruk, which is controlled by General Haftar's forces. In December 2015, the Libyan Political Agreement was signed after talks in Skhirat, as the result of protracted negotiations between rival political camps based in Tripoli, Tobruk, and elsewhere which agreed to unite as the Government of National Accord. On 30 March 2016, Fayez Sarraj, the head of GNA, arrived in Tripoli and began working from there despite opposition from GNC.
In addition to those three factions, there are: the Islamist Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries, led by Ansar al-Sharia, which had the support of the GNC and was defeated in Benghazi in 2017; the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant's (ISIL's) Libyan provinces; the Shura Council of Mujahideen in Derna which expelled ISIL from Derna in July 2015 and was later itself defeated in Derna by the Tobruk government in 2018; as well as other armed groups and militias whose allegiances often change.
In May 2016, GNA and GNC launched a joint offensive to capture areas in and around Sirte from ISIL. This offensive resulted in ISIL losing control of all significant territories previously held in Libya. Later in 2016, forces loyal to Khalifa al-Ghawil attempted a coup d'état against Fayez al-Sarraj and the Presidential Council of GNA.
On 23 October 2020, the 5+5 Joint Libyan Military Commission representing the LNA and the GNA reached a "permanent ceasefire agreement in all areas of Libya". The agreement, effective immediately, required that all foreign fighters leave Libya within three months while a joint police force would patrol disputed areas. The first commercial flight between Tripoli and Benghazi took place that same day. On 10 March 2021, an interim unity government was formed, and is slated to remain in place until the 2021 Libyan general election in December.
Background of discontent with General National Congress
At the beginning of 2014, Libya was governed by the General National Congress (GNC), which won the popular vote in 2012 elections. The GNC was made of two major political groups, the National Forces Alliance (NFC) and the Justice and Construction Party (JCP). The two major groups in parliament had failed to reach political compromises on the larger more important issues that the GNC faced.
Division among these parties, the row over the political isolation law, and a continuous unstable security situation greatly impacted the GNC's ability to deliver real progress towards a new constitution for Libya which was a primary task for this governing body.
The GNC also included members associated with conservative Islamist groups as well as revolutionary groups (thuwwar). Some members of the GNC had a conflict of interest due to associations with militias and were accused of channeling government funds towards armed groups and allowing others to conduct assassinations and kidnappings. Parties holding majority of seats and some holding minority of seats began to use boycotts or threats of boycotts which increased division and suppressed relevant debates by removing them from the congressional agenda; voting to declare sharia law and establishing a special committee to "review all existing laws to guarantee they comply with Islamic law"; imposing gender segregation and compulsory hijab at Libyan universities; and refusing to hold new elections when its electoral mandate expired in January 2014 until General Khalifa Haftar launched a large-scale military offensive against the Islamists in May 2014, code-named Operation Dignity (Arabic: عملية الكرامة; 'Amaliyat al-Karamah).
Political fragmentation of the GNC
The 2012 elections, overseen by the Libyan electoral commission with the support of the UN Special Mission In Libya (UNSMIL) and nongovernmental organizations like the International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES), have been considered "fair and free" by most Libyans. However, the elections did not necessarily create a strong government because the Parliament was fragmented due to the lack of organized political parties in Libya post-revolution. The GNC was made up of two major parties, the National Forces Alliance and the Justice and Construction Party, as well as independents in which some were moderates and others conservative Islamists. The GNC became a broad-based congress.
The GNA elected Nouri Abusahmain as president of the GNC in June 2013. He was considered an independent Islamist and a compromise candidate acceptable to liberal members of the congress, as he was elected with 96 out of a total of 184 votes by the GNC.
Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room and kidnapping of Ali Zeidan
The GNC was challenged due to increasing security concerns in Tripoli. The GNC itself was attacked many times by militias and armed protesters who stormed the GNC assembly hall. Following his appointment, Abusahmain was tasked with providing security. He set up the Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room (LROR), which was made up of rebels from Gharyan, and was initially intended to protect and secure Tripoli in August 2013. Its commander was Adel Gharyani. During this time, Abusahmain blocked inquiries into the distribution of state funds and it was alleged that Abusahmain was channeling government funding towards the LROR.
In October, Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan was kidnapped. It is believed to have been carried out by the LROR, although there is evidence to suggest that armed groups such as the Duru3 actually conducted the kidnapping. Following the kidnapping, Abusahmain used his presidency to change the agenda of the GNC in order to prevent them from disestablishing the LROR. At the same time, he cancelled a request to establish a committee to investigate his allocation of 900 million Libyan Dinars (US$720 million) to the LROR and various other armed groups.
The GNC responded by removing Abusahmain as president and dismissing the LROR from its security function. However, the armed group was allowed to continue to operate, and no one was prosecuted for the incident.
Expansion of armed groups during the GNC's term
Many Libyans blamed the GNC and the interim government for a continued lack of security in the country. The interim government struggled to control well-armed militias and armed groups that established during the revolution. Libyans in Benghazi especially began to witness assassinations and kidnapping and perceived the GNC to be turning a blind eye to the deteriorating security situation in the east.
But security concerns increased across the country, allowing armed groups to expand in Tripoli and the east.
- In 2012, the assassination of the US ambassador to Libya by Ansar al-Sharia took place.
- In October 2013, the kidnapping of Prime Minister Ali Zeidan by the LROR took place.
- The kidnapping of Egyptian diplomats in January 2014 also by the LROR took place.
- In March 2014, armed protesters allegedly linked to the LROR stormed the GNC parliament building, shooting and injuring two lawmakers and wounding several others.
In April 2014, an anti-terrorist training base called "Camp 27", located between Tripoli and the Tunisian border, was taken over by forces fighting under the control of Abd al-Muhsin Al-Libi, also known as Ibrahim Tantoush, a long-serving Al-Qaeda organizer and former member of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group. The Islamist forces at Camp 27 have subsequently been described as part of the Libya Shield Force. The Libya Shield Force was already identified by some observers as linked to al-Qaeda as early as 2012.
GNC's political isolation law
Although Islamists were outnumbered by Liberals and Centrists in the GNC, in May 2013 they lobbied for a law "banning virtually everyone who had participated in Gaddafi's government from holding public office". While several Islamist political parties and independents supported the law, as they generally had no associations to the Qaddafi regime, the law enjoyed strong public support. Polls demonstrated that a large majority of the Libyan people supported the exclusion of high-ranking Qaddafi-regime officials.
The law particularly impacts elite expatriates and leaders of liberal parties. There existed reservations that such a law would eliminate technocratic expertise needed in Libya at the time.
Armed militiamen stormed government ministries, shut down the GNC itself and demanded the law's passage. This intimidated the GNC into passing the law in which 164 members approved the bill, with only four abstaining and no member opposing it.
Suppression of women's rights
GNC opponents argue that it was supporting Islamist actions against women. Sadiq Ghariani, the Grand Mufti of Libya, is perceived to be linked closely to Islamist parties. He has issued fatwas ordering Muslims to obey the GNC, and fatwas ordering Muslims to fight against Haftar's forces
In March 2013, Sadiq Ghariani, issued a fatwa against the UN Report on Violence Against Women and Girls. He condemned the UN report for "advocating immorality and indecency in addition to rebelliousness against religion and clear objections to the laws contained in the Quran and Sunnah". Soon after the Grand Mufti issued a clarification op-ed that there should be no discrimination between men and women yet women have a greater role in the family.
Later in 2013, lawyer Hamida Al-Hadi Al-Asfar, advocate of women's rights, was abducted, tortured and killed. It is alleged she was targeted for criticising the Grand Mufti's declaration. No arrests were made.
In June 2013, two politicians, Ali Tekbali and Fathi Sager, appeared in court for "insulting Islam" for publishing a cartoon promoting women's rights. Under sharia law they were facing a possible death penalty. The case caused widespread concern although they were eventually acquitted in March 2014. After the GNC was forced to accept new elections, Ali Tekbali was elected to the new House of Representatives.
During Nouri Abusahmain's presidency of the GNC and subsequent to GNC's decision to enforce sharia law in December 2013, gender segregation and compulsory hijab were being imposed in Libyan universities from early 2014, provoking strong criticism from Women's Rights groups.
GNC extends its mandate without elections
The GNC failed to stand down at the end of its electoral mandate in January 2014, unilaterally voting on 23 December 2013 to extend its power for at least one year. This caused widespread unease and some protests. Residents of the eastern city of Shahat, along with protesters from Bayda and Sousse, staged a large demonstration, rejecting the GNC's extension plan and demanding the resignation of the congress followed by a peaceful power transition to a legitimate body. They also protested the lack of security, blaming the GNC for failing to build the army and police. Other Libyans rejecting the proposed mandate rallied in Tripoli's Martyrs Square and outside Benghazi's Tibesti Hotel, calling for the freeze of political parties and the re-activation of the country's security system.
On 14 February 2014, General Khalifa Haftar ordered the GNC to dissolve and called for the formation of a caretaker government committee to oversee new elections. However, his actions had little effect on the GNC, which called his actions "an attempted coup" and called Haftar himself "ridiculous" and labelled him an aspiring dictator. The GNC continued to operate as before. No arrests were made. Haftar launched Operation Dignity three months later on 16 May.
House of Representatives versus GNC
On 25 May 2014, about one week after Khalifa Haftar started his Operation Dignity offensive against the General National Congress, that body set 25 June 2014 as the date for new elections. Islamists were defeated, but rejected the results of the election, which saw only an 18% turnout. They accused the new House of Representatives parliament of being dominated by supporters of Gaddafi, and they continued to support the old GNC after the Council officially replaced it on 4 August 2014.
The conflict escalated on 13 July 2014, when Tripoli's Islamists and Misratan militias launched Operation Libya Dawn to seize Tripoli International Airport, capturing it from the Zintan militia on 23 August. Shortly thereafter, members of the GNC, who had rejected the June election, reconvened as a new General National Congress and voted themselves as replacement of the newly elected House of Representatives, with Tripoli as their political capital, Nouri Abusahmain as president and Omar al-Hasi as prime minister. As a consequence, the majority of the House of Representatives were forced to relocate to Tobruk, aligning themselves with Haftar's forces and eventually nominating him army chief. On 6 November, the supreme court in Tripoli, dominated by the new GNC, declared the House of Representatives dissolved. The House of Representatives rejected this ruling as made "under threat".
On 16 January 2015, the Operation Dignity and Operation Libya Dawn factions agreed on a ceasefire. The country was then led by two separate governments, with Tripoli and Misrata controlled by forces loyal to Libya Dawn and the new GNC in Tripoli, while the international community recognized Abdullah al-Thani's government and its parliament in Tobruk. Benghazi remained contested between pro-Haftar forces and radical Islamists.
The pro-GNC forces were a coalition of different militias with different ideologies although most of them are Islamist influenced especially in eastern Libya in Benghazi and Derna. Since LPA negotiations started in Skhirat there has been a rift within the militias over support for the UN-sponsored talks and the proposed Government of National Accord, which seeks to unite the rival governments.
Since GNA started working from Tripoli in March 2015, Libya Dawn coalition the largest of Pro-GNC militias has been disbanded and most of its forces changed allegiances to GNA.
The Islamist "Libya Dawn" has been described as "an uneasy coalition" identified as "terrorists" by the elected parliament in Tobruk including "former al-Qaeda jihadists" who fought against Qaddafi in the 1990s, members of Libya's branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, and a "network of conservative merchants" from Misrata, whose fighters make up "the largest block of Libya Dawn's forces". The coalition was formed in 2014 as a reaction against General Khalifa Haftar failed coup and to defeat Zintan brigades controlling Tripoli International Airport whose aligned with him.
The Zawia tribe has been allied to Libya Dawn since August 2014, although in June 2014 at least one Zawia army unit had appeared to side with General Haftar, and reports in December claimed Zawia forces were openly considering breaking away from Libya Dawn. Zawia militia have been heavily fighting the Warshefana tribe. In the current conflict, the Warshefana have been strongly identified with the forces fighting against both Libya Dawn and Al Qaeda. Zawia has been involved in a long-standing tribal conflict with the neighbouring Warshefana tribe since 2011. The motivations of the Zawia brigades participation in the war have been described as unrelated to religion and instead deriving foremost from tribal conflict with the Warshafana and secondarily as a result of opposition to the Zintani brigades and General Haftar.
When the head of GNA Fayez Sarraj arrived in Tripoli, Libya Dawn has been disbanded as the interests of the militias forming it conflicted when some of them choose to support GNA others chose to stay loyal to GNC.
The Libya Shield Force supports the Islamists. Its forces are divided geographically, into the Western Shield, Central Shield and Eastern Shield. Elements of the Libya Shield Force were identified by some observers as linked to Al-Qaeda as early as 2012. The term "Libya Shield 1" is used to refer to the Islamist part of the Libya Shield Force in the east of Libya.
In western Libya, the prominent Islamist forces are the Central Shield (of the Libya Shield Force), which consists especially of Misrata units and the Libya Revolutionaries Operations Room. Two smaller organizations operating in western Libya are Ignewa Al-Kikly and the "Lions of Monotheism".
Al-Qaeda leader Abd al-Muhsin Al-Libi, also known as Ibrahim Ali Abu Bakr or Ibrahim Tantoush has been active in western Libya, capturing the special forces base called Camp 27 in April 2014 and losing it to anti-Islamist forces in August 2014. The Islamist forces around Camp 27 have been described as both Al-Qaida and as part of the Libya Shield Force. The relationship between Al-Qaeda and Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb is unclear, and their relationship with other Libyan Islamist groups is unclear. Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb are also active in Fezzan, especially in border areas.
Libya western and central Libya Shield force fought alongside Libya Dawn and were disbanded with it in 2015. While the eastern Libya Shield forces merged later with other Islamist militias and formed Revolutionary Shura Council to fight Hafter LNA.
Revolutionary Shura Councils
Meanwhile, in Derna the main Islamist coalition Shura Council of Mujahideen which was formed in 2014 is an al-Qaeda-affiliated group. The coalition has been in fight with ISIL in 2015 and drove them out from the city.
Ajdabiya had its own Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries, which is the most ISIL linked among the three Shura councils. Its leader Muhammad al-Zawi and a number of the council pledging allegiance to ISIL played a major role in strengthening the Islamist group grip on Sirte.
Benghazi Defense Brigades
Benghazi Defense Brigades was formed in June 2016 to defend Benghazi and the Shura Council from the Libyan National Army, the Benghazi Defence Brigades (BDB) included various Libya Dawn militias and was organized under the banner of the former Grand mufti Saddiq Al-Ghariyani. Even though it pledged to support the GNA and apparently working under Mahdi Al-Barghathi, the Defence Minister of the GNA. The GNA never recognized the BDB with some members calling for it to be demarcated as a "terrorist organization".
Even though the Amazigh militias mainly situated in Zuwara and Nafusa Mountains fought alongside Libya Dawn, they consider themselves pushed towards that because Zintan brigades and the rest of their enemies has been sided with HoR. Still though, the Amazigh main motivations for fighting against Haftar is his Pan-Arabic ideas which is conflicting with their demands of recognition their language in the constitution as an official language.
While keeping their enmity towards Haftar, the Amazigh militias mostly became neutral later in the war especially since the formation of GNA.
The anti-Islamist Operation Dignity forces are built around Haftar's faction of the Libyan National Army, including land, sea and air forces along with supporting local militias.
The Libyan National Army, formally known as "Libyan Arab Armed Forces", was gradually formed by General Khalifa Haftar as he fought in what he named Operation Dignity. On 19 May 2014, a number of Libyan military officers announced their support for Gen. Haftar, including officers in an air force base in Tobruk, and others who have occupied a significant portion of the country's oil infrastructure, as well as members of an important militia group in Benghazi. Haftar then managed to gather allies from Bayda, 125 miles east of Benghazi. A minority portion of the Libya Shield Force had been reported to not have joined the Islamist forces, and it is not clear if this means they had joined the LNA forces.
Since then Haftar continued to strengthen his LNA by recruiting new soldiers along with the advancements he made on the ground. In 2017 Haftar said that his forces are now larger by "hundred times" and now they are about 60 thousand soldiers.
Salafists, called Madkhalis by their enemies, fought alongside Haftar LNA since the beginning against the Islamist militias, especially Shura Council of Benghazi Revolutionaries and ISIL whom they considered Khawarij after a fatwa from Saudi Rabee al-Madkhali.
Since the Battle of Tripoli Airport, armed groups associated with Zintan and the surrounding Nafusa region have become prominent. The Airport Security Battalion is recruited in large part from Zintan. The "Zintan Brigades" fall under the leadership of the Zintan Revolutionaries' Military Council.
This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. (September 2018)
Wershefana tribal and mainly Gaddafi loyalists armed groups, from the area immediately south and west of Tripoli, have played a big[peacock term] role in Haftar forces west of Libya[clarification needed][further explanation needed] On 5 August 2014, Warshefana forces captured Camp 27, a training base west of Tripoli. Wershefana armed groups have also been involved in a long-standing[peacock term] tribal conflict with the neighbouring Zawia city since 2011. Zawia has allied with Libya Dawn since August 2014, although its commitment to Libya Dawn is reportedly wavering.
After being accused of kidnapping, ransoming and other crimes, a GNA joint force made up mostly from Zintan brigades defeated them[who?] and seized the Wershefana district. Zintan brigades were former allies of Wershefana.
Since the 2011 Libyan uprising against Muammar Gaddafi, the Kaniyat militiamen dominated and brutalized the civilians in Tarhuna to deepen their control over the strategic city. Formed by the Kani brothers, the militia committed atrocities that became known in 2017. The militia allied with the Government of National Accord (GNA) in 2016, which considered the Kaniyat important for their control over the 7th Brigade, gateway to Tripoli from south Libya. Human rights activists and the residents said the GNA and the UN provided political support to the militia and “chose not to see” the abuses and killings.
In 2019, the Kaniyat militia aligned with the UAE-backed Khalifa Haftar and put their fighters under the general’s 9th Brigade. Following that, the killings and disappearances in Tarhuna amplified. Over a decade until 2021, over 1,000 civilians were killed by the Kaniyat militia, where nearly 650 were killed in 14 months under Haftar. In 2020, the GNA forces successfully ousted the militia and the UAE-backed Haftar’s forces and captured Tarhuna. Survivors reported of being tortured, electrocuted and beaten by the militia. Around 120 bodies were recovered from the mass graves, of which only 59 were identified.
In 2014, a former Gaddafi officer reported to the New York Times that the civil war was now an "ethnic struggle" between Arab tribes (like the Zintanis) against those of Turkish ancestry (like the Misuratis), as well as against Berbers and Circassians.
As of February 2015, damage and disorder from the war has been considerable. There are frequent electric outages, little business activity, and a loss in revenues from oil by 90%. Over 5,700 people died from the fighting by the end of 2016, and some sources claim nearly a third of the country's population has fled to Tunisia as refugees.
Since Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar had captured the ports of Libya's state-run oil company, the National Oil Corporation, in Es Sider and Ra's Lanuf, oil production has risen from 220,000 barrels a day to about 600,000 barrels per day.
The war has prompted a considerable number of the country's sizeable foreign labour force to leave the country as extremist groups such as ISIL have targeted them; prior to the 2011, the Egyptian Ministry of Labour estimated that there were two million Egyptians working in the country yet since the escalation of attacks on Egyptian labourers the Egyptian Foreign Ministry estimates more than 800,000 Egyptians have left the country to return to Egypt. Land mines remain a persistent threat in the country as numerous militias, especially ISIL, have made heavy use of land mines and other hidden explosives; the rapidly changing front lines has meant many of these devices remain in areas out of active combat zones; civilians remain the primary casualties inflicted by land mines with mines alone killing 145 people and wounding another 1,465 according to the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
In a report, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) revealed that it had registered over 45,600 refugees and asylum seekers in Libya during 2019. The World Food Programme reported that an estimated 435,000 people had been forcibly displaced from their homes during the conflict.
On 22 October 2019, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) reported that children have been suffering from different sorts of malnutrition in the war-torn nations, including Libya.
Executive Director of UNICEF said on 18 January 2020, that thousands of Libyan children were at risk of being killed due to the ongoing conflict in Libya. Since hostile clashes between the Libyan government and Haftar's LNA forces (backed by the UAE and Egypt) have broken out in Tripoli and western Libya, conditions of children and civilians have worsened.
The blockade on Libya's major oil fields and production units by Haftar's forces has sown losses of over $255 million within the six-day period ending 23 January, according to the National Oil Corporation in Libya. The NOC and ENI, which runs Mellitah Oil & Gas in Libya, have suffered a production loss of 155,000 oil barrels per day due to the blockade on production facilities imposed by Haftar's LNA. The entities claim losing revenue of around $9.4mn per day.
Since the beginning of Libyan conflict, thousands of refugees forced to live in detention centres are suffering from mental health problems, especially women and children, who are struggling to confront the deaths of their family members in the war.
On 7 February 2020, the UNHCR reported that the overall number of migrants intercepted by the Libyan coast guard in January surged 121% against the same period in 2019. The ongoing war has turned the country into a huge haven for migrants fleeing violence and poverty in Africa and the Middle East.
On 6 April, an armed group invaded a control station in Shwerif, the Great Man-Made River project, stopped water from being pumped to Tripoli, and threatened the workers. The armed group's move was a way to pressure and force the release of the detained family members. On 10 April 2020, the United Nations humanitarian coordinator for Libya, Yacoub El Hillo condemned the water supply cutoff as "particularly reprehensible".
On 21 April 2020, the UN took in to consideration the "dramatic increase" of shelling on densely populated areas of Tripoli, and claimed that continuation of war is worsening the humanitarian situation of Libya. The organisation also warned that such activities could possibly lead to war crimes.
The United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL) in its first quarter report for 2020 on the civilian casualty in Libya cited that approximately 131 casualties have taken place between 1 January and 31 March 2020. The figures included 64 deaths and 67 injuries, all of which were a result of the ground fighting, bombing and targeted killing led by Khalifa Haftar’s army, the LNA, backed by the United Arab Emirates.
On 5 May 2020, The International Criminal Court’s chief prosecutor Fatou Bensouda, raised concerns over the continuous spree of attacks by Haftar on Tripoli. The prosecutor said that actions endanger lives and warned of possible war crimes due to current affairs. "Of particular concern to my Office are the high numbers of civilian casualties, largely reported to be resulting from airstrikes and shelling operations," she expressed in a statement.
On 10 November 2020, prominent Libyan activist, Hanane al-Barassi, was killed in Benghazi. The 46-year-old Barassi was an outspoken critic of humanitarian abuses committed in the eastern areas controlled by UAE-backed Khalifa Haftar’s Libyan National Army (LNA). She was known for giving voice to female victims of violence through the videos she posted on social media.
During the first half of 2015, the United Nations facilitated a series of negotiations seeking to bring together the rival governments and warring militias of Libya. A meeting between the rival governments was held at Auberge de Castille in Valletta, Malta on 16 December 2015. On 17 December, delegates from the two governments signed a peace deal backed by the UN in Skhirat, Morocco, although there was opposition to this within both factions. The Government of National Accord was formed as a result of this agreement, and its first meeting took place in Tunis on 2 January 2016. On 17 December 2017, general Khalifa Haftar declared the Skhirat agreement void.
A meeting called the Libyan National Conference was planned in Ghadames for organising elections and a peace process in Libya. The conference was prepared over 18 months during 2018 and 2019 and was planned to take place 14–16 April 2019. It was postponed in early April 2019 as a result of the military actions of the 2019 Western Libya offensive.
In July 2019, Ghassan Salamé, the head of the United Nations Support Mission in Libya (UNSMIL), proposed a three-point peace plan (a truce during Eid al-Adha, an international meeting of countries implicated in the conflict, and an internal Libyan conference similar to the Libyan National Conference).
In September 2019, the Peace and Security Council (PSC) of the African Union (AU) discussed the need for the PSC to play a greater role in concluding the Libyan crisis, putting forward a proposal to appoint a joint AU-UN envoy to Libya.
Turkish President RT Erdogan and his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin made a joint call for ceasefire, starting 12 January 2020, to end the proxy war in Libya. The ceasefire is said to have been broken hours after its initiation. Both the warring parties – GNA supported by Turkey and LNA backed by Saudi, UAE, Egypt and Jordan – blamed each other for the violence that broke out in Tripoli. Turkey's Foreign Minister, Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu said Khalifa Haftar, who is backed by foreign powers including the UAE, does not want peace and is seeking a military solution to the drawn-out war in the country.
Haftar's forces launched attacks on Abu Gurain province, near the port city of Misurata, Libya's UN-recognized government claimed. The attacks were seen as a violation of cease-fire accord signed at the Berlin Conference. On 12 February, the United Nations Security Council adopted a resolution demanding a "lasting cease-fire" in Libya. Drafted by Britain, it received 14 votes, while Russia abstained. Around 19 February, the government withdrew from peace talks following rocket attacks on Tripoli.
At the urging of the UN, both sides agreed to a new ceasefire in late March due to the novel coronavirus; however, the ceasefire quickly fell apart. On 24 March shells hit a prison in an area held by the GNA, drawing UN condemnation. The GNA launched a series of "counter-attacks" early on 25 March, in response to what the GNA called "the heaviest bombardments Tripoli has seen". In June 2020, Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi brokered an agreement with parties aligned to the Libyan National Army, calling it the Cairo Declaration - However, this was quickly rejected.
On 21 August 2020, Libya's rival authorities announced an immediate ceasefire. The Tripoli-based and internationally recognised Government of National Accord (GNA) published a statement that also calls for elections in March 2021.
The United Nations Security Council received a confidential report in September 2020, which provided details of the extensive violations of the international arms embargo on Libya, since the beginning of 2020. The UN identified eight countries breaching embargo. Besides, the United Arab Emirates and Russia were found to have sent five cargo aircraft filled with weapons to Libya on 19 January 2020, when the world leaders were signing a pledge to respect the arms embargo on Libya, at the Berlin conference. Four out of the five cargo airplanes belonged to the UAE.
On 16 September 2020, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu told CNN Turk that Turkey and Russia have moved closer to an agreement on a ceasefire and political process in Libya during their latest meetings in Ankara. According to Reuters, Turkey and Russia were the main power brokers in the Libyan war, backing opposing sides. Russia supported the eastern-based forces of Khalifa Haftar, while Turkey backed Libya's internationally recognised Government of National Accord.
In September 2020, the European Union issued sanctions against two people, who were indirectly or directly engaged in serious human rights abuses. While Benghazi-based Mahmoud al-Werfalli was engaged in violations like killings and executions, Moussa Diab was involved in human trafficking and the kidnapping, raping and killing of migrants and refugees. Three companies, Turkish maritime firm Avrasya Shipping, Jordan-based Med Wave Shipping and a Kazakhstan-based air freight company, Sigma Airlines, were also sanctioned for breaching the UN arms embargo by transferring military material to Libya. Among these, Sigma Airlines was also found involved in the air-borne hard cash shipments for the Khalifa Haftar’s government from the United Arab Emirates, Russia and the United Kingdom, among others. Sigma Airlines was also involved in a bank-note delivery made on 29 January 2019 for the LNA, using a commercial network operating through the UAE, Ukraine, Jordan and Belarus. In approximately $227 million bank note transfers, $91 million came from the UK, $27 million from Russia and $5 million from the UAE, which recorded highest number of transfers among 14 countries that were involved.
On 23 October 2020, the 5+5 Joint Libyan Military Commission representing the LNA and the GNA reached a "permanent ceasefire agreement in all areas of Libya". The agreement, effective immediately, required that all foreign fighters leave Libya within three months while a joint police force would patrol disputed areas. The first commercial flight between Tripoli and Benghazi took place that same day. The war concluded on 24 October 2020.
UN-sponsored peace talks failed to establish an interim government by 16 November 2020, although both sides pledged to try again in a week.
Talks by the Advisory Committee of the Libya Political Dialogue Forum (LPDF) in Geneva during 13–16 January 2021 produced a proposal for a procedure for selecting a unified executive authority. On 18 January, 72 of the LPDF members participated in a vote on the proposal. The proposal passed, attaining more than the 63% decision threshold, with 51 voters in favour, 19 against, 2 absentions and 2 absences. The validated electoral procedure involves electoral colleges, support from the West, East and South of Libya, a 60% initial threshold, and a 50% plus one second-round threshold, for positions in the Presidency Council and for the prime ministership.
On 19 February 2021, a confidential report by the United Nations revealed that the former CEO of Blackwater, Erik Prince breached the Libyan arms embargo by supporting and supplying weapons to Khalifa Haftar under an operation that cost $80 million. In 2019, Prince deployed foreign mercenaries to eastern Libya, who were armed with gunboats, attack aircraft, and cyberwarfare capabilities. While the report didn’t conclude who funded the mercenary operation, analysts and Western officials asserted that it was most likely the UAE. The report noted that the mercenaries had offices, shell companies, and bank accounts in the Gulf nation.
Khalifa Haftar and his supporters describe Operation Dignity as a "correction to the path of the revolution" and a "war on terrorism". The elected parliament has declared that Haftar's enemies are "terrorists". Opponents of Haftar and the House of Representatives' government in Tripoli claim he is attempting a coup. Omar al-Hasi, the internationally unrecognized Prime Minister of the Libya Dawn-backed Tripoli government, speaking of his allies' actions, has stated that: "This is a correction of the revolution." He has also contended: "Our revolution had fallen into a trap." Dawn commanders claim to be fighting for a "revolutionary" cause rather than for religious or partisan objectives. Islamist militia group Ansar al-Sharia (linked to the 2012 Benghazi attack) has denounced Haftar's campaign as a Western-backed "war on Islam" and has declared the establishment of the "Islamic Emirate of Benghazi".
The National Oil Corporation (NOC) denounced calls to blockade oil fields prior to the Berlin Conference on 19 January 2020, calling it a criminal act. The entity warned to prosecute offenders to the highest degree under Libyan and international law.
Dignitaries from Tripoli, Sahel and Mountain regions in Libya expressed discomposure at the UN envoy's briefing to Libya, Ghassan Salame at the Security Council, for equalizing the aggressors (Haftar's forces backed by UAE and Egypt) and the defender (GNA forces). They said Salame's statements made both the parties equal amid Haftar's offensive in Tripoli and the war crimes committed against civilians, including children.
Foreign reactions, involvement, and evacuations
- Algeria – Early in May 2014, the Algerian military said it was engaged in an operation aimed at tracking down militants who infiltrated the country's territory in Tamanrasset near the Libyan border, during which it announced that it managed to kill 10 "terrorists" and seized a large cache of weapons near the town of Janet consisting of automatic rifles, rocket-propelled grenades and ammunition boxes. The Times reported on 30 May that Algerian forces were strongly present in Libya and it was claimed shortly after by an Algerian journalist from El Watan that a full regiment of 3,500 paratroopers logistically supported by 1,500 other men crossed into Libya and occupied a zone in the west of the country. They were later shown to be operating alongside French special forces in the region. However, all of these claims were later denied by the Algerian government through Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal who told the senate that "Algeria has always shown its willingness to assist [our] sister countries, but things are clear: the Algerian army will not undertake any operation outside Algerian territory". On 16 May 2014, the Algerian government responded to a threat on its embassy in Libya by sending a team of special forces to Tripoli to escort its diplomatic staff in a military plane out of the country. "Due to a real and imminent threat targeting our diplomats the decision was taken in coordination with Libyan authorities to urgently close our embassy and consulate general temporarily in Tripoli," the Algerian Foreign Ministry said in a statement. Three days later, the Algerian government shut down all of its border crossings with Libya and the army command raised its security alert status by tightening its presence along the border, especially on the Tinalkoum and Debdab border crossings. This also came as the state-owned energy firm, Sonatrach, evacuated all of its workers from Libya and halted production in the country. In mid-August, Algeria opened its border for Egyptian refugees stranded in Libya and said it would grant them exceptional visas to facilitate their return to Egypt. In January 2021, Algerian Foreign Intelligence Chief was sacked because Algeria wasn't included in any of the international meetings regarding the future of Libya, unlike other neighboring countries.
- Chad – In June 2020, Chadian President Idriss Déby announced his support to Khalifa Haftar's force in Libya, and had sent 1,500 to 2,000 troops to help Haftar, in wake of call from the United Arab Emirates to support Haftar's force against the strengthening Tripoli government and to end incursions by anti-Déby rebels. Chadian oppositions have accused Khalifa Haftar of his attempt to assassinate Chadian opposition leaders.
- Egypt – Egyptian authorities have long expressed concern over the instability in eastern Libya spilling over into Egypt due to the rise of jihadist movements in the region, which the government believes to have developed into a safe transit for wanted Islamists following the 2013 coup d'état in Egypt that ousted Muslim Brotherhood-backed president Mohamed Morsi. There have been numerous attacks on Egypt's trade interests in Libya which were rampant prior to Haftar's offensive, especially with the kidnapping of truck drivers and sometimes workers were murdered. Due to this, the military-backed government in Egypt had many reasons to support Haftar's rebellion and the Islamist February 17th Martyrs Brigade operating in Libya has accused the Egyptian government of supplying Haftar with weapons and ammunition, a claim denied by both Cairo and the rebel leader. Furthermore, Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, who has become increasingly popular among many Libyans wishing for stability, has called on the United States to intervene militarily in Libya during his presidential candidacy, warning that Libya was becoming a major security challenge and vowed not to allow the turmoil there to threaten Egypt's national security. On 21 July 2014, the Egyptian Foreign Ministry urged its nationals residing in Libya to adopt measures of extreme caution as it was preparing to send consular staff in order to facilitate their return their country following an attack in Egypt's western desert region near the border with Libya that left 22 Egyptian border guards killed. A week later, the ministry announced that it would double its diplomatic officials on the Libyan-Tunisian border and reiterated its call on Egyptian nationals to find shelter in safer places in Libya. On 3 August, Egypt, Libya and Tunisia agreed to cooperate by establishing an airbridge between Cairo and Tunis that would facilitate the transfer of 2,000 to 2,500 Egyptians from Libya daily. On 31 July 2014, two Egyptians were shot dead during a clash at the Libyan-Tunisian border where hundreds of Egyptians were staging a protest at the Ras Jdeir border crossing. As they tried to cross into Tunisia, Libyan authorities opened fire to disperse them. A similar incident occurred once again on 15 August, when Libyan security forces shot dead an Egyptian who attempted to force his way through the border along with hundreds of stranded Egyptians and almost 1,200 Egyptians made it into Tunisia that day. This came a few days after Egypt's Minister of Civil Aviation, Hossam Kamal, announced that the emergency airlift consisting of 46 flights aimed at evacuating the country's nationals from Libya came to a conclusion, adding that 11,500 Egyptians in total had returned from the war-torn country as of 9 August. A week later, all Egyptians on the Libyan-Tunisian border were evacuated and the consulate's staff, who were reassigned to work at the border area, withdrew from Libya following the operation's success. Meanwhile, an estimated 50,000 Egyptians (4,000 per day) arrived at the Salloum border crossing on the Libyan-Egyptian border as of early August. In 2020, Egypt helped devise the 2020 Cairo Declaration, however, this was quickly rejected. On 21 June 2020, the President of Egypt, Abdel Fattah al-Sisi ordered his army to be prepared for any mission outside the nation, stating that his country has a legitimate right to intervene in neighboring Libya. Besides, he also warned the GNA forces to not cross the current frontline with Haftar's LNA. An official statement issued by Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates on 21 June 2020, stated that the two Gulf nations extended full support to the Egypt's government regarding its intentions of military intervention in Libya. The UN-recognized GNA condemned Egypt, UAE, Russia and France for providing military support to Haftar’s militias.
- Malta – Along with most of the international community, Malta continues to recognize the Government of National Accord as the legitimate government of Libya. I Eastern Libyan government chargé d'affaires Hussin Musrati insisted that by doing so, Malta was "interfering in Libyan affairs". Due to the conflict, there are currently two Libyan embassies in Malta. The General National Congress now controls the official Libyan Embassy in Balzan, while the Tobruk-based Eastern Libyan House of Representatives has opened a consulate in Ta' Xbiex. Each of the two embassies say that visas issued by the other entity are not valid. Following the expansion of ISIL in Libya, particularly the fall of Nawfaliya, the Maltese Prime Minister Joseph Muscat and Leader of the Opposition Simon Busuttil called for the United Nations and European Union to intervene in Libya to prevent the country from becoming a failed state. In 2020 Malta stated that its policy on Libya was in line with that of Turkey.
- Sudan – At the early stage of the conflict, Sudanese dictator Omar al-Bashir, an Islamist himself, had sought to reach support to the Tripoli government, having supplied weaponry and aids to the rebels overthrowing Muammar Gaddafi. However, after al-Bashir's realignment with Saudi Arabia in wake of Yemeni conflict, Sudan provided support to Haftar's force to gain support from Saudi Arabia. Sudan had sent 1,000 militia personnel to aid Haftar. Nonetheless, in July 2017, General Khalifa Haftar of the Libyan National Army ordered the closing of the Sudanese consulate in the town of Kufra, and expelled 12 diplomats. The consul and 11 other consular staff were given 72 hours to leave the country. The reason given that the way it conducted its work was "damaging to Libyan national security." The Sudanese government protested and summoned Libyan chargé d'affaires in Khartoum, Ali Muftah Mahroug, in response, lingering the distrust between Haftar to the Sudanese. Sudan recognises the Government of National Accord in Tripoli as the government of Libya, not the House of Representatives that is backed by General Haftar. As of 2017 Sudan has not opened an embassy in Tripoli but maintains a consulate in the Libyan capital to provide service to Sudanese citizens. In 2020, following the overthrown of Omar al-Bashir, Sudan has sought to investigate the role of the United Arab Emirates on bringing Sudanese mercenaries fighting in Libya and have arrested a number of them.
- Tunisia – Post-revolutionary Tunisia also had its share of instability due to the violence in Libya as it witnessed an unprecedented rise in radical Islamism with increased militant activity and weapons' smuggling through the border. In response to the initial clashes in May, the Tunisian National Council for Security held an emergency meeting and decided to deploy 5,000 soldiers to the Libyan–Tunisian border in anticipation of potential consequences from the fighting. On 30 July 2014, Tunisian Foreign Minister Mongi Hamdi said that the country cannot cope with the high number of refugees coming from Libya due to the renewed fighting. "Our country's economic situation is precarious, and we cannot cope with hundreds of thousands of refugees," Hamdi said in a statement. He also added that Tunisia will close its borders if necessary. Tunisian Foreign Minister, Khemaies Jhinaoui, revived Tunisia's stance to stop the fighting in Libya and follow the UN-led political suit. He stressed on rejection of military solutions to the war. In January 2020, Tunisia said that it is preparing to accommodate a new inflow of migrants escaping the war in Libya. The country has chosen the site of Fatnassia to receive Libyan refugees.
- United Nations – On 27 August 2014, the UN Security Council unanimously approved resolution 2174 (2014), which called for an immediate ceasefire and an inclusive political dialogue. The resolution also threatened to impose sanctions, such as asset freezes and travel bans, against the leaders and supporters of the various militias involved in the fighting, if the individuals threaten either the security of Libya or the political process. The United Nations Secretary-General, António Guterres, expressed his fears of a "full civil war" in Libya, unless the international community finds a political solution for the country's conflict. In 2019, the United Nations reported that Jordan, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates had systematically violated the Libyan arms embargo. In February 2020, Libya's Ambassador to the UN, Taher Al-Sunni, emphasized on documenting attacks against civilians, medical personnel and field hospitals in Libya, during his meeting with the Director-General of the International Committee of the Red Cross. Around 2 March 2020, Ghassan Salamé (the UN special envoy to Libya) resigned, citing the failure of powerful nations to meet their recent commitments. In June 2020, UN secretary general, António Guterres condemned and expressed shock at discovering mass graves in a Libyan territory that was formerly captured by the forces of general Khalifa Haftar, backed by the governments of Egypt, Russia and the United Arab Emirates. Guterres commanded the UN-backed government to ensure identifying the victims, investigate into the cause of death and return the bodies to the respective family. On 25 September 2020, UN diplomats revealed that Russia and China blocked the official release of a report by UN experts on Libya. The report accused the warring parties and their international backers, including Russia, the United Arab Emirates and Egypt, of violating the 2011 UN arms embargo on the war-torn country. The UN identified the Sigma Airlines also known as Sigma Aviation and Air Sigma, a commercial cargo air company from Kazakhstan, as one of the commercial air cargo providers that have violated the arms embargo in Libya. In March 2021, in a new report, UN accused United Arab Emirates, Russia, Egypt, Turkey and Qatar of extensive and blatant violations. The report included photos, diagrams and maps in order to support the accusations. The UN report stated that Erik Prince attempted to deploy a Light Attack and Surveillance Aircraft (LASA) to Libya, disguised as a crop duster. The aircraft, LASA T-Bird, was owned by a UAE-based firm, L-6 FZE. Besides, it was modified with some deadly additions- “a 16-57mm Rocket Pod, a 32-57mm Rocket Pod and a gun pod fitted with twin 23mm cannon under its wings”.
- France – On 30 July 2014, the French government temporarily closed its embassy in Tripoli, while 40 French, including the ambassador, and 7 British nationals were evacuated on a French warship bound for the port of Toulon in southern France. "We have taken all necessary measures to allow those French nationals who so wish to leave the country temporarily," the foreign ministry said. In 2016, a helicopter carrying three French special forces soldiers was shot down south of Benghazi during what President François Hollande called "dangerous intelligence operations." In December 2019, French government canceled the delivery of boats to Libya following a lawsuit filed by NGOs opposing the move. The NGOs cited the French donation as a violation of European embargo on Libya for providing military equipment and arms to countries involved in war crimes.
- India – Ministry of External Affairs spokesman, Syed Akbaruddin, said that India's diplomatic mission in Libya has been in touch with the 4,500 Indian nationals, through several co-ordinators. "The mission is facilitating return of Indian nationals and working with the Libyan authorities to obtain necessary exit permissions for Indian nationals wanting to return," he said.
- Iran – Iran has facilitated a very difficult role in this conflict. Unlike many countries in the Middle East that Iran has interests, Iran has very little to none of interest in Libya, but Iran has desired to expand its Islamic Revolution to Africa. However, Saudi Arabia's support for Haftar has complicated Iran's desire, as Iran has also been accused of supporting Haftar's force, even when Tehran has refrained from siding with Haftar. On the other hand, Iran also provides political support to Turkey's military intervention to Libya.
- Israel – Israel and Libya do not have any official relations. However, during the time in exile, Khalifa Haftar had developed a close and secret tie with the United States, thus extended to Israel, and the secret tie resulted in Israel quietly backs Khalifa Haftar on his quest to conquer entire of Libya. Israeli advisors have secretly trained Haftar's force to prepare for war against the Islamist-backed government in Tripoli. Israeli weapons are also seen in Haftar's forces, mostly throughout Emirati mediation. The Mossad developed a strong relationship with Haftar and also assists his forces in the conflict.
- Italy – The Italian embassy has remained open during the civil war and the government has always pushed for the success of UN-hosted talks among Libya's political parties in Geneva. Prime Minister Matteo Renzi said "If there's no success, Italy is ready to play a leading role, above all a diplomatic role, and then, always under the aegis of the UN, one of peacekeeping inside Libya", adding that "Libya can't be left in the condition it is now." In 2015, four Italian workers were kidnapped by Islamic State militants near Sabratha. Two of them were killed in a raid by security forces the following year while the other two were rescued. Between February 2015 and December 2016, however, Italy was forced to close its embassy and every Italian citizen in Libya was advised to leave. The embassy reopened on 9 January 2017.
- Morocco – Morocco turned down an offer by the United Arab Emirates in 2020 to provide support for Khalifa Haftar. Instead, Morocco expressed its hope to mediate for the end of the conflict.
- Russia – In February 2015, discussions on supporting the Libyan parliament by supplying them with weapons reportedly took place in Cairo when President of Russia Vladimir Putin arrived for talks with the government of Egypt, during which the Russian delegates also spoke with a Libyan delegation. Colonel Ahmed al-Mismari, the spokesperson for the Libyan Army's chief of staff, also stated that "Arming the Libyan army was a point of discussion between the Egyptian and Russian presidents in Cairo." The deputy foreign minister of Russia, Mikhail Bogdanov, has stated that Russia will supply the government of Libya with weapons if UN sanctions against Libya are lifted. In April 2015, Prime Minister Abdullah al-Thani visited Moscow and announced that Russia and Libya will strengthen their relations, especially economic relations. He also met with Sergei Lavrov, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, and said that he requested Russia's assistance in fixing the country's government institutions and military strength. The prime minister also met with Nikolai Patrushev, the Russian president's security adviser, and talked about the need to restore stability in Libya as well as the influence of terrorist groups in the country. Patrushev stated that a "priority for regional politics is the protection of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Libya." A private army of 100 mercenaries from the Wagner group, backed by Russian President Vladimir Putin, has begun offensive on the forward base in Libya. On 2 October 2019, at least 35 Russian mercenaries were killed in Libya while fighting for Khalifa Haftar's forces. According to the reports, senior commander in Russian Wagner Group, Alexander Kuznetsov was injured while fighting alongside Haftar's militias in south of Tripoli. In a joint press conference with the German Chancellor Angela Merkel, the Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed the involvement of Russian mercenaries in Tripoli's ongoing conflict. He also said they are not affiliated to Moscow and are not funded by the government. These fighters were transferred to Libya from the de-escalation zone in Syria's Idlib. French daily Le Monde reported that Saudi Arabia was funding the operations of Russian Wagner mercenaries deployed to support Khalifa Haftar in Libya. It also claimed that over 2000 Russian mercenaries were involved in carrying out attacks on Tripoli in late 2019.
- Saudi Arabia – Saudi Arabia since 2014 has thrown a significant support for Haftar's force fighting in Libya. According from Wall Street Journal and retrieved by Al Jazeera, Saudi Arabia had given millions of dollars to support Haftar's army in its failed attempt to takeover Tripoli after a meeting with General Haftar by Saudi King Salman. Due to Haftar's defeat, Saudi Arabia was thought to have become increasingly involved in Libya.
- Syria – The involvement of Syria in the Libya war has remained less exposed, while the links began in 2018. The Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad has been backing Khalifa Haftar, where mercenaries from Damascus were been transported to Benghazi. In April 2021, Cham Wings, a private airline owned by Assad’s cousin Rami Makhlouf and sanctioned by the US and the European parliament, made nine round trips to Libya. The flights reportedly transport Syrian mercenaries to fight alongside Haftar forces. Specialists have said that these mercenaries fighting for the general (currently 2,000) were operated by Russia and were funded by the United Arab Emirates.
- Thailand – In late July 2014, the Thai government asked Libya's authorities to facilitate the evacuation of its nationals by exempting the need for exit visas. As of 14 August, over 800 Thai workers have been successfully evacuated from the country, while Thailand's Ministry of Labour announced that it would prepare jobs for more than 2,800 workers residing in Libya.
- Turkey – Turkey has been one of the most active critics of the Eastern Government led by Khalifa Haftar. Turkey has transported arms, ammunitions and aids to the Western Government led by Fayez al-Sarraj against Haftar's force. In 2019, the Libyan National Army accused the Turkish authorities of supporting terrorist groups in Libya for many years, adding that the Turkish support has evolved from just logistic support to a direct interference using military aircraft to transport mercenaries, as well as ships carrying weapons, armored vehicles and ammunition to support terrorism in Libya. In 2016, Jordan's king accused Turkey of helping Islamist militias in Libya and Somalia. In July 2019, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, the President of Turkey, threatened to declare war on Khalifa Haftar after receiving news of six Turkish citizens arrested by Haftar's force. On 27 December 2019 Bloomberg reported that Turkey intended to deploy its navy to protect Tripoli and send troops to help train GNA forces. Additionally Turkmen rebel groups fighting in northern Syria were expected to transfer to Tripoli. The Speaker of the Turkish Parliament subsequently announced Turkey's plans to send troops to help Libya's Presidential Council's government, especially after the efforts of Haftar's backers, including UAE, to pressurize Fayez Al-Sarraj to recede the request for Turkey's support. On 2 January 2020, the Turkish Grand National Assembly voted 325–184 to send troops to help the internationally recognized Government of National Accord in Libya. In February 2020, the captain of the Lebanese-flagged cargo ship Bana was arrested in Italy. The vessel was accused of transferring arms and Turkish military personnel from Turkey to Libya in violation of the United Nations arms embargo. A crew member offered information to the Italian authorities. The French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle also spotted the ship. In addition, a BBC report confirmed that Turkey was sending secret arms shipments into Libya with the Bana, with the escort of Turkish navy frigates. On 21 September 2020, Council of the European Union imposed sanctions on the Turkish maritime company Avrasya Shipping which operates the Çirkin freighter, because the vessel found to have violated the UN arms embargo in Libya in May and June 2020.
- United Kingdom – Following France's evacuation of some British nationals, the UK's embassy in Tripoli was the only diplomatic mission still open in the war-torn city. However, British diplomats residing there have sought refuge in a fortified compound south-west of the city to avoid the repetitive rocket attacks by warring militias. Three days earlier, a convoy carrying British diplomats from Tripoli to Tunisia came under fire when their vehicles refused to stop at an unofficial checkpoint in the outskirts of the city. On 2 August, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office finally announced that it would temporarily close its embassy in the capital and evacuate its staff. Ambassador Michael Aron said that the embassy would continue to operate from Tunisia. The following day, the Royal Navy ship HMS Enterprise managed to evacuate more than a hundred foreign nationals from the country to Malta, most of whom were British, in an operation off the coast of Tripoli. In March 2016, Ambassador Peter Millett called for "a much more coordinated approach between the different groups, regions and forces and the armed groups in Libya" in order to defeat ISIL in Libya. Head of British Embassy in Libya, Nicholas Hopton said that Britain is drafting a resolution in the Security Council in order to genuinely end the Libyan crisis. The draft resolution urges the U.N. and the international community to effectively achieve a ceasefire with the help of a monitoring mission and other sources, the HCS Information Office said.
- United Arab Emirates – In June 2019 the GNA discovered a cache of US-made Javelin anti-tank missiles in a captured LNA base in the mountains south of Tripoli. Markings on the missiles’ shipping containers indicate that they were originally sold to Oman and the United Arab Emirates in 2008. Emirati forces, who previously conducted airstrikes on Islamist targets in Libya, were suspected of backing General Khalifa Haftar. The United States State Department and Defense Department stated they have opened investigations into how the weapons ended up on the Libyan battlefield. The Emirati Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement denying ownership of weapons found in Libya and stated that it supported United Nations-led efforts to broker a political solution to the conflict. France later released a statement that the missiles found in the base belonged to France, and that they were damaged and out of use. Nevertheless, the UAE has been identified as a strong supporter of Khalifa Haftar and the LNA, which saw the Libyan general and his forces as the best bulwark to contain and combat various Islamist groups in the war torn country; the UN reported that the UAE supplied Haftar's forces with aircraft, over 100 armoured vehicles and over US$200 million in aid. According to The Libya Observer, a covert deal between Khalifa Haftar and figures from the Muammar Gaddafi-era, Revolutionary Committees, was signed in Abu Dhabi, UAE. Both the parties agreed to share power in Libya, enabling Gaddafi's loyalists to retrieve power in return for supporting Haftar in the ongoing fighting. According to a French Intelligence website, UAE supplied around 3,000 tons of military equipment to Haftar forces in late January 2020. The transit operation was completed through "Antonov 124" aircraft owned by Abu Dhabi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Zayed and operated by Makassimos Air Cargo Company. In April 2020, it was reported that the United Arab Emirates secretly purchased an advanced missile system from Israel. The UAE, which had been supplying weapons to Khalifa Haftar in the Libyan civil war, also deployed the Israeli-made missile system in the war through the LNA. On 20 April 2020, the Financial Times reported the suspected violation of an international arms embargo by the United Arab Emirates. It reported the claims after reviewing documents that cited 11,000 tonnes of jet fuel shipment worth nearly $5 million was sent by the UAE to Khalifa Haftar-controlled eastern Libya in March 2020. The shipment is currently under probe by a panel of experts from the United Nations. According to Human Rights Watch, on 18 November 2019, the UAE launched a drone attack on a biscuit factory in Al-Sunbulah that killed 8 civilians and injured 27. The factory was shut down after the attack. According to an investigation led by Human Rights Watch, the factory had no military presence. The remnants of four laser-guided missiles – Blue Arrow-7 (BA-7) – were found, which were launched via a Wing Long -II drone. In May 2020, a confidential report by the United Nations revealed that the UAE had been supporting the mission of Khalifa Haftar through two Dubai-based companies, Lancaster 6 DMCC and Opus Capital Asset Limited FZE. These firms deployed a team of 20 Western mercenaries led by South African national Steve Lodge to Libya for a "well funded private military company operation" in June 2019. An investigation by BBC Africa Eye and BBC Arabic Documentaries revealed that in a strike on 4 January 2020, the UAE-operated Wing Loong II drone was used to fire a Chinese Blue Arrow 7 missile, which killed 26 unarmed cadets. During that time, the Wing Loong II drones were being operated only from the UAE-run Al-Khadim Libyan air base. In December 2020, the US Pentagon said that the UAE funded the Russian mercenaries to fight against the US-backed government in Libya. The reported presented by the Pentagon's inspector general also revealed that the Emirates was majorly a financial backer of Russia's Wagner Group, who deployed its mercenaries in Libya. In June 2019, the Dubai-based firm owned by the Australian pilot Christiaan Durrant, Lancaster 6 supplied three Super Pumas to Haftar’s LNA. However, the helicopters were considered insufficiently operational and remained in their hangars until May 2021. The Super Pumas were seen at Haftar’s military parade in 2021 and were expected to be integrated into his air force.
- United States – The United States has been active in post-2011 Libya with the military carrying out sporadic airstrikes and raids in the country, predominantly against Islamist groups. In 2014, U.S. commandos seized an oil tanker bound for anti-government militias and returned it to the Libyan national government. Two months later, the U.S. embassy in Tripoli was evacuated due to a heavy militia presence in the capital. In 2015, U.S. warplanes killed the head of the Islamic State in Libya in a strike. In 2016, U.S. President Barack Obama stated that not preparing for a post-Gaddafi Libya was the "worst mistake" of his presidency. On 19 January 2017, the day before President Obama left office, the United States bombed two IS camps in Libya, reportedly killing 80 militants. These types of operations have continued under the Trump administration with a September 2017 airstrike killing an estimated 17 IS militants. On 25 September 2019, airstrike carried out by the U.S. killed 11 suspected ISIL militants in the town of Murzuq, Libya. This was the second airstrike in a week against the militant group, according to U.S. Africa Command. A U.S. military air-raid, on 27 September, killed 17 suspected ISIL militants in southwest Libya, making it a third strike against the militia group within a month. On 30 September, US Africa Command said it conducted an airstrike in southern Libya that killed 7 ISIL militants, alongside the Government of National Accord. This marked the fourth raid in the region against ISIL in two weeks. On 10 February 2020, at least six Libyan families sued Haftar and the UAE government in the U.S. District Court of the District of Columbia for committing war crimes in Libya. The families of victims who were either killed, injured or faced attempted killings, demanded $1 billion in damages, said the plaintiffs’ attorneys, Martin F. McMahon & Associates. The lawsuit filed against the Libyan military commander Khalifa Haftar by the families of the victims that were killed during the military campaign by Haftar's army, backed by Russia, the UAE and Egypt. First hearing of the case was on 29 September 2020, where Haftar's lawyer urged the court to drop the charges of war atrocities was rejected by Alexandria US District court judge.
- Ukraine - A number of Il-76TD turbofan strategic airlifters belonging to Ukraine-registered companies have been destroyed in Libya. Fake reports in Russian information outlets claimed the aircraft were possibly smuggling arms to both sides of the civil war.
- Kazakhstan - On 21 September 2020, the European Union sanctioned the Sigma Airlines also known as Sigma Aviation and Air Sigma, a commercial cargo air company from Kazakhstan, because the UN found that it have violated the arms embargo in Libya. In addition, the Kazakh authorities stripped the licenses of the Sigma Airlines together with the Azee Air and Jenis Air after the UN Security Council had informed them that they have violated the embargo.
- European Union - In March 2020, the EU launched the Operation Irini, with the primary task of implementing the UN arms embargo. On 21 September 2020, Council of the European Union imposed sanctions on 2 individuals and 3 companies (Sigma Airlines - Kazakhstan, Avrasya Shipping - Turkey, Med Wave Shipping - Jordan) over their involvement in the violation of UN arms embargo in Libya. The sanctions included the freezing of assets of individuals and a travel ban on the individuals.
- Libya had been awarded the rights to host the 2017 Africa Cup of Nations in association football; however, the tournament was stripped from the country in August 2014, due to concerns over the ongoing conflict.
- European migrant crisis
- American intervention in Libya (2015–present)
- Turkish military intervention in the Second Libyan Civil War
- "Rival Libyan factions sign UN-backed peace deal". Al Jazeera. 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "Libya's rival factions sign UN peace deal, despite resistance". Times of Malta. 17 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Mohamed, Esam; Michael, Maggie (20 May 2014). "2 Ranking Libyan Officials Side With Rogue General". ABC News. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- al-Warfalli, Ayman; Laessing, Ulf (19 May 2014). "Libyan special forces commander says his forces join renegade general". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 May 2014. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- Abdul-Wahab, Ashraf (5 August 2014). "Warshefana take Camp 27 from Libya Shield". Libya Herald. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Sudanese rebel group acknowledges fighting for Khalifa Haftar's forces in Libya". Libya Observer. 10 October 2016.
- Alharath, Safa (17 June 2018). "Sudanese rebels are fighting alongside Dignity Operation in Libya's Derna". Libya Observer. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
- Adel, Jamal (19 January 2019). "Terror suspects killed in large LNA operation in south Libya". Libya Herald. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- "Gaddafi loyalists join West in battle to push Islamic State from Libya". The Daily Telegraph. 7 May 2016.
- "After six years in jail, Gaddafi's son Saif plots return to Libya's turbulent politics". The Guardian. 6 December 2017.
The Warshefana tribal militia, Gaddafi loyalists who controlled some of the area around Tripoli, were routed last month by rival forces from Zintan
- "Jordan arming Libya's Haftar with armored vehicles and weapons". 23 May 2019.
- "Wagner, shadowy Russian military group, 'fighting in Libya'". BBC. 7 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (5 November 2019). "Russian Snipers, Missiles and Warplanes Try to Tilt Libyan War" – via NYTimes.com.
- "Number of Russian mercenaries fighting for Haftar in Libya rises to 1400, report says". 16 November 2019.
- "Macron slams Turkey's 'criminal' role in Libya, Putin's ambivalence". Reuters. 29 June 2020.
- "Exclusive: Russian private security firm says it had armed men in east Libya". Reuters. 13 March 2017.
- "UAE and Egypt behind bombing raids against Libyan militias, say US officials". The Guardian. 26 August 2014.
- "Is Egypt bombing the right militants in Libya?". Reuters. 31 May 2017.
- "Egypt's parliament approves troop deployment to Libya". Al Jazeera. 20 July 2020.
- "Libya migrant attack: UN investigators suspect foreign jet bombed centre". BBC News. 6 November 2019.
- "UAE drone strike on factory near Tripoli killed 8 civilians: HRW". Al Jazeera. 29 April 2020.
- "UAE implicated in lethal drone strike in Libya". BBC News. 27 August 2020.
- de Waal, Alex (20 July 2019). "Sudan crisis: The ruthless mercenaries who run the country for gold". BBC News. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Vohra, Anchal (5 May 2020). "It's Syrian vs. Syrian in Libya". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- Pamuk, Humeyra (7 May 2020). "U.S. says Russia is working with Syria's Assad to move militia to Libya". Reuters. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "First fighter of Russian-backed Syrian mercenaries killed in Libya's battles, and number of recruits jumps to 450". SOHR. 24 May 2020. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "Putin Promotes Libyan Strongman as New Ally After Syria Victory". Bloomberg. 21 December 2016.
- Bachir, Malek (30 January 2017). "Russia's secret plan to back Haftar in Libya". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
- Bar'el, Zvi (13 April 2019). "Analysis From Bouteflika to Bashir, Powers Shift. But the Second Arab Spring Is Far From Breaking Out". Retrieved 15 April 2019 – via Haaretz.
- Taylor, Paul (17 April 2019). "France's double game in Libya". POLITICO.
- "Tripoli interior ministry accuses France of supporting Haftar, ends cooperation". 18 April 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
- "'Our Hearts Are Dead.' After 9 Years of Civil War, Libyans Are Tired of Being Pawns in a Geopolitical Game of Chess". time.com. 12 February 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
- "UAE, Saudi Arabia aiding Libya eastern forces, blacklisting Qatar for alleged support for other Libyans". The Libya Observer. Archived from the original on 5 August 2017. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
- "Haftar used Iranian anti-tank missiles in war on Tripoli, UN report finds | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly.
- "Khalifa Haftar says Egypt and Chad are his top supporters". Libyan Express. 6 September 2016.
- "Jordan pledges support for Libya in talks with General Haftar". Al Arabiya. 13 April 2015.
- "King renews support for Libya's national concord". The Jordan Times. 20 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- Ltd, Allied Newspapers. "Libya needs international maritime force to help stop illicit oil, weapons – UN experts". Times of Malta. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- Беларусь увайшла ў спіс найбуйнейшых сусветных экспарцёраў зброі — Tut.by, 21 лютага 2018
- Greece’s Foreign Minister Nikos Dendias Visits Libya, Dendias noted that Haftar’s position is aligned with Greece’s.
- https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/haftar-and-israel-from-animosity-to- alliance-/1924585
- Silverstein, Richard. "Haftar: Israeli secret aid to Libya's strongman reveals a new friend in Africa". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
- "Libya's Haftar 'provided with Israeli military aid following UAE-mediated meetings with Mossad agents'". The New Arab. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
- "Libya's Haftar had lengthy meeting with Israeli intelligence officer". Middle East Monitor. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
- "Libya: Flight data places mysterious planes in Haftar territory". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
- "Presidential Guard established". Libya Herald. 9 May 2016. Retrieved 9 May 2016.
- "Misrata brigades and municipality form security chamber to enable GNA to operate from Tripoli". Libyan Express. 28 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "Sabratha revolutionary brigades announce full support for GNA". Libyan Express. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- "Unity government at last". Archived from the original on 28 April 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
- "Clashes in south Libya intensify between pro-Haftar forces and Third Force". Libyan Express. 2 January 2017. Archived from the original on 5 May 2018. Retrieved 14 April 2017.
- "Tabu and Tuareg announce their support for GNA". Libyaprospect. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
- McGregor, Andrew (7 September 2017). "Rebel or Mercenary? A Profile of Chad's General Mahamat Mahdi Ali". Aberfoyle International Security. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- "Rebel Incursion Exposes Chad's Weaknesses". Crisis Group. 13 February 2019. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- "300 pro-Turkey Syrian rebels sent to Libya to support UN-backed gov't: watchdog - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com.
- "France's Macron slams Turkey's 'criminal' role in Libya". Al Jazeera. 30 June 2020.
- "France-Turkey spat over Libya arms exposes NATO's limits". Associated Press. 5 July 2020.
- "Turkey warns Egypt over Libya and lashes out at Macron's role". Japan Times. 20 July 2020.
- "Abdulrahman Sewehli thanks Qatari Emir for his support". 13 March 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- "Sudan reiterates support for Presidency Council but concerned about Darfuri rebels in Libya". Libya Herald. 1 May 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- "Pakistan offers to help train Libyan Army | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly.
- "Libyans Fear Rapprochement Between GNA, Pakistan". Asharq AL-awsat.
- Iran FM voices support for Turkey-backed Libya government Middle East Monitor, June 17, 2020
- "Morocco renews support to GNA as only legitimate party in Libya | The North Africa Post". northafricapost.com.
- "Serraj on another Algeria visit seeking solution to Libyan political impasse". Libya Herald. 25 December 2016.
- Alharathy, Safa. "Tunisian President reiterates his country's position towards GNA as the legitimate authority in Libya" (16 April 2020). Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- Martin, Ivan (25 July 2020). "Malta teams up with Turkey in an attempt to make Libya stable". Times of Malta. Archived from the original on 25 July 2020.
- "Di Maio assures Al-Sarraj of Italy's support for GNA and political track". Alwasat. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- "Al-Serraj and Mogherini discuss more EU support for GNA". Libya Express.
- "Libya Foreign Ministry: 'Britain stands with GNA'". Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- "US Ambassador Norland reaffirms partnership with GNA Libya and urges all parties in Libya to support peace". Twitter. U.S. Embassy - Libya. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- "US Ambassador Reaffirms Partnership with GNA, Urges All Parties to Support Peace". Facebook. U.S. Embassy Libya. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- Elumami, Ahmed (5 April 2016). "Libya's self-declared National Salvation government stepping down" – via www.reuters.com.
- Mikhail, George (15 February 2018). "Can Cairo talks succeed in uniting Libya's divided armed forces?". Al Monitor.
- "Libyan Dawn: Map of allies and enemies". Al Arabiya. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "LNA targets Tripoli and Zuwara but pulls back troops in Aziziya area". Libya Herald. 21 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Libya Observer". 10 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- "Ghwell's Libyan National Guard militia joining fighting in south". Libya Herald. 16 April 2017.
- "Sudan militarily backs Libyan rebels: Bashir to Youm7". The Cairo Post. 23 March 2015. Archived from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- Kirkpatrick, David D; Schmitt, Eric (25 August 2014). "Egypt and United Arab Emirates Said to Have Secretly Carried Out Libya Airstrikes". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Libya, Turkey agree on resuming signed security training programs". 25 May 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- "LNA's Mismari accuses Sudan, Qatar and Iran of backing terrorism in Libya". Libya Herald. 22 June 2017.
- "٢٨ قتيلا من قوات الصاعقة ببنغازى منذ بدء الاشتباكات مع أنصار الشريعة" [Twenty-eight Al-Saiqa fighters killed in Benghazi since the beginning of clashes with Ansar al-Sharia]. Youm7. 29 July 2014. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "تدهور الوضع الأمني في بنغازي وطرابلس نذير حرب جديدة" [Worsening of security in Benghazi and Tripoli as new war approaches]. Al-Arab. 27 July 2014. Archived from the original on 9 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Bill Roggio and Alexandra Gutowski (28 March 2018). "American forces kill senior al Qaeda leader in Libya". Long War Journal. 28 March 2018.
- "Libyan Islamist group Ansar al-Sharia says it is dissolving". Reuters. 27 May 2017. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- "Libyan revolutionary factions form Defend Benghazi Brigades". The Libya Observer. 2 June 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "Benghazi Defense Brigades advance toward Benghazi". Libyan Express. 16 July 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
- "Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb says Mokhtar Belmokhtar is 'alive and well'". The Long War Journal. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- "Libyan city declares itself part of Islamic State caliphate". CP24. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Islamic State Expanding into North Africa". Der Spiegel. Hamburg, DE. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- "ISIS comes to Libya". CNN. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
- Schmitt, Eric; Kirkpatrick, David D. (14 February 2015). "Islamic State Sprouting Limbs Beyond Its Base". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
- "Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb". Stanford University. 1 July 2016.
- "Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb backs ISIS". Al Monitor. 2 July 2014. Archived from the original on 11 March 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "ISIS, Al Qaeda In Africa: US Commander Warns Of Collaboration Between AQIM And Islamic State Group". International Business Times. 12 February 2016.
- "Libyan lawmakers approve gov't of PM-designate Dbeibah". Al Jazeera. 10 March 2021. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
- Libya Prime Minister
- "Hassi changes his mind, hands over to Ghwell". Libya Herald. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Ansar al Sharia Libya fights on under new leader". The Long War Journal. 30 June 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb says Mokhtar Belmokhtar is 'alive and well'". The Long War Journal. 19 June 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Leader of Libyan Islamists Ansar al-Sharia dies of wounds". Reuters. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
- "Wissam Ben Hamid dead says arrested Ansar spokesman; 13 militants reported to have blown themselves up". Libyan Herald. 6 January 2017. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- "Islamists clash in Derna, Abu Sleem leader reported killed". Libya Herald. 10 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
- "Islamic State leadership in Libya". TheMagrebiNote. 22 April 2015. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Statement from Pentagon Press Secretary Peter Cook on Nov. 13 airstrike in Libya > U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE > News Release View". Defense.gov. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- Joscelyn, Thomas (7 December 2016). "Pentagon: Islamic State has lost its safe haven in Sirte, Libya". Long War Journal. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
- "Libya Body Count". Libya Body Count. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
- "Death toll in Libya last year was 433". Middle East Monitor. 2 January 2018. Retrieved 18 May 2019.
- "Human Rights Solidarity: About 4000 people were victims of armed fighting in Libya in 2018". Libya Observer. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Libyan warlord Haftar leaves Moscow without signing ceasefire deal". The Guardian. 14 January 2020.
ONE YEAR OF DESTRUCTIVE WAR IN LIBYA, UNSMIL RENEWS CALLS FOR IMMEDIATE CESSATION OF HOSTILITIES AND UNITY TO COMBAT COVID-19
Negotiated Solution in Libya Crucial as Foreign Interference Grows, Thousands Flee Homes, Secretary-General Warns Security Council, Stressing Time ‘Not on Our Side’
- "Libya's Second Civil War: How did it come to this?". Conflict News. Archived from the original on 20 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
National Post View (24 February 2015). "National Post View: Stabilizing Libya may be the best way to keep Europe safe". National Post. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- Stephen, Chris (29 August 2014). "War in Libya - The Guardian briefing". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Libya's Legitimacy Crisis". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "That it should come to this". The Economist. 10 January 2015.
- "Bashir says Sudan to work with UAE to control fighting in Libya". Al-Ahram Online. 23 February 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2015.
- "Libyan Unity Government Extends Control Over Tripoli Ministries". Archived from the original on 8 March 2018.
- "UN welcomes 'historic' signing of Libyan Political Agreement". UN.
- Stephen, Chris (30 March 2016). "Chief of Libya's new UN-backed government arrives in Tripoli". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
- "Ansar Al-Sharia Claims Control Of Benghazi, Declares Islamic Emirate In Libya". The International Business Times. 1 August 2014.
"Libyan army says recaptures four barracks in Benghazi". The Star. 31 October 2014.
- "Libyan army takes over remaining militant stronghold in Benghazi". Xinhua News Agency.
- "Omar Al-Hassi in "beautiful" Ansar row while "100" GNC members meet". Libya Herald. 18 November 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
- "Why Picking Sides in Libya won't work". Foreign Policy. 6 March 2015. "One is the internationally recognized government based in the eastern city of Tobruk and its military wing, Operation Dignity, led by General Khalifa Haftar. The other is the Tripoli government installed by the Libya Dawn coalition, which combines Islamist militias with armed groups from the city of Misrata. The Islamic State has recently established itself as a third force"
- "Isis in Libya: Islamic State driven out of Derna stronghold by al-Qaeda-linked militia". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- "Attack on Sirte "imminent" says Presidency Council's new Operations Room". Libya Herald. 7 May 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
"Central Region Joint Operations Room announces all-out war on ISIS in Sirte". Libyan Express. 7 May 2016. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- "Misratans report they have recaptured Abu Grain from IS". Libya Herald. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
"Freed Gaddafi loyalists found dead in Libya's Tripoli". Al Jazeera. 12 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
"Libyan security forces pushing Islamic State back from vicinity of oil terminals". Reuters. 31 May 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
"Al-Bunyan Al-Marsoos captures Harawa district, says will free Sirte in two days". The Libya Observer. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
"Libyan forces clear last Islamic State hold-out in Sirte". Reuters. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
"Libyan forces seize last Daesh positions in Sirte". Daily Sabah. 6 December 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- "US concerned about GNC coup on legitimate government in Libya". Libyan Express. 16 October 2016.
- Nebehay, Stephanie; McDowall, Angus (23 October 2020). Jones, Gareth; Maclean, William (eds.). "Warring Libya rivals sign truce but tough political talks ahead". Reuters. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- "UN says Libya sides reach 'permanent ceasefire' deal". Al Jazeera. 23 October 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- Chivvis, Christopher S. (2014). Libya After Qaddafi: Lessons and Implications for the Future. RAND Corporation.
- St John, Ronald Bruce (4 June 2014). Historical Dictionary of Libya. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 201.
- Bosalum, Feras; Markey, Patrick (4 December 2013). "Libyan assembly votes to follow Islamic law". Reuters. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Libya congress extends its mandate until end-2014". AFP. 23 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- Al-Gattani, Ali (4 February 2014). "Shahat slams GNC". Magharebia. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- Madi, Mohamed (16 October 2014). "Profile: Libyan ex-General Khalifa Haftar". BBC News.
- Eljarh, Mohamed (26 June 2013). "Can the New Libyan President Live Up to Expectations?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Libya's new parliament meets amid rumbling violence". Al Jazeera America. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Kotra, Johnathan. ISIS enters the Stage in the Libyan Drama – How the IS Caliphate expands in Northern Africa. International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT).
- "Two lawmakers shot in Libya as protesters storm parliament". Deutsche Welle. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Stephen, Chris (11 October 2013). "Libyan PM Ali Zeidan says his kidnap was coup attempt". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- "Libyan Elections | Libya Analysis". www.libya-analysis.com. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- "Libya Revolutionaries Joint Operations Room (LROR) | Terrorist Groups | TRAC". www.trackingterrorism.org. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Kirkpatrick, David D.; Myers, Steven Lee (12 September 2012). "Libya Mission Attack Kills U.S. Ambassador". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- "Jihadists Now Control Secretive U.S. Base in Libya". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "QI.T.57.02. IBRAHIM ALI ABU BAKR TANTOUSH". Un.org. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Warshefana take Camp 27 from Libya Shield". Libya Herald. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Libyan Militia Units That Aided U.S. Marines During Embassy Attack Linked To Al-Qaeda". The Inquisitr News. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Rosenthal, John (10 October 2013). The Jihadist Plot. ISBN 9781594036828. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Grand Mufti supports Congress remaining in office, forbids action against it". Libya Herald. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Mufti call for violence angers Libyans". Magharebia. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Jones, Susan. "Libya's Grand Mufti Issues Fatwa Against U.N. Report on Women's Rights". CNS News. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- Alexandra Valiente (11 March 2013). "Libya's "Grand Mufti" Issues Fatwa Against UN Report on Violence Against Women and Girls | Viva Libya !". Vivalibya.wordpress.com. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "فضيلة الشيخ الصادق الغرياني : مفاهيم خاطئة .. الوقوف على مسافة واحدة". www.alwatan-libya.net. Archived from the original on 2 April 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- "Lawyer Who Supported the Rights of Women in Libya, Found Dead | Viva Libya !". Vivalibya.wordpress.com. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Libya must drop charges against politicians over women's rights cartoon". Amnesty International. 14 June 2013. Archived from the original on 26 March 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- Mohamed, Essam; Al-Majbari, Fathia (10 February 2014). "Libyans reject GNC extension". Magharebia. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Operation Dignity continues in Libya led by Haftar | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
- "The Thirty-Fifth Report - May 15 - May 30, 2014". Eye on the General National Congress. 15 June 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
- "Libyans mourn rights activist amid turmoil". Al-Jazeera. 26 June 2014.
- "Jabal Nefusa towns declare boycott of the House of Representatives". Libya Herald. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
- "Libya's new parliament meets in Tobruk". Libya Herald. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- "Libya names anti-Islamist General Haftar as army chief". BBC News. 2 March 2015.
- "Libya Court Rules June Elections Unconstitutional". ABC News. 6 November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- "Libya supreme court 'invalidates' elected parliament". BBC. 6 November 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2014.
- "Libya parliament rejects court ruling, calls grow for international action". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Libya parties agree to more talks; two factions call ceasefire". Reuters. 16 January 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Tripoli-backed fighters sent to Sirte to confront ISIL". Al Jazeera. February 2015.
- "Haftar's troops recapture key stronghold in Libya's Benghazi". Asharq al-Awsat. February 2015.
- "Guide to key Libyan militias". BBC News. 11 January 2016.
- "24 – 30 May: Anti-GNA militias evicted from Tripoli". Eye on ISIS in Libya. 30 May 2017.
- "Libya crisis: Tensions rise as Tripoli airport seized". BBC News. 24 August 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- Anderson, Jon Lee (23 February 2015). "Letter from Libya. The Unravelling". The New Yorker. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Violent Clashes in Zawia". The Libyan Insider. Archived from the original on 29 January 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- "More air raids as national army claims west advances while Zawia "reviews Dawn commitment" -". Libya Herald.
- "Libyan factions in deadly clashes near Zawiya". BBC News. 14 November 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- "Libya's future lies on 'T Zone'". Saudi Gazette. 11 November 2014. Archived from the original on 1 April 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- "Haftar-escalates". Al-Ahram Weekly. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "Libyan revolutionary factions form Defend Benghazi Brigades". The Libya Observer. 2 June 2016. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016.
- "Other Jihadi Actors". Eyes on ISIS in Libya. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 8 June 2016.
- "Haftar's warplanes strike Al-Jufra airbase, kill one, injure 14 GNA Defence Ministry forces". Libyan Express. 8 December 2016. Archived from the original on 8 December 2016.
- "Benghazi Defence Brigades is Causing More Fractions Among GNA and Eastern Militias". LibyaAnalysis. 22 June 2016. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016.
- Zurutuza, Karlos. "Libya's Berbers fear ethnic conflict". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
- Abigail Hauslohner; Sharif Abdel Kouddous (20 May 2014). "Khalifa Hifter, the ex-general leading a revolt in Libya, spent years in exile in Northern Virginia". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Benghazi Libya Shield Protests: at least 27 dead". Libya Herald. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "حفتر: تعداد الجيش تضاعف 100 مرة.. و90% من خسائرنا نتيجة الألغام". Alwasat. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- "Quite No More?". Carnegie Middle East Center. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- "Joint forces seize control of Wershiffana district". The Libya Observer. Retrieved 8 November 2017.
- "Mass murder and the sin of silence". The Washington Post. Retrieved 8 May 2021.
- Kirkpatrick, David D. (2014). "Strife in Libya Could Presage Long Civil War". New York Times. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
- Anderson, Jon Lee (23 February 2015). "Letter from Libya. The Unravelling". The New Yorker. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
There is no overstating the chaos of post-Qaddafi Libya. Two competing governments claim legitimacy. Armed militias roam the streets. The electricity is frequently out of service, and most business is at a standstill; revenues from oil, the country's greatest asset, have dwindled by more than ninety per cent. Some three thousand people have been killed by fighting in the past year, and nearly a third of the country's population has fled across the border to Tunisia.
- "As The Power Struggle Endures, Libya Eyes 900,000 Bpd Oil Output". The National.
- Salah, Maha (27 July 2019). "Trapped at the crossroads". Zenith. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- Nashed, Mat (16 January 2019). "The Clearing Ahead". Zenith.
- Kishi, Roudabeh (7 August 2019). "Mid-Year Update: Ten Conflicts to Worry About in 2019 | Acled Data". Archived from the original on 4 October 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
- "UNHCR: Registered migrants in Libya amounted to 45,600 from beginning of 2019 | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- "Assistance to People Affected by the Crisis in Libya | World Food Programme". www.wfp.org. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
- "UNICEF: Children in conflict areas continue to suffer various forms of malnutrition | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Tens of thousands of Libyan children at risk amidst violence and chaos of unrelenting conflict". Libya Herald. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- "Six days of oil blockade have cost Libya $255 million, NOC says". Libyan Express. 25 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "ENI and Libya NOC's joint venture is losing $9.4mn per day". Oil & Gas Middle East. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "Depression takes a heavy toll on Libyans | SCI DEV NET". www.scidev.net. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Gleason, Renee. "Libya has been slowed by a sharp rise in migrants: UN refugee aid | Techno Ea". Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- "U.N. condemns water shutoff to Libyan capital". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- "UN in Libya warns of possible war crimes as fighting rages". Associated Press. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
- "Civilian Casualties Report 1 January- 31 March 2020". United Nations. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "CIVILIAN CASUALTIESREPORT 1 JANUARY-31 MARCH 2020" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "ICC warns of war crimes in Libya as Haftar presses on". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- "Gunmen shoot dead female Libyan dissident in busy Benghazi street". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
- "Libya's parliament rejects U.N. peace proposal". Al Arabiya. Retrieved 21 October 2017.
- Zaptia, Sami (2 January 2016). "Serraj holds GNA meeting in Tunis". Libya Herald. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016.
- "Q&A: What's happening in Libya?". Al Jazeera. 20 December 2017.
- "UN urges Libyans to work for peace at National Conference". The Washington Post/Associated Press. 26 March 2019. Archived from the original on 9 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- "Statement by the Special Representative of the Secretary General in Libya, Ghassan Salamé, on the National Conference". United Nations Support Mission in Libya. 9 April 2019. Archived from the original on 9 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- Zaptia, Sami (9 April 2019). "UNSMIL postpones Ghadames National Conference until conditions are right". Libya Herald. Archived from the original on 9 April 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
- "Remarks of SRSG Ghassan Salamé to the United Nations Security Council on the situation in Libya - 4 September 2019". UNSMIL. 4 September 2019. Archived from the original on 23 December 2020. Retrieved 9 September 2019.
- "AU calls for consolidated efforts to face challenges in Libya's crisis | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- "Leaders of Turkey, Russia urge Jan. 12 cease-fire in Libya | Centre Daily Times". www.centredaily.com. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "Libya conflict: GNA and Gen Haftar's LNA ceasefire 'broken'". BBC. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "Turkish Foreign Minister: Haftar doesn't want peace". Libyan Express. 16 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
- "Haftar defies ceasefire again and attacks Libya's GNA forces near Misurata". Libyan Express. 26 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
- "UN Strives to End the Adversities of Libya's Power Struggle". True News Source. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- "Libya ceasefire talks halted after port attack". BBC News. 19 February 2020. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- "Libya: GNA says Sirte offensive launched as Haftar backs truce". Al Jazeera. 7 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- "Libya crisis: Rival authorities announce ceasefire". BBC News. 21 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
- "Rival sides in Libya's civil war call 'immediate ceasefire'". Financial Times. 22 August 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
- "Waves of Russian and Emirati Flights Fuel Libyan War, U.N. Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
- "Turkish, Russian officials nearing deal on Libya ceasefire, political process - minister". Reuters. 17 September 2020. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
- "Official Journal of the European Union". European Union. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- "Assets in Flight: Libya's Flying Treasuries". C4ADS. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "Tweet by C4ADS". Twitter.com. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- "Libyan Civil War: Two warring factions sign 'permanent' ceasefire". The Daily Star. 24 October 2020.
- BEN BOUAZZA, BOUAZZA; MAGDY, SAMY (16 November 2020). "UN-led Libya talks end without naming interim government". yahoo.com. AP. Retrieved 17 November 2020.
- "The Selection Mechanism for the Unified Executive Authority Adopted by LPDF Members" (PDF). United Nations Support Mission in Libya. 19 January 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- "UNSMIL announces that LPDF approves the proposal of selection mechanism of executive authority for the preparatory period". United Nations Support Mission in Libya. 19 January 2021. Archived from the original on 20 January 2021. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
- "Erik Prince, Trump Ally, Violated Libya Arms Embargo, U.N. Report Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
- "General Hafter announces coup; politicians react with scorn, order his arrest". Libya Herald. 14 February 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Sharif Abdel Kouddous (20 May 2014). "A Q&A with Khalifa Hifter, the mastermind behind Libya's new revolt". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- Sharif Abdel Kouddous (20 May 2014). "Leader of Libya's revolt, Khalifa Hifter, rules out negotiations and vows to fight". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
- "Who's Running This Joint, Anyway?". Foreign Policy. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Libya Orders 'Civil Disobedience' In Capital". Yahoo! News. 22 October 2014. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Libya: Drawing the battle lines". The Economist. 7 June 2014. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Libya's NOC condemns calls to blockade oil facilities by Haftar's loyalists". Libyan Express. 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
- "Western and Central Libya elders accuse UN envoy of equalizing "aggressors and defenders" | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
- Shabbi, Omar (21 May 2014). "Algeria considers Egypt alliance to confront Libyan terror threat". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Keenan, Jeremy (7 July 2014). "Truth and Algerian involvement in Libya". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 23 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Chikhi, Lamine (16 May 2014). "Algeria evacuates diplomats from Libya after threats". Reuters. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Ramzi, Walid (20 May 2014). "Algeria shuts Libya border". Magharebia. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Cousin, Edward (16 August 2014). "Egyptian shot dead at Tunisian-Libyan border, Algeria to open border for Egyptians". Daily News Egypt. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- "Algerian Foreign Intelligence Chief sacked over mishandling Libya's crisis". The Libya Observer. 9 January 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
- "Chad to send 1,500 troops to Libya in support of Marshal Haftar". Atalayar.
- "Chadian rebel party accuses Haftar of assassinating its leader | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly.
- Hanafi, Khaled (23 July 2014). "Egypt and the Libyan threat". Al-Ahram Weekly. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Dali, Mustafa (22 May 2014). "Will Egypt intervene in Libya crisis?". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 18 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Laessing, Ulf (26 May 2014). "In lawless Libya, Egypt's Sisi becomes a star". Reuters. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Westall, Sylvia; Fick, Maggie; Heinrich, Mark (24 May 2014). "Sisi says Egypt will not allow threats to security from Libya". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Zaki, Menna (21 July 2014). "Foreign ministry urges Egyptians in Libya to take measures of 'extreme caution'". Daily News Egypt. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "Egypt doubles diplomatic staff to help Egyptians leave Libya". Al-Ahram. 29 July 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "Roundup: Egypt steps up evacuating nationals on Tunisia-Libya borders". GlobalPost. Xinhua News Agency. 4 August 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- Argoubi, Mohamed (31 July 2014). "Two Egyptians shot dead in Libya-Tunisia border clash: state media". Reuters. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- Kortam, Hend (10 August 2014). "Emergency airlift between Egypt and Tunisia ends". Daily News Egypt. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- Abaza, Jihad (18 August 2014). "Egyptians in Libyan-Tunisian border evacuated". Daily News Egypt. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Almost 50,000 Egyptians fled Libya through Matrouh border in last month". Al-Ahram. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "President Abdel Fattah Sisi says Egypt has a legitimate right to intervene in Libya, orders army to prepare". ABC News. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
- "Egypt readies army to intervene in Libya 'if necessary'". France 24. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
- "Saudi Arabia, UAE support Egypt's comments on Libya". Anadolu Agency. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
- "Malta willing to have resident ambassador in Libya again". The Malta Independent. 15 November 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- "Malta interfering in Libya's affairs - charge d'affaires". Times of Malta. 20 December 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Libyan Embassy says visas issued by any other entity 'not valid'". Times of Malta. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Malta should press EU to intervene in Libya - Simon Busuttil". Times of Malta. 15 February 2015. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- Micallef, Keith (15 February 2015). "Prime Minister calls for UN intervention in Libya". Times of Malta. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
- "Bashir hails fall of Gaddafi on Libya tour". France 24. 7 January 2012.
- Agencies, Daily Sabah with (30 July 2019). "Sudan's army provides Libya's Haftar with 1,000 militiamen". Daily Sabah.
- Khalifa Haftar expels 12 Sudan diplomats from Libya. Middle East Eye. Published 27 July 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
- "Sudan investigating transfer of guards from UAE to Libyan oil port -ministry". 28 January 2020 – via www.reuters.com.
- "Sudan announces arrest of more than 120 suspected mercenaries". Sudan announces arrest of more than 120 suspected mercenaries.
- Ghanmi, Monia (25 September 2013). "Tunisia confronts arms smuggling". Magharebia. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Houda Mzioudet (18 May 2014). "Tunisia to send 5,000 extra troops to Libyan border because of Libya crisis". Libya Herald. Archived from the original on 26 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "Tunisia says can't cope with Libya refugee influx". Middle East Eye. 30 July 2014. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- "Tunisian Foreign Minister reaffirms rejection of military solution to the Libyan crisis | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
- "Tunisia prepares to receive refugees from Libya". InfoMigrants. 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
- "United Nations Security Council - Resolution 2174 (2014)". Un.org. Retrieved 14 October 2014.
- "UN to impose sanctions on Libyan militia leaders". BBC News. 27 August 2014.
- "UN chief 'deeply concerned' as fears 'full civil war' in Libya loom". The New Nation. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
- "Libya arms embargo being systematically violated by UN states". The Guardian. 9 December 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- "Libya's ambassador to the UN: Attacks against civilians must be documented | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- editor, Patrick Wintour Diplomatic (2 March 2020). "Libya peace efforts thrown further into chaos as UN envoy quits". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 April 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- "U.N. Expresses Horror at Mass Graves in Libya". New York Times. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- "Russia, China block release of UN report criticizing Russia". The Associated Press. Retrieved 25 September 2020.
- "COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) 2020/1309 of 21 September 2020 implementing Article 21(2) of Regulation (EU) 2016/44 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Libya". eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- "UN report documents mass violations of Libya arms embargo". 18 March 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
- "Libya arms embargo 'totally ineffective': UN". 17 March 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
- "Final Report of the Panel of Experts on Libya established pursuant to Security Council resolution". United Nations Security Council. Retrieved 8 March 2021.
- "Serviced in Serbia: The Lethal Crop Duster Destined for War in Libya". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
- "France evacuates French and British expats from Libya". BBC. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "France evacuates nationals, closes embassy in Libya". France 24. 30 July 2014. Archived from the original on 18 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "France says three soldiers died in accident on Libya intelligence..." Reuters. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "France confirms three soldiers killed in Libya". Al Jazeera. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "French defense ministry cancels delivery of boats to Libyan coast guard". InfoMigrants. 3 December 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- "Amid Civil War, Stranded Indians Begin to Leave Libya". The New Indian Express. 30 July 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "What is Iran's position in the conflict of Libya?". Atalayar.
- "The Iran-Haftar links in Libya". 17 July 2020.
- "Iran FM voices support for Turkey-backed Libya government". Middle East Monitor. 17 June 2020.
- "How Khalifa Haftar's secret ties with Israel fuel chaos in Libya". How Khalifa Haftar’s secret ties with Israel fuel chaos in Libya.
- "Israel's little-known support for Haftar's war in Libya". Middle East Eye.
- "Israel provided Haftar weapons, UAE mediated". ICFUAE | International Campaign For Freedom in the UAE. 28 July 2017.
- "Mossad and Bibi's top security advisor squabbling over relations with Arab states". Haaretz.com.
- "Renzi calls for ceasefire as Italians flee Libya". Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Kevin Costelloe (10 January 2015). "Italy Would Consider UN Peacekeeping Libya Role, Renzi Says (1)". Bloomberg. Retrieved 29 January 2015.
- Balmer, Crispian (4 March 2016). "Two Italian hostages freed in Libya after companions die". Reuters. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "Morocco turns down UAE offer to support Haftar | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly.
- "Morocco mediates in the Libyan conflict". Atalayar.
- Egypt acts as middleman for Russia-Libya arms deal Archived 17 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Al Monitor. Ayah Aman. Published 19 February 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- Russia Will Supply Weapons to Libya if UN Embrago is Lifted. International Business Times. Christopher Harress. Published 16 April 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- Ат-Тани: Ливия пересмотрит контракты, заключенные с РФ в 2008 году | Al-Thani: Libya will renew contracts signed with the RF in 2008 (In Russian). RIA Novosti. Published 14 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Ливия просит РФ поддержать восстановление государственных институтов | Libya asks the RF to support the restoration of government institutions (In Russian). RIA Novosti. Published 15 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- Патрушев и ливийский премьер обеспокоены влиянием террористов в Ливии | Patrushev and Libyan premier are disturbed by terrorist influence in Libya (In Russian). RIA Novosti. Published 15 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
- "100 Russian mercenaries fighting for Haftar's forces on Tripoli frontlines". Libyan Express. 25 September 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
- "35 Russian mercenaries killed fighting for Haftar's forces in Libya, Latvian media reveals". Libyan Express. 3 October 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
- "Senior commander in Russian Wagner Group injured in Libya, French Le Point reports | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- "Putin admits Russians are fighting in Libya | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
- "Le Monde: Saudi Arabia funds Russian mercenaries in Libya | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
- "Saudis 'gave Libya's Haftar millions of dollars before offensive'". www.aljazeera.com.
- "Saudi King Salman meets Libya's General Haftar". 27 March 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
- Ramani, Samuel (24 February 2020). "Saudi Arabia steps up role in Libya". Al-Monitor.
- "Mercenaires et drogue en Libye : la syrian connection (Mercenaries and drugs in Libya: the Syrian connection)". Jeune Afrique. Retrieved 21 April 2021.
- Charoensuthipan, Penchan (30 July 2014). "Libya asked to facilitate Thai evacuation". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "800 Thai workers from Libya return home". National News Bureau of Thailand. 14 August 2014. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Thailand prepares jobs for Thai workers arriving from Libya". Pattaya Mail. 8 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Libya's Islamic militants brag about receiving new Turkish weapons | Lamine Ghanmi". AW.
- "Erdogan admits to breaking UN arms embargo on Libya and accuses US of disturbing peace in the region". The Libyan Address Journal. Archived from the original on 7 September 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- "Libyan National Army: Turkey supports terrorists, directly interferes in Libya". egypttoday. 29 June 2019. Retrieved 29 June 2019.
- "Jordan's king accuses Turkey of sending terrorists to Europe". middleeasteye.net. 29 June 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
- "Turkey threatens Libyan strongman as six held". 30 June 2019 – via www.bbc.com.
- Selcan Hacaoglu; Samer Al-Atrush (27 December 2019). "Turkish Navy to Guard Tripoli as Syrian Rebels May Join War". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
- "Turkish Parliament receives bill to deploy troops to Libya | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
- "Turkey's parliament approves military deployment to Libya". Al Jazeera. 2 January 2020.
- "Ship captain arrested in probe of arms trafficking to Libya". washingtontimes. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
- "Suspected military supplies pour into Libya as UN flounders". theguardian. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
- "Turkey sends secret arms shipments into Libya". bbc. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Stephen, Chris (30 July 2014). "UK embassy in Libya remains open as French flee fierce fighting". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- Spencer, Richard; Morajea, Hassan (27 July 2014). "British diplomats attacked during evacuation from Libyan embassy". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- Stephen, Chris (2 August 2014). "Britain to close embassy and withdraw staff from Libya". The Guardian. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- "Royal Navy ship takes Britons from Libya to Malta". BBC. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
- Dalli, Kim (12 March 2016). "Coordinated approach needed to resist ISIS – British ambassador to Libya". Times of Malta. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016.
- "Britain exerts efforts to consolidate ceasefire in Libya | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
- Walsh, Declan; Schmitt, Eric; Ismay, John (28 June 2019). "American Missiles Found in Libyan Rebel Compound" – via NYTimes.com.
- "Libya arms embargo: UN investigates UAE violations". www.aljazeera.com.
- "United Arab Emirates Denies Sending American Missiles to Libya". The New York Times. 2 July 2019.
- "France says its missiles were found on pro-Khalifa Hifter base in Libya". Japan Times. July 2019.
- Mannocchi, Francesa (21 June 2019). "How people in Tripoli experience the battle for Libya's capital". Zenith. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
- "Haftar, Gaddafi-era Revolutionary Committees figures sign secret deal in UAE to share power". The Libya Observer. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
- "French sources: UAE sent 3,000 tons of military support to Haftar". The Libya Observer. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- "UAE supplying Libya's Haftar with Israeli air defences". The New Arab. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
- "UAE groups implicated in suspected violation of Libyan arms embargo". Financial Times. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- "UAE Strike Kills 8 Civilians". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 29 April 2020.
- "Western Team Went to Help Moscow's Man in Libya, UN Finds". Bloomberg. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
- "UAE implicated in lethal drone strike in Libya". BBC. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
- "Libya's 'Game of Drones' - full documentary". YouTube. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
- "UAE accused of funding Russian rebels in Libya". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
- "Arms Sale to UAE Goes Forward Even as U.S. Probes Tie Between UAE and Russian Mercenaries". The Intercept. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
- "How Haftar resurrected his three Super Pumas". African Intelligence. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
- "U.S. Navy SEALs take over oil tanker for return to Libya". Washington Post. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- Starr, Barbara; Sterling, Joe; Ansari, Azadeh (26 July 2014). "U.S. Embassy in Libya evacuates personnel". CNN. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- Pengelly, Martin; Stephen, Chris (14 November 2015). "Islamic State leader in Libya 'killed in US airstrike'". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "President Obama: Libya aftermath 'worst mistake' of presidency". BBC News. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- Starr, Barbara (19 January 2017). "First on CNN: US bombs ISIS camps in Libya, dozens killed". CNN. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- Browne, Ryan (24 September 2017). "US strikes Libya for first time under Trump". CNN. Retrieved 24 February 2018.
- "US airstrike against Daesh in Libya kills 11 | News , Middle East | THE DAILY STAR". www.dailystar.com.lb. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
- "17 ISIS militants killed by third strike by US Africa Command on southern Libya". Libyan Express. 28 September 2019. Retrieved 28 September 2019.
- "US Africa Command kills 7 ISIS terrorists in new airstrikes on southern Libya | The Libya Observer". www.libyaobserver.ly. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
- "Six Libyan families sue Haftar, UAE at a US court for war crimes". Libyan Express. 11 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- "Judge allows US suit against Libyan commander to move ahead". Associated Press News. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- "Ukrainian "footprint" in Libyan civil war Russian disinformation – media". Unian. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
- "Kazakhstan Suspends Three Airlines For Breaking UN Libya Embargo". barrons.com. Retrieved 23 September 2020.
- "Turkey and UAE openly flouting UN arms embargo to fuel war in Libya". theguardian.com. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
- "Libya: EU imposes additional sanctions for human rights abuses and arms embargo violations". BBC News. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- "Libya stripped of right to host 2017 Nations Cup". Reuters. 23 August 2014. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014.
|Wikinews has news related to:|
- Daveed Gartenstein-Ross, Terrorism in North Africa After Benghazi: The Jihadist Regional Outlook (International Centre for Counter-Terrorism - The Hague, 2013)
- Pelham, Nicolas. Libya Against Itself (February 2015). "Libyans feel even more isolated than when the UN imposed sanctions on Qaddafi. The civil society that briefly emerged after the colonel's downfall has all but disappeared. Each activist can reel off the names of colleagues shot dead or kidnapped, often by Islamists." New York Review of Books
- Kampmark, Binoy. How Interventions Come Back to Haunt Us: Demolishing Libya (Feb. 2015). CounterPunch